P&A - Units 1 & 2

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P&A - Units 1 & 2

  1. 1. Unit 1: Introduction to P&A I. Anatomy & Physiology A. Anatomy - “structure” (morphology) 1.Definition: branch of science that deals with the structure of body parts. B. Physiology – “function” 1.Definition: branch of science that deals with the function of body parts.
  2. 2. C. Structure & function always relate 1.Example: Arteries have very muscular walls to adequately pump blood to all parts of body.
  3. 3. II.Homeostasis A. Defintion: The tendency of the body to maintain a constant internal environment. B. In order to survive, the body needs to remain at homeostasis. C. Homeostasis is regulated by body systems.
  4. 4. 1. Negative Feedback a.Definition: A system which maintains deviations in a normal range. a.Example: Blood pressure- If blood pressure goes up, negative feedback slows heart to return it to normal.
  5. 5. 2. Positive Feedback a.Definition: A system which encourages deviations from normal ranges (homeostasis) a.Example: Labor during pregnancy. The woman’s body is taken farther from normal (homeostasis) to achieve a goal.
  6. 6. III.Body Organization (Humans are organized in levels) A. Cell Defintion: basic structural and functional unit of life. Example: Skin cell B. Tissue Definition: a group of cells working together to perform a function. Example: Epithelial tissue
  7. 7. C. Organ Definition: A group of tissues working together to perform a special function. Example: Skin D. Organ System Definition: A group of organs working together to perform a special function Example: Integumentary
  8. 8. E. Organism Definition: A group of organ systems working together to perform a function. Example: Human body
  9. 9. IV.Human Organ Systems A. Skeletal System 1. Structure: bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, joints 2. Function: Support and movement B. Muscular System 1. Structure: Muscles 2. Function: Movement, posture, heat production
  10. 10. CC. Integumentary System 1. Structure: Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, oil glands. 2. Function: Protection, temperature regulation, synthesize (make) certain body products (Vitamin D)
  11. 11. D. Digestive System 1. Structure: Digestive tract: mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines Accessory organs: tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver 2. Function: mechanical and chemical digestion, absorb nutrients, eliminate wastes
  12. 12. E. Respiratory System 1. Structure: Lungs, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi 2. Function: Exchange of gasses (CO2 & O2 between blood and air. F. Cardiovascular System/Circulatory 1. Structure: Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood 2. Function: Transport nutrients, waste, gasses, hormones
  13. 13. G. Nervous System 1. Structure: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors 2. Function: Regulate all body functions, detect sensation, control movement
  14. 14. H. Endocrine System 1. Structure: Endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc.; hormones 2. Function: Regulates metabolism, reproduction and other body functions.
  15. 15. I. Urinary System 1. Structure: Kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra 2. Function: Removal of waste from circulatory system; regulate blood pH, ion content, water content
  16. 16. J. Lymphatic System 1. Structure: Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymph, spleen, thymus gland 2. Function: Removal of foreign substances in blood, combat disease, fat absorption K. Reproductive System 1. Structure: Gonads, accessory structures, and genitals 2. Function: Process of reproduction of life.
  17. 17. V. Anatomical Terminology A. Position Terms 1. Superior – “above” -- Head superior to neck 2. Inferior – “below” -- Tibia inferior to femur 3. Anterior/Ventral – “front/belly- side” 4. Posterior/Dorsal – “back”
  18. 18. 5. Medial – “toward midline” -- shoulder medial to elbow 6. Lateral – “away from midline” 7. Proximal – “closer to point of attachment” -- elbow proximal to wrist 8. Distal – “further from point of attachment” 9. Superficial – “near surface”
  19. 19. 10. Deep – “more internal” 11. Articulate – “to meet” -- The femur articulates with the fibia
  20. 20. B. Body Sections/Cuts/Planes 1. Sagittal --lengthwise cut at midline 2. Transverse --divides body in superior and inferior portions 3. Frontal/Coronal --Divides body in anterior and posterior portions
  21. 21. C. Body Regions of the Abdomen 1. Epigastric (Middle Upper) 2. L/R Hypochondriac (Upper L/R) 3. Umbilical (Middle)
  22. 22. 4. L/R Lumbar (Middle L/R) 5. Hypogastric (Low middle) 6. L/R Iliac (L/R low)
  23. 23. D. Body (Major) Cavities 1. Cranial Cavity -- nasal cavity -- oral cavity -- cranial cavity 2. Vertebral Cavity -- spinal cavity 2. Thoracic Cavity -- rib cage
  24. 24. 3. Abdominopelvic Cavity -- stomach -- pelvis -- bladder -- Split into abdominal and pelvic cavities
  25. 25. E. Body Membranes 1. Pleural Membranes (lungs) a. Visceral pleural (organ) --membrane portion covering organ c. Pleural cavity – area surrounding organ - filled with fluid b. Parietal pleural --membrane portion attached
  26. 26. 2. Pericardial Membranes (heart) a. Visceral pericardium --membrane covering heart itself b. Parietal percardium --membrane outside visceral pericardium
  27. 27. 3. Peritoneal Membranes - abdomen a. Visceral peritoneum --membrane surrounding organs b. Parietal peritoneum --membrane attachment to cavity wall
  28. 28. VI.Chemistry of Life A. Atomic Structure 1. Nucleus --most massive --houses proton and neutron 2. Proton -- (+) Positive charged 3. Neutrons --Neutral
  29. 29. 4. Electrons --(-) charged --located in energy level shells/ clouds around nucleus 5. Energy levels --levels/orbits around nucleus that hold e- of certain energy --each level holds specific number of e- (1:2, 2:8, 3:18)
  30. 30. 6. Proton & electron # = in balanced elements 7. Neutron # = mass number – atomic number 8. Mass # = proton # + neutron # 9. Atomic # = proton #
  31. 31. 10. Ion Definition: Element that has lost or gained e- and therefore received a charge. a. Important to body Example: Ca+ = bones, teeth, blood clotting. Fe+: Red blood cell function/formation
  32. 32. B. Chemical Bonding 1. Ionic Binding Definition: Occurs when atoms gain or lose e- becoming opposite charged and attract Example: NaCl 2. Covalent Bonding Definition: Occurs when two or more atoms share electrons Example: H2O
  33. 33. C. Chemical Reactions 1. Synthesis – “build up” --combining atoms – growth, repair A + B – AB 2. Decomposition – “break down” --molecules break apart – food digestion AB – A + B
  34. 34. 3. Exchange --Decomposition + Synthesis AB + CD -– AC + BD 4. Reversible --End product may return to reactants A + B AB
  35. 35. D. Acid & Bases 1. Electrolytes Definition: Substances that release ions in water and therefore conduct electricity. 2. Acids --Electrolytes that release H+ into water --pH: 0-6.9 -- red on litmus
  36. 36. 3. Bases --Electrolytes that release OH- into water --pH: 7.1-14 --Blue on litmus
  37. 37. E. Major Body Organic Substances 1. Carbohydrates Structure: Small to large molecules of C, H + O (in ratio, Ch2O) Function: Provide energy for body a. Monosaccharides – simple sugar (glucose, fructose, galactose) b. Disaccharides – two simple sugars (sucrose, lactose) c. Polysaccharides – complex sugars (glycogen)
  38. 38. 2. Lipids Structure: Substances that do not dissolve in H2O, mainly C, H, O (includes fats, phospholipids, steroids) Function: Fats: Break down for energy phosopholipids: make cell membranes steroids: regulate body process example: male/female
  39. 39. a. Glycerols + fatty acid = FAT example: triglycerols = 3 glycerols + a fatty acid 3. Proteins Structure: Molecules of C, H, O, N -- Amino Acids: Building block of protein Function: regulate chemical reactions --energy sources --cell synthesis/make up cytoplasm --protect from disease (antibodies) --serve as enzymes
  40. 40. a. Hydrogen bonds -- hold coil together -- bonds may break by exposure to access: *heat *radiation *chemicals
  41. 41. Denatured Protein: protein with hydrogen bonds broken or uncoiled due to environmental factors. (example: heat) *** EGG EXAMPLE 4. Nucleic Acids Structure: Large complex molecules of C, H, O, N, P --RNA, DNA --Nucleotide: building block of
  42. 42. Function: --control cellular activities --synthesize proteins (RNA) --pass on genetic information
  43. 43. VII.Cellular Transport *In order for the body to maintain homeostasis, chemicals/substances/ions constantly pass through cell membranes. A. Passive Transport 1. Defintion: Movement of substances across cell membrane from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration requiring no energy
  44. 44. 2. Types a. Diffusion: movement of substances from high to low concentration example: O2 from air diffuse into blood and CO2 to air b. Facilitated Diffusion: diffusion with aid of a carrier molecule in cell membrane “bussers” example: glucose into cells
  45. 45. C. Osmosis: movement of WATER across membrane from high to low concentration 1. cells need EXACTLY right amount of watery environment or they will shrink/swell
  46. 46. Types of Osmosis 1. Hypertonic – Hyper=more a. More water than needed in the cell, so net water LEAVES cell to reach homeostasis b. cell then SHRINKS 2. Hypotonic – Hypo=less a. Less water than needed in the cell, so water ENTERS cell to reach homeostasis b. cell then SWELLS 3. Isotonic a. Homeostasis is reached
  47. 47. d. Filtration 1. movement of substances across cell membrane due to pressure 2. ex: blood pressure forces water out of capillaries but proteins are left in.
  48. 48. B. Active transport 1. Movement of substances across membrane from LOW to HIGH REQUIRING ENERGY!! 2. Types: a. Pumps – carrier molecules push ions low to high 1. Na/K pumps in cells b. Endocytosis – engulfing of particles by cells 1. pinocytosis – takes in liquids 2. phagocytosis – take in solids a. ex:Phagocytes:engulf bacteria

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