Gender monitoring of parliamentary elections 2012 in Ukraine
Parliamentary Elections2012: Gender MonitoringThe "Gender-based monitoring of parliamentaryelections in 2012" is implemented with theassistance by The Democracy Grants Program,the U.S. Embassy.
Gender equality as a democratic norm According to reports of global gender gap in 2011, Ukraine holds 105th of 134 countries regarding political rights of women. Ukraine is on the list after Zimbabwe, Tajikistan and many other less developed countries. Belongs to the countries with absolute males’ dominance
Women’s and Men’s Representationin the Partliament І II IIІ IV V VI convocation convocation convocation convocation convocation convocation (1991) (1994) (1998) (2002) (2006) (2007) TOTAL 445 413 448 450 450 450 MEN 432 396 412 426 411 418WOMEN 13 19 37 23 38 32 % 2,9 4,6 8,3 5,1 8,4 7,6
International Obligation of Ukraine Our country joined the UN Millennium Development Goals in 2000, taking the obligation of the gender ratio of at least 30% to 70% of either gender in representative bodies by 2015
Committee on the Elimination ofDiscrimination against Women:Concluding observations (2010)32. The Committee reiterates the concern expressed in its previous concluding observations of 2002 about the underrepresentation of women in high-level elected and appointed bodies, including as members of Parliament, of which women represent only 8 per cent
Committee on the Elimination ofDiscrimination against Women:Concluding observations (2010)33. The Committee urges the State party to take measures to increase the representation of women in elected and appointed bodies through, inter alia, the implementation of temporary special measures, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25, in order to realize women’s right to equal anticipation in all areas of public life, particularly at high levels of decision- making.
Legal NormArticle 15 of the Law of Ukraine „On Ensuring Equal Right and Opportunities for Women and Men”: „Equal election rights and opportunities for women and men are ensure by Ukrainian Law. Political parties and blocks when suggesting their candidates for people’s deputy provides for representation of women and men on the election lists”.
Relevant Legislation UN Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Constitution of Ukraine (Art. 24) Law on Election (Art. 2 & 74) Law on Equal Rights and Opportunities (Art. 1, 22, 24)
Constitution of Ukraine (Art. 24): Citizens have equalconstitutional rights and freedoms and are equal tothe law There should not be any privileges or restrictions based on rasa, color of skin, political, religious or other believes, sex, ethnical and social origin, economical situation, place of residence, by language or other features. Equality of women and men are ensured by: giving women the opportunities that are equal to men’s in civil, political and cultural activities, in getting education and professional training, in labour and remuneration for it…
Law on Election (Art. 2 & 74)Art 2. General election law8. Any direct or indirect privileges or restrictions in the election law of citizens of Ukraine based on rasa, color of skin, political, religious or other believes, sex, ethnical and social origin, economical situation, place of residence, by language or other features are prohibited. No limitations for citizens of Ukraine to participate in the election law, accept for the limitation provided in the Constitution of Ukraine and this Law can be established.Art 74. Restrictions on campaigning5. Distribution in any form containing materials calls for the elimination of Ukraines independence, the constitutional order by force, violating the sovereignty and territorial integrity, undermining its security, illegal seizure of state power, propaganda of war, violence, and incitement of ethnic, racial, national, religious hatred, attacks on human rights and freedoms and the health of the population.
Law on Equal Rights andOpportunities (Art 1)The purpose of this Act is to achieve equality between women and men in all spheres of society by law to ensure equal rights and opportunities for women and men, the elimination of gender discrimination and the use of temporary special measures aimed at addressing the imbalance between the capacity of women and men to equal rights granted to them by the Constitution (254k/96- VR) and laws of Ukraine.Article 1. Discrimination based on sex - action or inaction that any distinction, exclusion or benefits on the basis of sex, if they intended to limit or prevent the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing of human rights and freedoms for women and men;
Law on Equal Rights andOpportunities (Art 22, 24)Article 22. Complaints of sex discrimination and sexual harassment. A person who believes that in his/er respect it was imposed discrimination based on sex or she was subject to sexual harassment has the right to appeal to the Commissioner of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on Human Rights, the specially authorized central executive body on equal rights and opportunities for women and men authorized persons (Coordinators) to ensure equal rights and opportunities for women and men in executive bodies and bodies of local self-governmen, law enforcements or the court. Persons of any gender or group of persons should be allowed to send messages of equality of rights and opportunities for women and men to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, if exhausted domestic remedies, or if the application of such remedies is unreasonably prolonged.Article 24. Responsibility for violation of the provision of equal rights and opportunities Persons guilty of violation of the legislation on equal rights and opportunities for women and men bear civil, administrative and criminal liability under the law.
Example of sexist statements “a woman in politics is no more a woman” “with all my respect to women – it is not your business to run country reforms” “in politics we can see only unhappy women who have no enough of attention and care for” “protect women – a source of men’s wellbeing”
NDI Forecast based on the NewLaw 6% of women in the Parliament 2012
Public opinion: Study by theUkrainian Women’s Fund, May2012The majority of respondents (72%) does not care of the sex of people’s deputies in the ParliamentWomen are not able to manage political issues – 11%Supporting of legal quarters – 57%
Network of Public Control overGender Equality in Elections 2012or Women’s Lobby45 organizations who believe that gender equality is the background for democracy; international obligation of Ukraine and national law provision.Aims:- To analyze the situation with gender equality in the elections;- To create platform for presentation of women candidates.- Inquiries to the political parties- Quantitative analysis- Analysis of political programs- Monitoring of mass media
Quantity of Women in the First TenthLeaders in women’s representation (40%):- «UDAR», V.Klichko- Radical Party of O.Liashko- “Public and Labour Union of Ukraine"30% representation- Socialist Party- “Hromada"No Single Woman- “Batkivshchyna” (Joint Opposition)- “Svoboda“- Party of Retired People of UkraineThe majority of 22 registered partied present 10 to 20 per cents.
Gender-Disaggregated Statistics on all 225 DistrictsSection "Party candidate lists" on the websiteWomen in Elections:Some of the results of womencandidates:Communists – 26.6%Liberal Party – 25.5%Socialists – 23.7%
Representation of women onsingle-mandate constituenciesSingle-mandate Women’s and Women’s % constituencies Men’s Representati Representation on 225 3109 389 13
Quantitative presentation ofwomen on single-mandateconstituenciesTOP representation of women candidates: Kyiv region – 20% Chernihiv region and Crimea – 19% The ciry of Sevastopol – 18 %ТОП under-representation: Rivne region - 0% Zakarpatie region – 3% Volyn and Zaporizhia – 8 % Around 60 districts with no single woman In the region of Rivne – no women at all
Methodology is based on 13 major(complex) criteria, which in turnconsist of 3 or 4 specific indicatorseach Adherence to democratic values and gender-equal political representation The quota system applied to its own party cadres (or are in the party quota?) Commitment fair representation of articles Gender equality in the labor market Combining family responsibilities with official Education Policy Population policy and family policy Policy on Health Gender-sensitive economic policies Social policy and pension Rural development policies Gender-sensitive development of social infrastructure Measures against gender violence, domestic violence
Each criteria for monitoring has itsown contentCriterion 5. Combining family responsibilities with labour- emphasis on maternity leave, maternity and sick leave, as well as issues of funding (3 points)- introduction of flexible work schedules (3 points)- emphasis on social protection in the labor market (2 points)- attention to the enforcement of the labor market, the problems of illegal workers (2 points)Criterion 7. Demografic and family policy- intention to increase the birth rate (1 point)- provision of state support for the family, political or economic means to stimulate fertility (action plan, support of maternity allowance, etc.) (3 points)- support, political or economic means, families with single parents (3 points)- support, political or economic means, large families and families caring for people with disabilities (3 points)