Unit 1: Introduction to P&A<br />Anatomy & Physiology<br />	A.  Anatomy - “structure” (morphology)<br />			1.Definition:  ...
	C.  Structure & function always relate<br />			1.Example:  Arteries have very<br />			muscular walls to adequately <br />...
Homeostasis<br />		A.  Defintion:  The tendency of the 			body to maintain a constant 			internal environment.<br />		B.  ...
		1.  Negative Feedback<br />a.Definition:  A system which 			maintains deviations in a				normal range.<br />a.Example:  ...
		2.  Positive Feedback<br />a.Definition:  A system which 			encourages deviations from 				normal ranges (homeostasis)<b...
Body Organization  (Humans are organized    					 in levels)<br />		A.  Cell<br />Defintion:  basic structural and 			func...
	C.  Organ<br />Definition:  A group of tissues 			working together to perform a 			special function.<br />Example:  Skin<...
E.  Organism<br />Definition:  A group of organ 			systems working together to 			perform a function.<br />Example:  Human...
Human Organ Systems<br />	A.  Skeletal System<br />		1.  Structure:  bones, ligaments, 		    tendons, cartilage, joints<br...
	C<br />	C.  Integumentary System<br />		1.  Structure:  Skin, hair, nails, 			    sweat glands, oil glands.<br />		2.  Fu...
	D.  Digestive System<br />		1.  Structure:  <br />		Digestive tract:  mouth, 				esophagus, stomach, intestines<br />Acce...
E.  Respiratory System<br />		1.  Structure:  Lungs, nasal cavity, 		   pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi<br />		2.  Funct...
	G.  Nervous System<br />		1.  Structure:  Brain, spinal cord, 			    nerves, sensory receptors<br />		2.  Function:  Regu...
	H.  Endocrine System	<br />		1.  Structure:  Endocrine glands:  			    pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc.; 		    hormones<...
	I.  Urinary System<br />		1.  Structure:  Kidneys, bladder, 			    ureters, urethra<br />		2.  Function:  Removal of wast...
	J.  Lymphatic System<br />		1.  Structure:  Lymph vessels, lymph 		   nodes, lymph, spleen, thymus gland<br />		2.  Funct...
Anatomical Terminology<br />    A.  Position Terms<br />		1.  Superior – “above”<br />		     -- Head superior to neck<br /...
	5.  Medial – “toward midline”<br />		-- shoulder medial to elbow<br />	6.  Lateral – “away from midline”<br />	7.  Proxim...
	10.  Deep – “more internal”<br />	11.  Articulate – “to meet”<br />		-- The femur articulates with the 		    fibia<br />
	B.  Body Sections/Cuts/Planes<br />		1.  Sagittal<br />			--lengthwise cut at midline<br />		2.  Transverse<br />			--div...
	C.  Body Regions of the Abdomen<br />		1.  Epigastric<br />			(Middle Upper)<br />		2.  L/R Hypochondriac <br />			(Upper...
4.  L/R Lumbar<br />			(Middle L/R)<br />		5.  Hypogastric<br />			(Low middle)<br />		6.  L/R Iliac<br />			(L/R low)<br />
	D.  Body (Major) Cavities<br />		1.  Cranial Cavity<br />			-- nasal cavity<br />			-- oral cavity<br />			-- cranial cav...
		3.  Abdominopelvic Cavity<br />			-- stomach<br />			-- pelvis<br />			-- bladder<br />			-- Split into abdominal and <b...
	E.  Body Membranes<br />		1.  Pleural Membranes (lungs)<br />			a.  Visceral pleural (organ)<br />			--membrane portion 	...
2.  Pericardial Membranes (heart)<br />			a.  Visceral pericardium<br />			--membrane covering heart 				   itself<br />		...
		3.  Peritoneal Membranes - abdomen<br />			a.  Visceral peritoneum<br />			--membrane surrounding organs<br />			b.  Par...
Chemistry of Life<br />	A.  Atomic Structure<br />		1.  Nucleus<br />			--most massive<br />			--houses proton  and neutro...
	4.  Electrons<br />		--(-) charged<br />		--located in energy level shells/ 			clouds around nucleus<br />	5.  Energy lev...
	6.  Proton & electron # = in balanced 	  	    elements<br />	7.  Neutron # = mass number – atomic 	    number<br />	8.  M...
10.  Ion<br />Definition:  Element that has lost 		or gained e- and therefore 				received a charge.<br />a. Importantto b...
	B.  Chemical Bonding<br />		1.  Ionic Binding<br />Definition:  Occurs when atoms 			gain or lose e- becoming 				opposit...
	C.  Chemical Reactions<br />		1.  Synthesis – “build up”<br />		--combining atoms – growth, repair<br />			A + B – AB<br ...
		3.  Exchange<br />			--Decomposition + Synthesis<br />			   AB + CD -– AC + BD<br />		4.  Reversible<br />			--End produ...
	D.  Acid & Bases<br />		1.  Electrolytes<br />Definition:   Substances that 			release ions in water and therefore 		cond...
	3.  Bases<br />		--Electrolytes that release OH- 			into water<br />		--pH:  7.1-14<br />		--Blue on litmus<br />
	E.  Major Body Organic Substances<br />		1.  Carbohydrates<br />Structure:  Small to large molecules 		of C, H + O  (in r...
2.  Lipids<br />Structure:  Substances that do not 		dissolve in H2O, mainly C, H, O 			(includes fats, phospholipids, 			...
		a.  Glycerols + fatty acid = FAT<br />example:  triglycerols= 3 			  glycerols + a fatty acid<br />	3.  Proteins<br />St...
a.  Hydrogen bonds<br />		-- hold coil together<br />		-- bonds may break by exposure 			   to access:<br />			*heat<br />...
Denatured Protein:  protein with 	hydrogen bonds broken or uncoiled due 	to environmental factors.  (example:  	heat)<br /...
Function:  --control cellular activities<br />		         --synthesize proteins (RNA)<br />			 --pass on genetic informatio...
Cellular Transport<br /> 		*In order for the body to maintain 	homeostasis, chemicals/substances/ions 	constantly pass thr...
2.  Types<br />		a.  Diffusion: movement of 				    substances from high to low 			    concentration<br />example:   O2 fr...
C. Osmosis: movement of WATER <br />across membrane from high 				to low concentration<br />		1. cells need EXACTLY right ...
Types of Osmosis<br />1. Hypertonic – Hyper=more<br />	a. More water than needed in the 		cell, so net water LEAVES cell t...
		d. Filtration<br />		1. movement of substances 				across cell membrane due to 			pressure<br />		2. ex: blood pressure ...
B. Active transport<br />	1. Movement of substances across 			membrane from LOW to HIGH 				REQUIRING ENERGY!!<br />	2. Ty...
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P&A - Units 1 & 2

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P&A - Units 1 & 2

  1. 1. Unit 1: Introduction to P&A<br />Anatomy & Physiology<br /> A. Anatomy - “structure” (morphology)<br /> 1.Definition: branch of science that <br /> deals with the structure of body parts.<br /> B. Physiology – “function”<br /> 1.Definition: branch of science that deals with the function of body parts.<br />
  2. 2. C. Structure & function always relate<br /> 1.Example: Arteries have very<br /> muscular walls to adequately <br /> pump blood to all parts of body.<br />
  3. 3. Homeostasis<br /> A. Defintion: The tendency of the body to maintain a constant internal environment.<br /> B. In order to survive, the body needs to remain at homeostasis.<br /> C. Homeostasis is regulated by body systems.<br />
  4. 4. 1. Negative Feedback<br />a.Definition: A system which maintains deviations in a normal range.<br />a.Example: Blood pressure- If blood pressure goes up, negative feedback slows heart to return it to normal.<br />
  5. 5. 2. Positive Feedback<br />a.Definition: A system which encourages deviations from normal ranges (homeostasis)<br />a.Example: Labor during pregnancy. The woman’s body is taken farther from normal (homeostasis) to achieve a goal.<br />
  6. 6. Body Organization (Humans are organized in levels)<br /> A. Cell<br />Defintion: basic structural and functional unit of life.<br />Example: Skin cell <br /> B. Tissue<br />Definition: a group of cells working together to perform a function. <br />Example: Epithelial tissue<br />
  7. 7. C. Organ<br />Definition: A group of tissues working together to perform a special function.<br />Example: Skin<br /> D. Organ System<br />Definition: A group of organs working together to perform a special function<br />Example: Integumentary<br />
  8. 8. E. Organism<br />Definition: A group of organ systems working together to perform a function.<br />Example: Human body<br />
  9. 9. Human Organ Systems<br /> A. Skeletal System<br /> 1. Structure: bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, joints<br /> 2. Function: Support and movement<br /> B. Muscular System<br /> 1. Structure: Muscles<br /> 2. Function: Movement, posture, heat production<br />
  10. 10. C<br /> C. Integumentary System<br /> 1. Structure: Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands.<br /> 2. Function: Protection, temperature regulation, synthesize (make) certain body products (Vitamin D)<br />
  11. 11. D. Digestive System<br /> 1. Structure: <br /> Digestive tract: mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines<br />Accessory organs: tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver<br /> 2. Function: mechanical and chemical digestion, absorb nutrients, eliminate wastes<br />
  12. 12. E. Respiratory System<br /> 1. Structure: Lungs, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi<br /> 2. Function: Exchange of gasses (CO2 & O2between blood and air.<br /> F. Cardiovascular System/Circulatory<br /> 1. Structure: Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood<br /> 2. Function: Transport nutrients, waste, gasses, hormones<br />
  13. 13. G. Nervous System<br /> 1. Structure: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors<br /> 2. Function: Regulate all body functions, detect sensation, control movement<br />
  14. 14. H. Endocrine System <br /> 1. Structure: Endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc.; hormones<br /> 2. Function: Regulates metabolism, reproduction and other body functions.<br />
  15. 15. I. Urinary System<br /> 1. Structure: Kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra<br /> 2. Function: Removal of waste from circulatory system; regulate blood pH, ion content, water content<br />
  16. 16. J. Lymphatic System<br /> 1. Structure: Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymph, spleen, thymus gland<br /> 2. Function: Removal of foreign substances in blood, combat disease, fat absorption<br /> K. Reproductive System<br /> 1. Structure: Gonads, accessory structures, and genitals<br /> 2. Function: Process of reproduction of life.<br />
  17. 17. Anatomical Terminology<br /> A. Position Terms<br /> 1. Superior – “above”<br /> -- Head superior to neck<br /> 2. Inferior – “below”<br /> -- Tibia inferior to femur<br /> 3. Anterior/Ventral – “front/belly- side”<br /> 4. Posterior/Dorsal – “back”<br />
  18. 18. 5. Medial – “toward midline”<br /> -- shoulder medial to elbow<br /> 6. Lateral – “away from midline”<br /> 7. Proximal – “closer to point of attachment”<br /> -- elbow proximal to wrist<br /> 8. Distal – “further from point of attachment”<br /> 9. Superficial – “near surface”<br />
  19. 19. 10. Deep – “more internal”<br /> 11. Articulate – “to meet”<br /> -- The femur articulates with the fibia<br />
  20. 20. B. Body Sections/Cuts/Planes<br /> 1. Sagittal<br /> --lengthwise cut at midline<br /> 2. Transverse<br /> --divides body in superior and inferior portions<br /> 3. Frontal/Coronal<br /> --Divides body in anterior and<br /> posterior portions<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. C. Body Regions of the Abdomen<br /> 1. Epigastric<br /> (Middle Upper)<br /> 2. L/R Hypochondriac <br /> (Upper L/R)<br /> 3. Umbilical<br /> (Middle)<br />
  23. 23. 4. L/R Lumbar<br /> (Middle L/R)<br /> 5. Hypogastric<br /> (Low middle)<br /> 6. L/R Iliac<br /> (L/R low)<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. D. Body (Major) Cavities<br /> 1. Cranial Cavity<br /> -- nasal cavity<br /> -- oral cavity<br /> -- cranial cavity<br />2. Vertebral Cavity<br /> -- spinal cavity<br /> 2. Thoracic Cavity <br /> -- rib cage<br /> -- diaphragm<br />
  26. 26. 3. Abdominopelvic Cavity<br /> -- stomach<br /> -- pelvis<br /> -- bladder<br /> -- Split into abdominal and <br />pelvic cavities<br />
  27. 27. E. Body Membranes<br /> 1. Pleural Membranes (lungs)<br /> a. Visceral pleural (organ)<br /> --membrane portion covering organ<br /> c. Pleural cavity – area surrounding organ<br /> - filled with fluid<br /> b. Parietal pleural<br /> --membrane portion attached to body wall lining cavity<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. 2. Pericardial Membranes (heart)<br /> a. Visceral pericardium<br /> --membrane covering heart itself<br /> b. Parietal percardium<br /> --membrane outside visceral<br /> pericardium<br />
  30. 30. 3. Peritoneal Membranes - abdomen<br /> a. Visceral peritoneum<br /> --membrane surrounding organs<br /> b. Parietal peritoneum<br /> --membrane attachment to cavity wall<br />
  31. 31. Chemistry of Life<br /> A. Atomic Structure<br /> 1. Nucleus<br /> --most massive<br /> --houses proton and neutron<br /> 2. Proton<br />-- (+) Positive charged<br /> 3. Neutrons<br /> --Neutral <br />
  32. 32. 4. Electrons<br /> --(-) charged<br /> --located in energy level shells/ clouds around nucleus<br /> 5. Energy levels<br /> --levels/orbits around nucleus that hold e- of certain energy<br /> --each level holds specific number of e- (1:2, 2:8, 3:18)<br />
  33. 33. 6. Proton & electron # = in balanced elements<br /> 7. Neutron # = mass number – atomic number<br /> 8. Mass # = proton # + neutron #<br /> 9. Atomic # = proton #<br />
  34. 34. 10. Ion<br />Definition: Element that has lost or gained e- and therefore received a charge.<br />a. Importantto body<br />Example:Ca+ = bones, teeth, blood<br /> clotting.<br />Fe+: Red blood cell <br /> function/formation<br />
  35. 35. B. Chemical Bonding<br /> 1. Ionic Binding<br />Definition: Occurs when atoms gain or lose e- becoming opposite charged and attract<br />Example: NaCl<br /> 2. Covalent Bonding<br />Definition: Occurs when two or more atoms share electrons<br />Example: H2O<br />
  36. 36. C. Chemical Reactions<br /> 1. Synthesis – “build up”<br /> --combining atoms – growth, repair<br /> A + B – AB<br /> 2. Decomposition – “break down”<br /> --molecules break apart – food<br /> digestion<br /> AB – A + B<br />
  37. 37. 3. Exchange<br /> --Decomposition + Synthesis<br /> AB + CD -– AC + BD<br /> 4. Reversible<br /> --End product may return to reactants<br /> A + B AB<br />
  38. 38. D. Acid & Bases<br /> 1. Electrolytes<br />Definition: Substances that release ions in water and therefore conduct electricity.<br /> 2. Acids<br /> --Electrolytes that release H+ into water<br /> --pH: 0-6.9<br /> -- red on litmus<br />
  39. 39. 3. Bases<br /> --Electrolytes that release OH- into water<br /> --pH: 7.1-14<br /> --Blue on litmus<br />
  40. 40. E. Major Body Organic Substances<br /> 1. Carbohydrates<br />Structure: Small to large molecules of C, H + O (in ratio, Ch2O)<br />Function: Provide energy for body<br /> a. Monosaccharides – simple sugar (glucose, fructose, galactose)<br /> b. Disaccharides – two simple sugars (sucrose, lactose)<br /> c. Polysaccharides – complex sugars (glycogen)<br />
  41. 41. 2. Lipids<br />Structure: Substances that do not dissolve in H2O, mainly C, H, O (includes fats, phospholipids, steroids)<br />Function:<br /> Fats: Break down for energy <br />phosopholipids: make cell membranes <br />steroids: regulate body process example: male/female<br />
  42. 42. a. Glycerols + fatty acid = FAT<br />example: triglycerols= 3 glycerols + a fatty acid<br /> 3. Proteins<br />Structure: Molecules of C, H, O, N<br /> -- Amino Acids: Building block of protein<br />Function: regulate chemical reactions<br /> --energy sources<br /> --cell synthesis/make up cytoplasm<br /> --protect from disease (antibodies)<br /> --serve as enzymes<br /> ** Watch Lamina video<br />
  43. 43. a. Hydrogen bonds<br /> -- hold coil together<br /> -- bonds may break by exposure to access:<br /> *heat<br /> *radiation<br /> *chemicals<br />
  44. 44. Denatured Protein: protein with hydrogen bonds broken or uncoiled due to environmental factors. (example: heat)<br />*** EGG EXAMPLE<br /> 4. Nucleic Acids<br />Structure: Large complex molecules of C, H, O, N, P<br /> --RNA, DNA<br /> --Nucleotide: building block of nucleic acid<br />
  45. 45. Function: --control cellular activities<br /> --synthesize proteins (RNA)<br /> --pass on genetic information<br />
  46. 46. Cellular Transport<br /> *In order for the body to maintain homeostasis, chemicals/substances/ions constantly pass through cell membranes.<br /> A. Passive Transport<br /> 1. Defintion: Movement of substances across cell membrane from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration requiring no energy<br />
  47. 47. 2. Types<br /> a. Diffusion: movement of substances from high to low concentration<br />example: O2 from air diffuse into blood and CO2 to air<br /> b. Facilitated Diffusion: diffusion with aid of a carrier molecule in cell membrane “bussers”<br />example: glucose into cells<br />
  48. 48. C. Osmosis: movement of WATER <br />across membrane from high to low concentration<br /> 1. cells need EXACTLY right amount of watery environment or they will shrink/swell<br />
  49. 49. Types of Osmosis<br />1. Hypertonic – Hyper=more<br /> a. More water than needed in the cell, so net water LEAVES cell to reach homeostasis<br /> b. cell then SHRINKS<br />2. Hypotonic – Hypo=less<br /> a. Less water than needed in the cell, so water ENTERS cell to reach homeostasis<br /> b. cell then SWELLS<br />3. Isotonic<br /> a. Homeostasis is reached<br />
  50. 50. d. Filtration<br /> 1. movement of substances across cell membrane due to pressure<br /> 2. ex: blood pressure forces water out of capillaries but proteins are left in.<br />
  51. 51. B. Active transport<br /> 1. Movement of substances across membrane from LOW to HIGH REQUIRING ENERGY!!<br /> 2. Types:<br /> a. Pumps – carrier molecules push ions low to high<br /> 1. Na/K pumps in cells<br /> b. Endocytosis – engulfing of particles by cells<br /> 1. pinocytosis – takes in liquids<br /> 2. phagocytosis – take in solids<br /> a. ex:Phagocytes:engulf bacteria<br />

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