Global media studies


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Global Media Studies in Global Media and Communication

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Global media studies

  1. 1. Global Media Studies Xu Xiaoge
  2. 2. Defining Globalization Globalization: • Social Process • Consequences • Extended Modernity • New phase of imperialism
  3. 3. Defining Globalization Globalization: • Cultural Homogenization • Synthesis of New Cultures • Commonality of Cultures • Hybridity of Cultures
  4. 4. Defining Globalization Globalization: • The global, localized • The local, globalized • Glocalization • Global, Hybrid and multiple
  5. 5. Global Media and Globalization Primary Agent • Cultural Globalization • Transnational media: profits • Public/State media: influence
  6. 6. Global StudiesMajor concerns• Network society• Transnationalization• Cosmopolitanization• Information/entertainment Sources: global, transnational, regional, national, local
  7. 7. Global MediaGlobal vs. Nationalistic• Ownership• Production• Distribution• Content• Reception
  8. 8. Global MediaCapital and Cultural Products• Crisscross/Align• From different countries• Loci of global media• Evolution of global culture• Dualistic
  9. 9. Global MediaThe Global vs. Reception• Cultural boundaries shifting• Reference points shifting• Contextual change• Audience decode content
  10. 10. Global Media Studies Dialectical Perspective • Global vs. Local • Universal vs. Particular • Unified vs. Diversified • Singularity vs. Hybridity • Survival vs. Dominance
  11. 11. Global MediaKey Players• Media conglomerates• Ogliopolists• Book publishing• Recorded music• Film production• UN, UNECSO, ITU, NAM
  12. 12. Global MediaKey Issues• NWICO• Media imperialism• Cultural imperialism• Global news flow• West domination
  13. 13. Theoretical Issues Key Concepts • Nation-States • Nations/States • Cultural/Language • Identities/Territories • Global news flow • West domination
  14. 14. Theoretical Issues Key Concepts • Political citizenship • Cultural citizenship • Dual citizenship • Multiple affiliations • Crossing nation/states
  15. 15. Theoretical Issues Key Concepts • Global mediation • Connectivity • Power • Impact • Multi-Process
  16. 16. Theoretical Issues Unit of Analysis • Nation-States • Places • Regions • Cities/other sites • Inside/Across borders
  17. 17. Theoretical Issues Unit of Analysis • Nation-States • Places/Regions • Cities/other sites • Minorities/Diaspora • Inside/Across borders
  18. 18. Media Conglomeration Social/Public Sphere • Homogenization of media • Threat to democracy Economic/Market • Minimize monopoly • Scale/scope economies
  19. 19. Media Conglomeration• TV Privatization• Deregulation of media ownership• Increasing parallel lifestyles• Saturating Demands• Advance of New Comm Tech
  20. 20. Media Diversification• Product Diversification• Geographic Diversification• Interrelationship:• Geographic Diversifications• Product Diversifications
  21. 21. Media Diversification• Relatedness• Complementary resource alignment
  22. 22. Media DiversificationMeasuring:• Direction (broad/narrow spectrum)• Extent• Mode (merger and acquisition)• Relatedness
  23. 23. Media DiversificationFurther Studies:• Longitudinal• Strategy and Performance• Content and Distribution• Product and Geographic• Determinants• Impact
  24. 24. Media SystemsKey Questions:• What differences/Similarities• Why different/similar
  25. 25. Studies of Media Differences Media Market Political Professionalizatio State Intervention Development Parallelism n Monitor Facilitate Reform Collaborate Opportunist Critical Populist DetachedDimensions Facilitator Change Agent Disseminator Watchdog Freedom Independence Responsibility Accountability Structural Access Participation Plurality Conditions
  26. 26. Media SystemsKey Methods:• Mapping• Measuring• Modeling
  27. 27. Media Differences:Labeling or Measuring?
  28. 28. Proposed by Xu Xiaoge, 2009
  29. 29. Situation-Driven Prioritization Proposed by Xu Xiaoge, 2010
  30. 30. Mapping, Measuring andModeling Media Differences Initiated by Xu Xiaoge, 2010
  31. 31. Mapping Media Differences 1 2 3 4 5Independence Transparency Responsibility Media Honesty Public Trust 6 7 8 9 10 Freedom Plurality Accountability Media Fairness Public Interest
  32. 32. Indicators of Media Differences• Independence for News Media• The extent of staying autonomous, independent and detached from state, power or any other social or political forces in news media operation
  33. 33. Indicators of Media Differences• Freedom for News Media• The extent of staying free to report or free from any external interference in news communication
  34. 34. Indicators of Media Differences • Transparency for news media • The extent of staying transparent in media operations, including many, often competing, sources of information, openness in the method of information delivery and the funding of media production, open source documentation, open meetings, financial disclosure statements, the freedom of information legislation, budgetary review, audit, peer review, etc.
  35. 35. Indicators of Media Differences• Plurality of News Media• The extent of being plural in providing content, services and media outlets
  36. 36. Indicators of Media Differences• Responsibility of News Media• The level of news medias being both responsible for the consequences of their news communication and responsive to the needs and expectations of the public
  37. 37. Indicators of Media Differences• Accountability of News Media• The extent of news media of staying accountable of their news operations and communication to the public they serve or being able to justify their actions or decisions in news communication
  38. 38. Indicators of Media Differences• Media Fairness• The level of staying fair and impartial in news communication, with different voices and opinions being fairly reported
  39. 39. Indicators of Media Differences• Media Honesty• The level of staying honest in obtaining and conveying information in news communication
  40. 40. Indicators of Media Differences• Public Trust• The level of public trust that news media enjoy
  41. 41. Indicators of Media Differences• Public Interest• The extent of the pubic interest that news media serve
  42. 42. Measuring Media Differences Normative and Empirical Indicators Normative Empirical 0-100 0-100 0 not (independent/free/transparent...) at all .................100 most (independent/free/transparent...)
  43. 43. Measuring Normative Differences Media Media Survey Media Users Practitioners RegulatorsNormative Media Media Ethics Media Policies Content Analysis Regulations Normative Difference = 100 - scores obtained from survey/content analysis
  44. 44. Measuring Empirical Differences Media Media Survey Media Users Practitioners RegulatorsEmpirical Content Analysis Routine Stories Major Stories Sensitive Stories Empirical Difference = 100 - scores obtained from survey/content analysis
  45. 45. Measuring Media Differences Media Difference Index Normative Difference Index 100 - scores obtained Empirical Difference Index 100 - scores obtained Press Difference Index Normative - Empirical
  46. 46. Modeling Media Differences: Shapers
  47. 47. Shapers of Media Differences External Shapers1 Political Environment2 Social Environment3 Economic Environment4 Cultural Environment5 Technological Environment
  48. 48. Shapers of Media Differences Internal Shapers1 Media Type2 Media Ownership3 Media Concentration4 Media Location5 Audience Size
  49. 49. Media Differences/Shapers Media Differences Internal Shapers External Shapers
  50. 50. Modeling Media DifferencesMedia Difference Index: biggest .......smallest Biggest Difference Biggest Difference Biggest Difference Worst Environment Medium Environment Best Environment Medium Difference Medium Difference Medium Difference Worst Environment Medium Environment Best Environment Smallest Difference Smallest Difference Smallest Difference Worst Environment Medium Environment Best EnvironmentEnvironment Index: worst ...... best Proposed by Xu Xiaoge, 2011
  51. 51. Media Differences Model100100Media Difference Index 0 Environment Index 100