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attitudes on doping in sports
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attitudes on doping in sports


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  • 2.   Doping has been around for centuries. Some ate brains, hearts and livers of animals, while others consumed figs, wine, cheese, and even mushrooms to later improve their performance at their Olympic Games as far back as 3 B.C. Stimulants were added to alcohol in the Roman era to help gladiators recover more quickly from fatigue and injuries. .
  • 3. The IOC published the first list of doping classes in 1967.  Athletes are encouraged to stand for fair play and health. It is the rules and laws which are violated when performance enhancing drugs are used and it becomes clear that doping is cheating and cheating is against the rules of all sport.
  • 4. Doping is defined as the use of a drug or blood product to artificially enhance physical performance. Stimulants (4) Steroids (12) Other (6) Amphetamines Anavar Dianabol Clomid Clenbuterol Andriol Equipoise Creatine Ephedra The Clear Primobolan EPO Modafinil The Cream Prohormones HCG Deca Durabolin Stanozolol Human Growth Hormone Depo-Testosterone Testosterone IGF-1 Insulin
  • 5. When performance-enhancing drugs have the power to affect the physical well-being of the athletes, and defy the law of natural talent, it is then that doping poses the greatest threat to the athlete and to the moral integrity of the true spirit of the sport Athletes should be made aware of the consequences that result from participation in the doping practices found in the sports industry. .
  • 6. PROBLEM The problem is that even though most young athletes will admit that doping is dishonest, unhealthy and risky, would they sacrifice it all for the “thrill of victory” and use banned substances to improve their performance?
  • 7. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Focus of this study: To survey middle school, high school and college athletes to determine the attitude of each group from the responses that would indicate the age group’s willingness to use banned substances to improve their performance.
  • 8. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS/QUESTIONS Why dope? Does doping compromise the sense of fair play and good sportsmanship? At what cost to future young athletes or the spirit of the sport are these young athletes willing to sacrifice for the “thrill of victory”?  It was hypothesized that the middle school and high school students would respond differently than the college aged athlete.
  • 9. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS/ASSUMPTIONS Operational Definitions  The independent variable is the three different age groups of athletes:  The dependent variable is the scores on the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale.  The population of the study is middle school, high school, and college athletes in Richmond, KY and Fresno, CA. Assumptions In the research, background knowledge of the content being studied is assumed. A strong foundation of knowledge is required to build on variables that affect the outcomes of data being collected.
  • 10. LIMITATIONS/DELIMITATIONS Limitations  Sample of male athletes  Three separate levels and facilities representing secondary education ranging from middle school athletes to college athletes.  Number of participants that drop out  Participates do not answer the survey questions honestly, is based on the sensitivity of the questions. Delimitations  Only male athletes  Age  Various sports and educational levels  Regions  Data collection was completed between September and October of 2013.
  • 11. DESCRIPTION OF PARTICIPANTS The instrument for this research study was given to a total population of 180 participants made up of middle school, high school, and college aged male student athletes.  Group A or the experimental group for the pilot study 90 male student participants  Group B or the control group for the actual study 90 male student participants  The population in each group will consist of: 90 male student athletes made up of three specific aged groups of athletes
  • 12. DESCRIPTION OF PARTICIPANTS CONT. was made up of 90 male student athletes from Richmond, KY.  The experimental group who participated in the pilot study was made of 90 male student athletes from the Clovis Diving Club (60 participants), Clovis, CA, and Fresno State University student athletes (30 participants) from Fresno, CA. Permission for the athletes under the age of eighteen years was secured through a letter of explanation to the parents giving them the opportunity to sign a refusal to participate.
  • 13. DESCRIPTION OF PARTICIPANTS CONT.  The same version of the letter was given to parents with optional wording such as school/club or teacher/coach from which to choose.  An informed consent form was given to all participants so as to understand their involvement, the purpose of the study, their anonymity, and recourse if concerns arise following the completion of the study or during that would negate their participation at the time of the administration of the instrument.  All participants were informed of the purpose of the study and that participation was not only voluntary, but anonymous.  No elite athletes were chosen for the purpose of this particular study.
  • 14. INSTRUMENT (RELIABILITY/VALIDITY)  The instrument selected to be used to survey the participants in this study is the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). Petroczi and Aidman (2009) developed a seventeen item Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) to understand participants’ attitudes and perceptions toward doping/performance enhancing drugs (PED).
  • 16.  It was hypothesized that the middle school and high school students would respond differently than the college aged athlete.  Even though the main independent variable was the use of 3 different age groups, there seemed to be no significant difference in their responses.  Similar results were obtained from the control group as well.  Therefore, the hypothesis was not proven as there seemed to be no significant differences in the responses from the 3 different age groups.