Big HistoryTheme One By: Wendy deKorne History 140 Sources: Documentary The Day the Universe Changed – by James Burke National Geographic: Spencer Wells National Geographic: Explorers – Spencer Wells National Geographic: The Geographic Project Princeton University Press: Interview with Spencer Wells Film Catastrophe Film: Guns, Germs, and Steel Wikipedia site: Funs, Germs, and Steel The World in 1492 & Columbus’s World The European Voyages and How the World changes
Theme OneThe Day The Universe Changed All cultures have certain things in common React due to the knowledge they have and as their knowledge grows, their reactions change Want to defend their knowledge, or what they believe to be true All cultures have a set of customs, rules, or laws to keep them from chaos
The Day The Universe changed Curiosity brought progress 1400’s – Printing press made maps and books possible Plough made more food available Steel made better weapons Thales brought geometry from Egypt to Greece
The Journey of Man Our DNA maps out our ancestral migration by using the male Y chromosome Mutations can be traced, called markers Spencer Wells found everyone’s DNA links back to one man in Africa (60,000 years ago) Man belonged to tribe (Bushmen), which traveled across the Bering Straight to North America during the Ice Age
Journey of Man:Races Everyone is related and comes from the same geographic location originally Adaptation took place to make changes in skin color Skin color change due to geographic location (More sun = darker skin / Cloudier environment = lighter skin
Catastrophe 1500 years ago, Volcano exploded Caused cloud cover worldwide Climate turned cold, drought, famine, disease, and death Tree rings tell history of climate
Catastrophe Scientists were not convinced that a volcanic eruption caused this destruction. There hypotheses included astroid, comet, or volcano Scientists found sulphuric acid in ice caps, which proves a volcanic eruption occurred Documentation can be found describing the eruption in the Book of Kings by Ronlonsetta Krakatoa erupted again in 1883, killing 36,000 people and is considered the most deadly volcano
Guns, Germs and SteelOut of Eden All cultures start out with the same advantages Hunter / Gatherers could not get and keep enough food for their people
Farmers in the Middle East started to advance until the second ice age.
Europeans and Asians gained advantage as farming and domesticated animals spread to their geographic location.
European Advantage: Guns, Germs, and Steel Europeans had a surplus of food due to their geographic location 13 of the 14 large animals could be domesticated on their continent This gave them meat, milk, clothing, and manure. Domesticated animals also led to disease, which caused mass epidemics, but eventually led to a stronger people leaving them immune to the diseases Spanish invaded the Incas and even though they were out numbered they conquered the region with their horses, steel weapons. Numerous native Americans wiped out with disease.
Columbus and the Age of Discovery
Columbus born 1451 in Genoa, a small maritime empire without resources of its own.
Spices were extremely important, but had to be imported from the Orient, which was heavily guarded by Muslims
China grew to be richest, most powerful empire in the world by middle ages, making it very attractive to traders
It was decided that an alternate route must be found to the Orient
The Columbian Exchange Columbus started his voyage in search of spices and gold, but found crops (e.g. corn) Horses and cattle were relocated to America. Cattle ranching began once mainland was colonized Potato famine forced thousands of Irish to emigrate to America – Most settling in Boston Sugar cane also drove immigration with slave labor needed to produce it