Initiatives :WealthHandHoldingRaggedMinds IAS                    Know about Rocks                   Presentation Booklet: ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                                                          Rocks                            ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                                                                       Igneous Rock: Also c...
RaggedMinds IAS                                                Formed by                                  Intrusive: Lava ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                                                   • Also called Plutonic Igneous Rocks    ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                  Geological Importance                                    • their minerals...
RaggedMinds IAS                                   Classification basis Chemical composition                               ...
RaggedMinds IASInitiatives : WealthHandHolding                                  To Advertise in Presentation reaching more...
RaggedMinds IASInitiatives : WealthHandHolding                                  To Advertise in Presentation reaching more...
RaggedMinds IAS                                               Sedimentary rocks             Clastic                Sedimen...
RaggedMinds IAS                                  6 Main kinds of Sedimentary rocks                                      • ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                  Type of Sedimentary rocks                                      • Clastic:...
RaggedMinds IAS                                   Clastic Rock: Conglomerates Vs Breccia                                  ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                   Clastic Rock: Conglomerates Vs Breccia                                  ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                     Formation     Metamorphic rocks form deep                             ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                      Process-          • Metamorphic rocks are formed when rocks are chang...
RaggedMinds IAS                                                      1. Classified by texture and composition.            ...
RaggedMinds IAS                                     Metamorphic rocks have been changed over time by extreme pressure and ...
RaggedMinds IASInitiatives : WealthHandHolding                                  To Advertise in Presentation reaching more...
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Rocksx

  1. 1. Initiatives :WealthHandHoldingRaggedMinds IAS Know about Rocks Presentation Booklet: Mountains, Rocks and Winds Cost: Rs.320 Contact us : whh@raggedminds.com
  2. 2. RaggedMinds IAS Rocks Igneous RocksInitiatives : WealthHandHolding Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  3. 3. RaggedMinds IAS Igneous Rock: Also called as Parent RockInitiatives : WealthHandHolding To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  4. 4. RaggedMinds IAS Formed by Intrusive: Lava Types Formation solidfication cools within and earth surface crystallisation Extrusive: LavaInitiatives : WealthHandHolding of lava cools down on earth surface Intrusive: Diorite, Gabbro, Granite and Pegmatite Extrusive: Andesite, Basalt, Obsidian, Pumice, Rhyolite and Scoria To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  5. 5. RaggedMinds IAS • Also called Plutonic Igneous Rocks • Forms when magma trapped deep inside the earth Intrusive • Magma cools down in millions of years and hence it is coarse grained • Magma cools and forms rock through process of crystallisation • Coarse GrainedInitiatives : WealthHandHolding • Rock formed from lava erupted out from erupting volcanoes and oozing fissures Extrusive • Formed by quick cooling and it is fine grained • Often hot gas bubbles trapped. • Fine Grain To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  6. 6. RaggedMinds IAS Geological Importance • their minerals and global chemistry give information about the composition of the mantle, from which some igneous rocks are extracted, and the temperature and pressure conditions that allowed this extraction, and/or of other pre-existing rock that melted; • their absolute ages can be obtained from various forms of radiometric dating andInitiatives : WealthHandHolding thus can be compared to adjacent geological strata, allowing a time sequence of events; • their features are usually characteristic of a specific tectonic environment, allowing tectonic reconstitutions; • Some special circumstances they host important mineral deposits (ores): for example, tungsten, tin, and uranium are commonly associated with granites and diorites, whereas ores of chromium and platinum are commonly associated with gabbros. To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  7. 7. RaggedMinds IAS Classification basis Chemical composition • felsic igneous rocks containing a high silica content, greater than 63% SiO2 (examples granite and rhyolite) • intermediate igneous rocks containing between 52 - 63% SiO2 (example andesite and dacite)Initiatives : WealthHandHolding • mafic igneous rocks have low silica 45 - 52% and typically high iron - magnesium content (example gabbro and basalt) • ultramafic rock igneous rocks with less than 45% silica. (examples picrite, komatiite and peridotite) • alkalic igneous rocks with 5 - 15% alkali (K2O + Na2O) content or with a molar ratio of alkali to silica greater than 1:6. (examplesphonolite and trachyte) To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  8. 8. RaggedMinds IASInitiatives : WealthHandHolding To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  9. 9. RaggedMinds IASInitiatives : WealthHandHolding To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  10. 10. RaggedMinds IAS Sedimentary rocks Clastic Sedimentary rocks Misc Formation Types are formed from Chemical only form about 8 sediment grains percent of the deposited by water, Organic rocks on Earth that wind or ice. They cover the other are always formed types of rocks like aInitiatives : WealthHandHolding in layers, called thin coat of paint. “beds” or “strata”, and quite often contain fossils. To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  11. 11. RaggedMinds IAS 6 Main kinds of Sedimentary rocks • Sandstone is a soft stone that is made when sand grains cement together. Sometimes the sandstone is deposited in layers of different colored sand. • Shale is clay that has been hardened and turned into rock. It often breaks apart in large flat sections.Initiatives : WealthHandHolding • Limestone is a rock that contains many fossils and is made of calcium carbonate &/or microscopic shells. • Gypsum, common salt or Epsom salt is found where sea water precipitates the salt as the water evaporates. • Conglomerate rock has rounded rocks (pebbles, boulders) cemented together in a matrix. • Breccia has jagged bits of rock cemented together in a matrix. Some other examples of sedimentary rocks are: • Fossil Fuels / coal • Ironstone To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  12. 12. RaggedMinds IAS Type of Sedimentary rocks • Clastic: your basic sedimentary rock. Clastic sedimentary rocks are accumulations of clasts: little pieces of broken up rock which have piled up and been "lithified" by compaction and cementation. The kinds of clastic sedimentary rocks are called: Conglomerates, breccias, sandstone,Initiatives : WealthHandHolding mudstone, siltstone. • Chemical: many of these form when standing water evaporates, leaving dissolved minerals behind. These are very common in arid lands, where seasonal "playa lakes" occur in closed depressions. Thick deposits of salt and gypsum can form due to repeated flooding and evaporation over long periods of time. • Organic: any accumulation of sedimentary debris caused by organic processes. Many animals use calcium for shells, bones, and teeth. These bits of calcium can pile up on the seafloor and accumulate into a thick enough layer to form an "organic" sedimentary rock. To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  13. 13. RaggedMinds IAS Clastic Rock: Conglomerates Vs Breccia • Conglomerates are made from bits of rounded gravel that were deposited by the agent, usually water. Over time the wet pile of sediments becomes so heavy that the gravel gets compacted together, and minerals in the water cement the bits of gravel together. The only difference between conglomerates and breccias is: ConglomeratesInitiatives : WealthHandHolding are made from rounded gravel and breccias are make from angular gravel. • Like “ripple marked” sandstone, mudstone can have marks made by water on it. Mudstone is made up of very small particles than sand also called as slate as formed from very small particles . Siltstone is another example even smaller than Mudstone. • Sandstone is basically the same. Piles of sand are piled up by water or wind and over time the piles get so heavy the sand is pressed together and cemented by minerals found in ground water. There are some interesting things that can be found in sandstone. Fossils are often found in sandstone. • Sometimes sand dunes will become so large they harden into rock preserving the hump shape of the sand dune. There is a very famous fossil that was found in China in one of these preserved sand dunes. The fossil is called the “fighting dinosaurs.” To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  14. 14. RaggedMinds IAS Clastic Rock: Conglomerates Vs Breccia • Biochemical sedimentary rocks are formed from the debris of life. For example, limestone is formed from out of decayed animal shells. Animals use calcium to form their shells. After the animal dies, the shell falls apart and the calcium combines with other elements and minerals and hardens into rock.Initiatives : WealthHandHolding Fossils are very common in this type of rock. I have found fossil trilobites in this rock. Another example of this type of rock is coquina. Coquina is formed from pieces of seashells cemented together Chemical Formation • Chemical sedimentary rocks are formed when water evaporates and leaves behind minerals that harden into rock. A great example of this kind of rock is salt. So remember when youre eating salt, youre eating a rock. Its a rock called halite. To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  15. 15. RaggedMinds IAS Formation Metamorphic rocks form deep within the Earth when heat and pressure are applied to eitherInitiatives : WealthHandHolding igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks. This heat and pressure in essence cooks the rocks, changing their structure substantially To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  16. 16. RaggedMinds IAS Process- • Metamorphic rocks are formed when rocks are changed under heat and intense pressure. • Of the rocks that form the continental land mass, most are metamorphic rocks. There are three different ways rocks can be changed by heat and pressure. The process of changing is called I metamorphism.Initiatives : WealthHandHolding • Scientists call the third way metamorphic rocks form a tectonic process. Sometimes I think scientists like to use long words to make it harder for non-scientists to figure out what they are talking about. Heres what they are talking about: The large plates that make up the crust of the earth are always moving. Sometimes they slam into each other. Sometimes they grind past each other. Sometimes the plates are pulling apart forming large cracks called rifts. Process - When plates pull apart it is called a divergent boundary. On some boundaries one plate dives under another plate. Geologists call this type of boundary a convergent boundary. When the plates bump and grind past each other, the geologists call this boundary a transform fault II boundary. A famous example of this type of fault in the United States is called the San Andres Fault. At that plate boundary, the North American plate is moving mostly south and the Pacific plate is moving mostly north, which means that in 15 million years Los Angeles and San Francisco will be neighbors. I wonder if that will solve the debate about which is the better town. In any case, metamorphic rocks are formed from the pressure and heat caused by the plates crashing into each other. To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  17. 17. RaggedMinds IAS 1. Classified by texture and composition. 2. Rarely has fossils. 3. May react with acid.Initiatives : WealthHandHolding 4. May have alternate bands of light and dark minerals. 5. May be composed of only one mineral, ex. marble & quartzite. 6. May have layers of visible crystals. 7. Usually made of mineral crystals of different sizes. 8. Rarely has pores or openings. 9. May have bent or curved foliatio To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  18. 18. RaggedMinds IAS Metamorphic rocks have been changed over time by extreme pressure and heat. Metamorphic rocks can be formed by pressure deep under the Earths surface, from the extreme heat caused by magma or by the intense collisions and friction of tectonic plates. Uplift and erosion help bring metamorphic rock to the Earths surface. Examples of metamorphic rocks include anthracite, quartzite, marble, slate,Initiatives : WealthHandHolding granulite, gneiss and schist. Anthracite is a type of coal with a high carbon count, few impurities and with a high luster (meaning it looks shiny). Marble is a metamorphic rock that is formed from the sedimentary rock limestone. Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is formed from the sedimentary rock sandstone. Slate is a metamorphic rock that is formed from the sedimentary rock mudstone. Granulite is a metamorphic rock that is formed from the igneous rock basalt. To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com
  19. 19. RaggedMinds IASInitiatives : WealthHandHolding To Advertise in Presentation reaching more than !0000 people every week contact us: whh@raggedminds.com

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