The Network Society

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  • 1. NETWORK SOCIETY PRESENTATION OVERVIEW An Overview of Social Media & The Network Society Media: Rupert Murdoch and Convergent Technologies (DISCUSSION) Political: Barack Obama and Social Media (DISCUSSION) Social: Power Shifts - A Look at North Africa (DISCUSSION) Control: US Homogenisation vs. China (DISCUSSION)Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 2. THE HISTORY OF NETWORKS As a telecommunications concept, networks have long been associated with the connection of one entity to another, spreading and linking together like the veins in a body. It is the infrastructure from which we have built modern communication and the means by which society advances. From the early railroads to today’s intricate social network, let’s explore the history of the network.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 3. THE HISTORY OF NETWORKS 1800’s America’s vast landscape is connected by rail, creating the fastest network for transporting goods and personal travel yet known. 1851 Telegraph lines in the US span over 20,000 miles. 1876 Emerging from the success of the telegraph, the landline telephone was patented by Alexander Graham Bell as a circuit switching invention, laying the foundation for future telecommunication networks.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 4. THE HISTORY OF NETWORKS 1896 Guglielmo Marconi transmits the first radio signal. It isn’t until the early 1920’s that voice broadcast radio is developed. 1924 John Baird becomes the first person to transmit moving silhouette images over a new cutting edge invention: the television. 1966 Xerox invents the “telecopier”, the first successful commercial fax machine.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 5. THE HISTORY OF NETWORKS 1969 Arpanet, the Model-T of the global internet, is deployed as a packet switching network that breaks digital messages into small blocks transmitted independently and reassembled. 1971 The first email is sent. 1978 Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) are created to exchange data between users over phone lines. In many ways, it’s a precursor to the modern social network.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 6. THE HISTORY OF NETWORKS 1979 - 1981 Technology gets mobile. The cellphone communication network is introduced in Japan (1979). Weighing 23.5 pounds, the first commercial laptop computer is sold to the public (1981). 1983 - 1990 The computer industry declares this year as “the year of the LAN” (1983). The grounds are laid for the World Wide Web when Tim Berners-Lee builds HTTP and HTML. The modern birth of the internet (1990). 1994 Yahoo GeoCities allows users to develop free Home Pages where they can chat, post on bulletin boards and foster an online community.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 7. THE HISTORY OF NETWORKS 2002 Friendster is launched an introduces a new model of networking to the mainstream. A year later, MySpace introduces it’s own, more successful version. 2004 - 2006 Mark Zuckerberg’s Facebook becomes available. A few years later, it gathers several hundred million users, surpassing that of all other social networking platforms. Micro-blogging site Twitter takes flight. 2010 Broadband access among US adults reaches approximately 65% and mobile internet catapults the smartphone into a multibillion-dollar industry.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 8. THE HISTORY OF NETWORKS PRESENT DAY “The new knowledge culture has arisen as our ties to older forms of social community are breaking down, our rooting and physical geography is diminished, our bonds to the extended and even the nuclear family are disintegrating, and our allegiances to nation states are being redefined.” Jenkins - Convergence CultureTuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 9. Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 10. MEDIA: RUPERT MURDOCH What is Rupert So Happy About? “Global multi-media businesses networks (including government- owned media) have taken advantage of the tidal wave of deregulation and liberalisation to integrate: the networks of: communication, the platforms of communication, and the channels of communication in their multi layered organisations, while setting up switches of connection to the networks of capital, politics, and cultural production.” (Castells)Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 11. MEDIA: RUPERT MURDOCH Convergent Technologies Rupert Murdoch has been successful in obtaining huge power due to his ability to exert influence over three core areas that facilitate online economies: the networks of: communication the platforms of communication and the channels of communication In context he influences: How news is produced... How news is distributed... How news is consumed...Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 12. MEDIA: RUPERT MURDOCH Before Online Media Fuelled Globalisation... The process of gathering, producing and consuming news was very linear... New producers such as Reuters might gather the news. (Facilitation) News channels such as the BBC might distribute the news. (Context) People like you and I might watch it at home on our Television. (Dictation)Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 13. MEDIA: RUPERT MURDOCH Since Social Media... The process of gathering, producing and consuming media is increasingly convergent... For Example: You, I, Reuters gathers the news... (Accessibility) We report the news... (Democracy) We talk about the news... (Interaction) This does not replace traditional news channels; rather it alters their role: Media can now be distributed, consumed and discussed in one place.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 14. MEDIA: RUPERT MURDOCH Thank You & Goodbye... The recent phone hacking scandal shamed the News of the World into closing the newspaper. Negative sentiment/accountability spreads very quickly via real-time networks... ...especially when the public is spreading it for you. A convergent and interconnected media network can facilitate both rapid success and rapid demise at the hands of the audience. Media can now be distributed, consumed and discussed in one place.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 15. CONVERGENCE CULTURE MODERN DAY MEDIA “The roles of content provider and consumer have become increasingly muddled, and the traditional view of the audience has been turned on it’s head.” Powell - 33 Million People In The RoomTuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 16. NETWORK SOCIETY DISCUSSION Q: Can we identify convergence in any form locally? Q: Is convergence in business restricted to online environments? Q: More QuestionsTuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 17. POLITICS: BARACK OBAMA How Did Obama Get It So Right In 2008? “By using interactive Web 2.0 tools, Mr. Obama’s campaign changed the way politicians organise supporters, advertise to voters, defend against attacks and communicate with constituents.” (Miller)Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 18. POLITICS: BARACK OBAMA Taking the debate to the voters... The administration understood that there were core advantages in generating a dialogue within those spaces in which audiences spend the majority of their time in terms of media consumption. What tools did he use? Facebook to engage communities... Twitter to distribute materials... Put simply, rather than waiting for the audience to come to the campaign, the administration took the campaign to the audience.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 19. POLITICS: BARACK OBAMA Organise Supporters Using Social Media tools allowed the campaign to: Organise core support groups into niche communities to fuel support... ...in essence generating mini- campaigns supported by these groups... ...which were facilitated by networked social media technologies. The core advantage was: To allow his supporters to make his message as accessible and widely available as possible.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 20. POLITICS: BARACK OBAMA Advertise to Voters Using Social Media tools allowed the campaign to: Access as wide an audience as possible... ...with various multi-media forms of message appropriate to specific audiences... ...which channeled and influenced on-going discussion and maximised support... ...which could be accurately measured in comparison to traditional campaign methods... ...which spread rapidly in a viral nature.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 21. POLITICS: BARACK OBAMA Defend and Communicate Using Social Media tools allowed the campaign to: Exert influence over negative sentiment... ...by communicating in an accessible and direct manner with audience groups... ...empowering the Obama Administration with the ability to... ...manage a crisis with superior resources than that of sceptical groups.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 22. NETWORK SOCIETY DISCUSSION Q: Could local politicians make better use of communications tools? Q: Can these principles be applied to local businesses? Q: More QuestionsTuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 23. SOCIAL CHANGE: NORTH AFRICA Social Media and North Africa “There has been a common thread in the recent political upheaval in Tunisia and Egypt.” “Social media has played a role in both influencing the protests and reporting on them” (CNN)Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 24. SOCIAL CHANGE: NORTH AFRICA Autocratic principles rely on... Control of the media: Which is increasingly degraded by various democratic social media distribution methods that facilitate freedom of speech. A closed society: Which is difficult to achieve when networks of communication allow messages to leave the country and for foreign influence to flow back in.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 25. NETWORK SOCIETY DISCUSSION Q: Could the social change have occurred without Social Media? Q: To what extent did western influence over communications networks “fuel the fire”? Q: More QuestionsTuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 26. WHO CONTROLS THE INTERNET? Western Influence... “The effects of technology do not occur at the level of opinions and concepts. But alter sense ratios or patterns of perception steadily and without any resistance.” (Redhead) Consider the Western legacy of the Internet; both in terms of structure and influence over time.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 27. WHO CONTROLS THE INTERNET? Did we really ever have a level playing field? “Paradoxical as it may appear isnt it through the rights of man that transpire today at a planetary level the worst discriminations?” (Poster) Social Media has ‘globalised’ western opinion and influence. Did we ever really have an equal voice?Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 28. WHO CONTROLS THE INTERNET? A War over Influence... Western influence has prevailed online to this point in time... ...spreading democratic western influence across the globe. We have seen those with lesser resources, such as North Africa, succumb to change... ...but the west has one big challenge: CHINA China has the resources, both culturally and economically to challenge western influence online.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 29. WHO CONTROLS THE INTERNET? Food for thought... The Google China Incident. Limited Use of Social Media in China? Can Democracy Work in China? Chinese Internet fuelled capitalism. Increasing Cyber Warfare Budgets. China has a vested interest in exerting social, economic and political influence over the internet.Tuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 30. NETWORK SOCIETY DISCUSSION Q: What does this mean for western economic models? Q: How will the US respond to opposition online? Q: More QuestionsTuesday, 12 July 2011
  • 31. SO WHAT ABOUT GUERNSEY? WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR US? Guernsey needs to drive innovation to support its service based economy. To neglect use of any form of technology in the face of a rapidly evolving market place, that relies on communications, could render Guernsey ill equipped to “do business”.Tuesday, 12 July 2011