JmDNS : Service
   Discovery for the
     21st Century
         B r i a n S l e t t e n
B o s a t s u C o n s u l t i n g ...
Speaker
   Qualifications
12 years of software development
experience

Have own software consulting company for
design, me...
Agenda

Where We Have Been

ZeroConf

Bonjour

JmDNS

Brainstorming
Where have we
   been?
finding things in the
        past
 Configuration Files (ick!)

 DNS (requires central authority, hostname
 only -- no port...
ad hoc networking
     too hard
Law Offices, Schools, etc. do not always
have sufficient IT personnel

Home networking is ev...
Protocol Design
      Goals

Internet Protocol (IP) was designed to be
interoperable, extensible and scalable

Propietary ...
AppleTalk

Ahead of its time -- focused on services, not
devices

Too chatty for large networks

Not based on IP

Support ...
DHCP
Solves some of the problem

 Dynamic address allocation

 Great for clients

   Client-Server sessions are easy to
  ...
DHCP (Cont)

However, still focuses on hardware, not
services (i.e. capabilities)

  Users care about ‘printing’ and ‘shar...
JINI
Showed a lot of early promise for finding
devices and services on a network

Problems:

 Required Java (harder to embe...
JXTA

Bill Joy Brain-Sibling to JINI

Multi-language/Multi-Platform

Huge Learning Curve

Although it has languished, good...
Publish/Find/Bind

Hmmm... sounds familiar

WebServices are hoping to solve some of
these problems

 UDDI/WSDL/SOAP

 We’l...
ZeroConf
Zeroconf History

Began out of discussions on a mailing list in
1997

Interested people got together at IETF BOFs

ZeroCon...
Zeroconf Goals

Allocate addresses without a DHCP Server

Translate names and IP addresses without a
DNS Server

Find serv...
Zeroconf
    Technologies

IPv4 Link-Local Addressing

Multicast DNS

DNS Service Discovery
IPv4 link-local
     Addressing
Uses 169.254/16 prefix for “local links”

  Between 169.254.1.0-169.254.254.255

  Reserved...
IPv4 link-local
Addressing (cont)

Hosts should not use “link-local” and
routable addresses at the same time

  Will use a...
IPv4 Link-Local
     Process
Generate an address using a PRNG
(preferably seeded w/ MAC address or
something uniqueish)

A...
multicast dns

Designed to allow naming lookups without
central server

Introduces .local domain

 DNS is IETF technology ...
Multicast DNS
      (Cont)
Queries are sent to 224.0.0.251 on port 5353

Uses multicast broadcasts but is well-
designed t...
Query Types
One Shot

 “Just give me something”

One Shot - Accumulate Results

 “Stick around for multiple results”

Cont...
Avoiding Chattiness

 Known Answer Suppression

 Passive Caching/Listening

 Exponential Decay Rates

 TTL Expirations

 N...
Claiming the Name

Pick a name (user-specified?)

Put together a DNS A Record

Perform T_ANY query to find any other
records...
Clients and Services

 Users care about relevant services not all
 that are available

   Printer around the corner

   My...
dns service
discovery (DNS-SD)

No changes to DNS structures

Use DNS PTR queries to find SRV records
that match service in...
DNS-SD Goals

Service Instance Enumeration

Service Name Resolution

Somewhat persistent

 Here today, here tomorrow

Simp...
DNS-SD Service
    Instance

Browsing Service Instances

 “Leaves in a tree”

   <domain>.<service>.<instance>

 Name comp...
DNS-SD Txt Records


 Up to 65535 bytes

 Packed representation of zero or more
 strings
DNS-SD TXT Records
      (Cont)
 Name=Value Pairs

  Not present

  No value (“Debug”)

  Empty value (“Debug=”)

  Non-Em...
DNS-SD Query
     Example
_ftp._tcp.example.org

_http._tcp.example.org

_ipp._tcp.example.org

_daap._tcp.Carini.local

_...
DNS-SD Meta-Query


_services._dns-sd._udp.<domain>

  Returns a list of PTR records matching
  service type
Registered DNS-SD
          Services
        http://www.dns-sd.org/ServiceTypes.html


        MYOB                       ...
Bonjour
(aka Rendezvous)
 (aka Opentalk)
Bonjour

History

Open Source

Apple’s Use of Bonjour

Products

Tools
History

AppleTalk released initially in mid-80’s

Very popular on smallish networks

Part of what made Macs ‘just work’

...
Open Source

Apple wants to encourage the use of
Bonjour so it open sourced it

Includes support for OS X, Windows,
Window...
Apple’s use of
                           Bonjour
            Name                      Service                     Name  ...
products
TiVo, Asterisk VOIP PBX

Printers (HP, Brother, Epson, Xerox,
Lexmark, Canon)

SubEthaEdit, Growl

Axis Network C...
Bonjour
Browser Demo
JmDNS
JmDNS

Open Source project started by Arthur van
Hoff while at Strangeberry

Renamed from JRendezvous for legal
reasons, m...
JmDNS (cont)

Progress has slowed but it is relatively
stable and useful

Passes Apple’s Rendezvous (Bonjour)
Conformance ...
JmDNS Class
   Main entry point to the JmDNS subsystem

import javax.jmdns.JmDNS;
.
.
.
JmDNS jmdns = new JmDNS();
System....
ServiceInfo Class
   Encapsulates info about a JmDNS Service

import javax.jmdns.ServiceInfo;
.
.
.
ServiceInfo
System.out...
Listener Interfaces

ServiceListener

 Additions, Removals

ServiceTypeListener

 New service type discovery

Both listen ...
Basic JmDNS
 Examples
Using a Service
   w/ JmDNS
   Example
Registering a
  Service w/
JmDNS Example
FOAFfinger
 Example
What’s a FOAF?
“The Friend of a Friend (FOAF) project is
about creating a Web of machine-readable
homepages describing peo...
FOAF
Based on RDF and is used to express things
like:

 “My name is...”

 “I work for...”

 “I am interested in...”

 “Her...
FOAF and WebPages


FOAF can help capture relationships, links,
etc. for finding resources of interest, like-
minded indivi...
FOAFFinger

Damian Steer put together a JmDNS-
based app to find people on local links

Uses a custom application protocol:...
Brainstorming
References
Cheshire, Steinberg, “Zero Configuration Networking: The
Definitive Guide”, O’Reilly and Associates, 2005.

http:...
Examples

Examples:

  http://www.bosatsu.net/talks/JmDNS-Examples.zip


Questions/Feedback:

  brian@bosatsu.net
Please write your
     reviews




  Feedback/Questions:
   brian@bosatsu.net
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JmDNS : Service Discovery for the 21st Century

  1. 1. JmDNS : Service Discovery for the 21st Century B r i a n S l e t t e n B o s a t s u C o n s u l t i n g , I n c b r i a n @ b o s a t s u . n e t N o F l u f f J u s t S t u f f 2 0 0 6
  2. 2. Speaker Qualifications 12 years of software development experience Have own software consulting company for design, mentoring, training and development Work with Semantic Web, Aspect-Oriented Programming, Grid Computing
  3. 3. Agenda Where We Have Been ZeroConf Bonjour JmDNS Brainstorming
  4. 4. Where have we been?
  5. 5. finding things in the past Configuration Files (ick!) DNS (requires central authority, hostname only -- no ports) Directory Services AppleTalk (chatty “has been”) JINI (Java-only, central services) JXTA (steep learning curve)
  6. 6. ad hoc networking too hard Law Offices, Schools, etc. do not always have sufficient IT personnel Home networking is even worse! Could your grandma set up a DNS server? LDAP at home? What is so hard about two devices talking?
  7. 7. Protocol Design Goals Internet Protocol (IP) was designed to be interoperable, extensible and scalable Propietary protocols (AppleTalk, NetBIOS/SMB, IPX) were designed around local network features and decentralized discovery
  8. 8. AppleTalk Ahead of its time -- focused on services, not devices Too chatty for large networks Not based on IP Support persists but waned with Apple’s pre-OS X fortunes
  9. 9. DHCP Solves some of the problem Dynamic address allocation Great for clients Client-Server sessions are easy to regenerate Not-so-great for servers
  10. 10. DHCP (Cont) However, still focuses on hardware, not services (i.e. capabilities) Users care about ‘printing’ and ‘sharing files’ and listening to ‘music’ How to publish? find? bind?
  11. 11. JINI Showed a lot of early promise for finding devices and services on a network Problems: Required Java (harder to embed on devices, at least historically) Required Central Services Tried to proscribe service hierarchies
  12. 12. JXTA Bill Joy Brain-Sibling to JINI Multi-language/Multi-Platform Huge Learning Curve Although it has languished, good things might still come from the JXTA world
  13. 13. Publish/Find/Bind Hmmm... sounds familiar WebServices are hoping to solve some of these problems UDDI/WSDL/SOAP We’ll get back to you once WS-Whatever Draft is completed
  14. 14. ZeroConf
  15. 15. Zeroconf History Began out of discussions on a mailing list in 1997 Interested people got together at IETF BOFs ZeroConf WG was formed in 1999
  16. 16. Zeroconf Goals Allocate addresses without a DHCP Server Translate names and IP addresses without a DNS Server Find services without a directory server Reuse existing technologies, infrastructure and expertise
  17. 17. Zeroconf Technologies IPv4 Link-Local Addressing Multicast DNS DNS Service Discovery
  18. 18. IPv4 link-local Addressing Uses 169.254/16 prefix for “local links” Between 169.254.1.0-169.254.254.255 Reserved by IANA for this purpose Links are local when Host A sends a packet that arrives unmodified (i.e. no TTL decrements)
  19. 19. IPv4 link-local Addressing (cont) Hosts should not use “link-local” and routable addresses at the same time Will use an IP address from DHCP if one is available
  20. 20. IPv4 Link-Local Process Generate an address using a PRNG (preferably seeded w/ MAC address or something uniqueish) ARP Probe for conflict Claim address on success Defend address on future conflict (ARP) Must relinquish if conflict persists
  21. 21. multicast dns Designed to allow naming lookups without central server Introduces .local domain DNS is IETF technology so they are responsible, not ICANN
  22. 22. Multicast DNS (Cont) Queries are sent to 224.0.0.251 on port 5353 Uses multicast broadcasts but is well- designed to minimize chattiness Hosts listen to changes and can cache results To avoid pig-piling new queries, mDNS responders delay responses by random value to see if someone else will respond
  23. 23. Query Types One Shot “Just give me something” One Shot - Accumulate Results “Stick around for multiple results” Continuous Query “Keep on keepin’ on”
  24. 24. Avoiding Chattiness Known Answer Suppression Passive Caching/Listening Exponential Decay Rates TTL Expirations New peers announce themselves
  25. 25. Claiming the Name Pick a name (user-specified?) Put together a DNS A Record Perform T_ANY query to find any other records with same name Upon success (no conflicts), announce to the world who you are
  26. 26. Clients and Services Users care about relevant services not all that are available Printer around the corner My wife’s Excellent iTunes Music Collection SSH into development server
  27. 27. dns service discovery (DNS-SD) No changes to DNS structures Use DNS PTR queries to find SRV records that match service instance pattern <instance>._protoname._transport.<domain> Use TXT records for parameters
  28. 28. DNS-SD Goals Service Instance Enumeration Service Name Resolution Somewhat persistent Here today, here tomorrow Simple to implement
  29. 29. DNS-SD Service Instance Browsing Service Instances “Leaves in a tree” <domain>.<service>.<instance> Name compression in responses
  30. 30. DNS-SD Txt Records Up to 65535 bytes Packed representation of zero or more strings
  31. 31. DNS-SD TXT Records (Cont) Name=Value Pairs Not present No value (“Debug”) Empty value (“Debug=”) Non-Empty value (“Debug=verbose”)
  32. 32. DNS-SD Query Example _ftp._tcp.example.org _http._tcp.example.org _ipp._tcp.example.org _daap._tcp.Carini.local _tivo_servemedia._tcp.Carini.local
  33. 33. DNS-SD Meta-Query _services._dns-sd._udp.<domain> Returns a list of PTR records matching service type
  34. 34. Registered DNS-SD Services http://www.dns-sd.org/ServiceTypes.html MYOB Adobe Axis Video Cameras Bootstrap Protocol Server Oracle Cluster Topology Server CodeWarrior Elgato EyeHome ebXML Messaging/Registry FAXstf H.323 A/V Communication Setup Roxio ToastAnywhere SubEthaEdit Protocol Kerberos Administration LDAP NFS Network Time Protocol PostgreSQL Server JINI Servicees PowerEasy POS Session Initiation Protocol Skype SliMP3 Server Interfaces Sun Grid Engine Sybase Server
  35. 35. Bonjour (aka Rendezvous) (aka Opentalk)
  36. 36. Bonjour History Open Source Apple’s Use of Bonjour Products Tools
  37. 37. History AppleTalk released initially in mid-80’s Very popular on smallish networks Part of what made Macs ‘just work’ Apple wanted to replace functionality with protocol that fits in modern networks (i.e. IP-based)
  38. 38. Open Source Apple wants to encourage the use of Bonjour so it open sourced it Includes support for OS X, Windows, Windows CE, Linux, VxWorks http://developer.apple.com/networking/bonjour
  39. 39. Apple’s use of Bonjour Name Service Name Service AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) _afpovertcp._tcp Line Printer Daemon (LPD/LPR) _printer._tcp Network File System (NFS) _nfs._tcp Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) _ipp._tcp WebDAV File System (WEBDAV) _webdav._tcp PDL Data Stream (Port 9100) _pdl-datastream._tcp File Transfer Protocol (FTP) _ftp._tcp Remote I/O USB Printer Protocol _riousbprint._tcp Digital Audio Access Protocol Secure Shell (SSH) _ssh._tcp _daap._tcp (DAAP) Digital Photo Access Protocol Remote AppleEvents _eppc._tcp _dpap._tcp (DPAP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol _http._tcp iChat Instant Messaging Protocol _presence._tcp (HTTP) Trivial File Transfer Protocol _tftp._udp Airport Base Station _airport._tcp (TFTP) Remote Login (TELNET) _telnet._tcp Xserver RAID _xserveraid._tcp Remote Audio Output Protocol _raop._tcp Apple Remote Desktop (ARD) _net-assistant._tcp (RAOP)
  40. 40. products TiVo, Asterisk VOIP PBX Printers (HP, Brother, Epson, Xerox, Lexmark, Canon) SubEthaEdit, Growl Axis Network Cameras Oracle, Roxio Toast Anywhere
  41. 41. Bonjour Browser Demo
  42. 42. JmDNS
  43. 43. JmDNS Open Source project started by Arthur van Hoff while at Strangeberry Renamed from JRendezvous for legal reasons, moved to SourceForge and taken over by Rick Blair and Werner Randelshofer Pure-Java implementation of ZeroConf
  44. 44. JmDNS (cont) Progress has slowed but it is relatively stable and useful Passes Apple’s Rendezvous (Bonjour) Conformance tests Supports service registration and discovery
  45. 45. JmDNS Class Main entry point to the JmDNS subsystem import javax.jmdns.JmDNS; . . . JmDNS jmdns = new JmDNS(); System.out.println(”Host: “ + jmdns.getHostName() ); System.out.println(”Interface: “ + jmdns.getInterface() ); ServiceInfo si[] = jmdns.list(”_http._tcp.local.”); jmdns.addServiceTypeListener( new MyServiceTypeListener() );
  46. 46. ServiceInfo Class Encapsulates info about a JmDNS Service import javax.jmdns.ServiceInfo; . . . ServiceInfo System.out.println(”Host: “ + jmdns.getHostName() ); System.out.println(”Interface: “ + jmdns.getInterface() ); ServiceInfo si[] = jmdns.list(”_http._tcp.local.”); System.out.println(”Service 0 : “ + si[ 0 ].getServer() + “--” + si[ 0 ].getPort() + “--” + si[ 0 ].getNiceTextString() );
  47. 47. Listener Interfaces ServiceListener Additions, Removals ServiceTypeListener New service type discovery Both listen for ServiceEvents
  48. 48. Basic JmDNS Examples
  49. 49. Using a Service w/ JmDNS Example
  50. 50. Registering a Service w/ JmDNS Example
  51. 51. FOAFfinger Example
  52. 52. What’s a FOAF? “The Friend of a Friend (FOAF) project is about creating a Web of machine-readable homepages describing people, the links between them and the things they create and do.”
  53. 53. FOAF Based on RDF and is used to express things like: “My name is...” “I work for...” “I am interested in...” “Here’s my goofy picture...”
  54. 54. FOAF and WebPages FOAF can help capture relationships, links, etc. for finding resources of interest, like- minded individuals, etc. Think Orkut + Craig’s List
  55. 55. FOAFFinger Damian Steer put together a JmDNS- based app to find people on local links Uses a custom application protocol: _foafcon._tcp.local. Reuses HTTP for transport -- good idea!
  56. 56. Brainstorming
  57. 57. References Cheshire, Steinberg, “Zero Configuration Networking: The Definitive Guide”, O’Reilly and Associates, 2005. http://www.zeroconf.org http://www.multicastdns.org http://www.dns-sd.org http://jmdns.sourceforge.net http://developer.apple.com/networking/bonjour http://www.foaf-project.org/ http://rdfweb.org/people/damian/foaffinger http://tivohme.sourceforge.net/ http://avahi.org
  58. 58. Examples Examples: http://www.bosatsu.net/talks/JmDNS-Examples.zip Questions/Feedback: brian@bosatsu.net
  59. 59. Please write your reviews Feedback/Questions: brian@bosatsu.net
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