It’s this second part of the programme that we’re discussing today, in which we’re fosuciing on the Eastern Arc mtns of TZ. As you all know, the EA is a range of ancient crystalline mountains whose forests are globally significant for conservation - with around 100 endemic spp of vertebrates, and probably as many as 1500 plant species found nowhere else, incl 80% of all African violet spp Despite this, in face of rising population, and growing agric demand, recognition of biodiversity value alone has not been enough to achieve conservation goals, and as this eg from the Ulugurus ilustrates, the remg nat hab’s in area are still undergoing conversion. This is of cse an isuse not just for biodiversity consvtn but for human wellbeing, bec the E Arc mountains are vital in terms of ESs too, in stabilising climate through carbon capture, providing NTFPs, such as honey, and serving as watersheds that provide water for drinking, irrigation and power for most of eastern TZ. So, what happens in the EA and its impact on the future provision of ESs will have a major impact on human wellbifng, Incidentally, while we’re focusing on the services generated by the mtns themsleves – in light green on this map – we’re tracking their flow and use ax all of the catchments that drain the mountains, which is this much wider area picked out inorange – so a lage part fo the eastern side of the country.
1. Equitable Payment Watershed Services (EPWS): Delivering natural resourcesconservation and improved livelihoods of all social groups in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Presented at Rio +20: United Nations Conference for Sustainable Development (UNCSD) 2012 In side-event Pro-Poor Payment for Ecosystems Services (PES) and Poverty Alleviation: Global Knowledge Networking on 16 th June 2012 by Dosteus Lopa, Program Manager, CARE International in
2. Introduction.• This presentation is mainly for CARE-WWF Tanzania’s EPWS experience sharing in solving watershed services and livelihood issues in Uluguru Mts, Tanzania• EPWS originates from the broader concept-PES – encourages and finances conservation efforts as well as – crucially improves the livelihoods of the rural poor communities
3. Background of EPWS progr.• EPWS is a programme implemented in Tanzania with financial support DANIDA through CARE DenmarkThe two phases of implementation:• The Phase 1: Feasibility assessment - Gathering knowledge to structure the new market for WS - Building a business case for investment through justifiable “business criteria”• The Phase 2: - To establish markets for WS in trial sub-catchments as an effective natural resource management tool
4. EPWS Objectives• To modify unsustainable land use and improve “watersheds” for reliable supply/flow and quality of water • To improve social and economic status of community members through substantial benefits accrued from both improved agronomic practices and high value crop production thus reducing poverty and malnutrition.
5. EPWS location in Tanzania Ulugurus the EPWS site in Tanzania Generally, there is high rainfall (>2000mm/yr) to ensure enough water supply Over 150,000 people reside in the Uplands of Ulugurus Crucial for delivery range of ecosystem services: Water, Forests, Fresh air, landscape beautyGlobal priority for biodiversityconservation
7. Findings: Uluguru Watershed problems Ulugurus undergo rapid conversion Poor and subsistence due unsustainable land use agriculture (‘slash and burn’ practices together with shifting Forest area (sq. km) Forest cover (sq km) 600 cultivation) 500 400 300 200 100 0 Original Potential 1955 1955 1977 1977 2000 2000 Reserves Dates• Many people are very poor (about 31% of Ulugurus’ pop’n live below poverty line) -There have been decreased amount of water flowing in the Ruvu River partly as a result of water management problems -High increase of turbidity
8. The rapid conversion in Ulugurus 1995 2000
9. Identification and roles of sellers and Buyers• Kibungo communities identified and selected sellers of WS – Recognise the existence of water problems – Recognise the contribution of their activities to the problem – Shown willingness to change their land use practices – Legal entities which can: • Sign contracts with buyers • Receive payments (under local government)• DAWASCO and Coca Cola KLtd as Buyers: – Water is critical/core for their business & reliant on river water – They recognise the high costs of poor or lack of water (alternative supply) for their business – Show willingness, capacity and accept to pay• Signing of agreement between these sellers and buyers
10. Implementation of EPWS programme(Phase II)• Implementing various optimum soil conservation measures proposed by the feasibility studies; e.g. – Terraces, grass stripping, agroforestry/reforestation, riparian restoration• Facilitate compensation or payments under the PWS scheme which are set at the compensation variation of land use change practice in terms of – Labour costs – Opportunity costs• Buyers have started paying sellers in Ulugurus – A the moment about 134 farmers received payments
11. Benefits beyond buyers’ Payment• Conducting Trainings and Inputs on improved agronomic practices• Investing in community para professionals: built capacities of identified and selected local farmers in areas of: extension services, leadership skills, lobbying and advocacy, social analysis and action, concepts related to gender, Monitoring and evaluation as well as record keeping• To date, over 700 community farmers are implementing and benefiting from the EPWS programme (men and women) in Ulugurus, Tanzania
12. Benefits beyond buyers’ PaymentCont…..• Improved production yields of various crops Baseline Current change Crop (2008) (May 2012)Maize ‹ 400kg/acre >1600kg /acreBeans ‹120kg/acre ≥950kg/acreCabbage Nil ≥9600 pcs/acreTomato Nil ≥9000kg/acreUnion Nil ≥4000kg/acre
13. Mixing cropping maizeand cover crops: Beans and groundnuts
14. Benefits beyond buyers’ PaymentCont…..• Linking farmers with markets• Generating high incomes (US$13,000) through selling crops: Cabbage, Farmers came to sell their tomato, Unions cabbage to town market Cash incomes generated between 2009 and Cash incomes generated by Crops between 2009 and May 2012 May 2012 8000 7,000.00 7000 Cash incomes in US$ Incomes in US$ 6000 6,000.00 5000 5,000.00 4000 4,000.00 3000 3,000.00 2000 2,000.00 1000 1,000.00 0 1 2009 2 3 4 0.00 2010 2011 2012 Crops Years Beans Cabbage Tomato Onion
15. Limitations on EPWS implementation• Initial costs are high and thus needs external support• PES is a new concept, the Experts on PES and/or PWS processes are limited in the country• Getting sellers is simple while engaging buyers is challenging• Landless people are eliminated unintentionally• Tangible impacts of the EPWS solution cannot be realized in short term• Inadequate institutional framework for implementing PES successfully
16. Lessons learned• Poor communities like Ulugurus can participate in and benefit from PES mechanism – If prudently implemented, EPWS can be a crucial initiative to improve upland community’s livelihood• Motivations to participate in the programme were due to: – participatory approaches applied especially engaging local farmers as para professionals – Provisioning of appropriate extension services especially trainings and inputs• Farmers have high motivation to apply SWC measure techniques after realising positive results in the field – It has been possible to boost farm productivity to more than 4 times as much through the implementation of recommended techniques.• Other institutions have been scaling up and replicating the PES Schemes – The Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST) in Mindu dam catchment – WWF Tanzania Country Office in the Sigi River catchment in the East Usambara Mountains. – ICRAF has implemented PES scheme in one part of Ulugurus. They actually focused on carbon financing by involving local communities to plant and manage trees. – The Ministry of water has enacted water act in 2009 which include PES as a conservation instrument and she is in the process of formulating regulation to enforce this PES law. – Similarly PES issues are included in the recently revised National Forestry Policy. – The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) has been assessing the potential for PES scheme in Kagera River basin in Bukoba.
17. Remarks on EPWS mechanismSustainability and scaling up• Effective awareness creation and education to have all stakeholders understand what this concept is all about: through publications, policy briefs, brochure, posters, documenting and sharing lesson learned, workshops and conferences• Bringing more buyers and sellers on board to ensure tangible impact in managing water sources and other natural resources in two years to come• Put in place functional Intermediary Group (IG) which is composed of members from local communities (sellers), downstream water users (ES buyers), government agencies (including water, forest, environment and Agriculture authorities) as well as CSOs as an exit strategy to ensure sustainability and local ownership of the initiative• Continuous advocacy and lobbying to have it properly included in the National Policies, legal and institutional frameworks• Engaging government especially local government authority to support the programme ownership at local level• Practical projects – site level work (learning by doing)• Value chain consideration as some landless people can benefit in the value chain.