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Transcript

  • 1. Big HistoryTheme One
    By: Wendy deKorne
    History 140
    Sources:
    Documentary The Day the Universe Changed – by James Burke
    National Geographic: Spencer Wells
    National Geographic: Explorers – Spencer Wells
    National Geographic: The Geographic Project
    Princeton University Press: Interview with Spencer Wells
    Film Catastrophe
    Film: Guns, Germs, and Steel
    Wikipedia site: Funs, Germs, and Steel
    The World in 1492 & Columbus’s World
    The European Voyages and How the World changes
  • 2. Theme OneThe Day The Universe Changed
    All cultures have certain things in common
    React due to the knowledge they have and as their knowledge grows, their reactions change
    Want to defend their knowledge, or what they believe to be true
    All cultures have a set of customs, rules, or laws to keep them from chaos
  • 3. The Day The Universe changed
    Curiosity brought progress
    1400’s – Printing press made maps and books possible
    Plough made more food available
    Steel made better weapons
    Thales brought geometry from Egypt to Greece
  • 4. The Journey of Man
    Our DNA maps out our ancestral migration by using the male Y chromosome
    Mutations can be traced, called markers
    Spencer Wells found everyone’s DNA links back to one man in Africa (60,000 years ago)
    Man belonged to tribe (Bushmen), which traveled across the Bering Straight to North America during the Ice Age
  • 5. Journey of Man:Races
    Everyone is related and comes from the same geographic location originally
    Adaptation took place to make changes in skin color
    Skin color change due to geographic location (More sun = darker skin / Cloudier environment = lighter skin
  • 6. Catastrophe
    1500 years ago, Volcano exploded
    Caused cloud cover worldwide
    Climate turned cold, drought, famine, disease, and death
    Tree rings tell history of climate
  • 7. Catastrophe
    Scientists were not convinced that a volcanic eruption caused this destruction. There hypotheses included astroid, comet, or volcano
    Scientists found sulphuric acid in ice caps, which proves a volcanic eruption occurred
    Documentation can be found describing the eruption in the Book of Kings by Ronlonsetta
    Krakatoa erupted again in 1883, killing 36,000 people and is considered the most deadly volcano
  • 8. Guns, Germs and SteelOut of Eden
    All cultures start out with the same advantages
    Hunter / Gatherers could not get and keep enough food for their people
    • Farmers in the Middle East started to advance until the second ice age.
    • 9. Europeans and Asians gained advantage as farming and domesticated animals spread to their geographic location.
  • European Advantage: Guns, Germs, and Steel
    Europeans had a surplus of food due to their geographic location
    13 of the 14 large animals could be domesticated on their continent
    This gave them meat, milk, clothing, and manure.
    Domesticated animals also led to disease, which caused mass epidemics, but eventually led to a stronger people leaving them immune to the diseases
    Spanish invaded the Incas and even though they were out numbered they conquered the region with their horses, steel weapons.
    Numerous native Americans wiped out with disease.
  • 10. Columbus and the Age of Discovery
    • Columbus born 1451 in Genoa, a small maritime empire without resources of its own.
    • 11. Spices were extremely important, but had to be imported from the Orient, which was heavily guarded by Muslims
    • 12. China grew to be richest, most powerful empire in the world by middle ages, making it very attractive to traders
    • 13. It was decided that an alternate route must be found to the Orient
  • The Columbian Exchange
    Columbus started his voyage in search of spices and gold, but found crops (e.g. corn)
    Horses and cattle were relocated to America. Cattle ranching began once mainland was colonized
    Potato famine forced thousands of Irish to emigrate to America – Most settling in Boston
    Sugar cane also drove immigration with slave labor needed to produce it