P&A - Skeletal System

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P&A - Skeletal System

  1. 1. Skeletal System
  2. 2. Please bring a chicken/pork bone to class Please bring a liquid of your choice • Can be pop, milk, juice, powerade, acid, bleach, any liquid that is allowed in school
  3. 3.  DRAW AS WE GO!!  A. Bone Structure – long bone – pg. 132 • 1. Epiphysis  A. expanded portions on end of bones which articulate with another bone • 2. Articular Cartilage  A. layer of HYALINE CARTILAGE which covers articulating portions of epiphysis • 3. Diaphysis  A. shaft/long portion of bone • 4. Periosteum  A. tough, tissue covering of bone  B. attaches to tendons and ligaments  C. Forms and repairs bone tissue
  4. 4. • 5. Bony Process  A. a bony projection/lump on a bone • 6. Compact bone  A. Solid, strong bone  B. located in diaphysis • 7. Spongy bone  A. branching bony plates with much space  B. webbed  C. “light” bone – or else our bones would be too heavy to move around  D. located in epiphysis, small amount in diaphysis
  5. 5. • 8. Medullary cavity  A. hollow chamber in compact bone diaphysis and spaces of spongy bone  B. houses marrow • 9. Marrow  A. soft connective tissue located in medullary cavity  B. red marrow: produces RBCs  C. yellow marrow: stores fat
  6. 6. Process
  7. 7.  B. Microscopic bone structure – pg. 125 • 1. Haversian System  A. compact bone is organized by haversian system units connected to each other around medullary cavity  B. Lamellae  1. circular patterns of matrix surrounding haversian canal  C. haversian canal  1. hollow, vertical space with in haversian system which houses 2 blood vessels and a nerve  2. blood vessels provide nourishment for the bone  D. osteocyte  1. bone cells  2. receive nutrients and eliminate wastes through canaliculi  E. canaliculi  1. passageways for nutrients form blood vessels to osteocytes  F. Volkmann’s Canal  1. parallel, horizontal canals between blood vessels in haversian canals  2. connect canals/systems
  8. 8. • 1. Intramembranous bones  A. def: bones which begin as sheetlike masses of connective tissue and form broad flat bones  1. ex: skull bones • 2. Endochondral bones  A. def: bones which begin as masses of hyaline cartilage and develop into “long bones”  1. ex:femur  B. ossification: formation of bone
  9. 9.  C. Growth & Development Process (lengthwise)  1. Cartilagenous bone develops a Primary Ossification Center in diaphysis where compact bone develops towards outside  A. middle becomes  2.Secondary Ossification Center form in epiphysis of bone  B. Spongy bone develops outward toward end from epiphysis  3. Epiphyseal Disks form  A. bands of cartilage b/t ossification centers which constantly grow new cells  4. Epiphyseal disks remain active until ossification centers meet  A. disks become ossified = growth stops  B. Drs can check your growth plates (epiphyseal disks) to see if there is room to grow, or if they have met and ossified  D. Growth in thickness  1. compact bone tissue is constantly deposited beneath periosteum
  10. 10. • 3. Osteoblasts & osteoclasts  A. osteoblasts  1. def: bone cells which build up bone  2. activated when bone tissue is deposited  3. work in forming bone from cartilage in ossification centers  B. osteoclasts  1. def: bone cells which absorb bone tissue  2. work to destroy old cartilage before osteoblasts build up bone  3. aid in bone fracture repair – eat up all the fragments  Read pg. 136-137 • List the process of repairing a fracture • Bring to class tomorrow
  11. 11. 1. support and protection • A. bones of feet, legs, pelvis support body • B. ribs protect and lungs • C. helps body stand up straight 2. Body movement/muscle attachment • A. bones provide are for muscles/tendons/ligaments to attach to • B. bones pull muscles so body can move • C. tendons = connect bone to muscle • D. ligaments = connect bone to bone
  12. 12. 3. blood cell formation • A. marrow forms RBCs – red marrow  1. red marrow found in most bones of infant  2. as age = yellow marrow (fat storage) replaces red  3. adults = red marrow in spongy bone of ribs, sternum, vertebrae, pelvis 4. Mineral storage • A. Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Carbonate all found in bone tissue • B. bones release Ca into blood when stimulated to
  13. 13.  A. Condyle • 1. rounded process on a bone  Ex: posterior distal femur  B. crest • 1. a narrow ridge  Ex: top of pelvic bone  C. Epicondyle • 1. process above condyle  Ex: medial distal portion of humerus  D. Facet • 1. small, flat surface  Ex: on vertebrae where ribs attach
  14. 14.  E. Fontanel • 1. soft spots where membrane covers space b/n bones  When do we have these??  F. Foramen • 1. opening in a bone  Ex: in bone at base of skull  G. Fossa • 1. deep pit or depression  Ex: in humerus so ulna can go up and down  H. Head • 1. enlargement at end of bone  Ex: head of humerus fits into shoulder – ball and socket
  15. 15.  I. Process • 1. projection on a bone  Ex: process on zygomatic bone  J. Sinus • 1. cavity in bone  Ex: nasal sinuses  K. Spine • 1. thornlike projection  Ex: scapular spine  L. Suture • 1. union line b/n bone  Ex: sutures b/n skull bones  M. Trochantar • 1. LARGE process  Ex: greater trochantar on femur bone
  16. 16.  A. Skull – pg. 143 • 1. Parietal – 2 • 2. frontal • 3. occipital • 4. temporal - 2 • 5. sphenoid • 6. Ethmoid • 7. Vomer • 8. Lacrimal • 8. Mandible • 9. Maxilla  A. palantine process – on roof of mouth • 10. Hyoid bone – suspended, does not attach to another bone • 11. nasal bone
  17. 17. • 12. zygomatic  Zygomatic process – point on zygomatic • 13. foramen magnum • 14. coronal suture – b/n frontal & parietal • 15. Squamosal suture – b/n temporal & parietal • 16. Lambdoidal suture – b/n occipital, temporal & parietal • 17. Sagittal suture – b/n parietals • 18. Styloid process • 19. Mastoid process
  18. 18. B. Vertebral column – pg 139 • 33 vertebrae total • 24 separate  1. 7 cervical  2. 12 thoracic  3. 5 lumbar  4. sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae  5. coccyx = “tailbone” – 4 fused vertebrae
  19. 19.  6. Cervical Vertebrae • A. 7 vertebrae • B. atlas & axis – top 2 vertebrae on which the head rotates • C. odontoid process  1. on axis vertebrae  2. rounded process which the atlas pivots around  3. lies in the ring of the atlas • D. vertebral foramen  1. hole for spinal cord • E. body – weight bearing • F. Lamina – b/n spinous and transverse process
  20. 20. 7. Thoracic Vertebrae • A. 12 • B. lamina • C. pedicle – b/n body and transverse process • D. body • E. spinous process – pointy spine that you feel on your back
  21. 21. 8. Lumbar Vertebrae • A. 5 • B. very thick because support most of the body weight • C. lamina • D. pedicle • E. body – thicker than normal to support • F. tranverse process – side spines • G. spinous process
  22. 22. 9. intervertebral disks • A. cartilage between vertebrae for protection and shock absorption
  23. 23. 1. rib cage – inverted cone shape • A. 7 true ribs – connect to sternum • B. 3 false ribs – don’t directly connect to sternum, but connect to a rib/cartilage that connects to the sternum • C. 2 floating ribs – don’t connect to sternum • D. Costal cartilage – cartilage which connects ribs to sternum
  24. 24. 2. Sternum • A. manubrium – top • B. body – long, middle portion • C. xyphoid process – bottom point
  25. 25. 1. Clavicles • A. Collar bone 2. Scapula • A. Shoulder blades • B.Does not attach to skeleton directly • C. Scapular spine • D. acromion process • E. coracoid process • F. glenoid cavity  Socket for head of humerus to fit into
  26. 26.  1. humerus • A. proximal arm bone • B. head • C. neck • D. medial/lateral epicondyle • E. olecranon fossa olecranon process fits into • F. Coronoid fossa  Coronoid process fits into • G Capitulum  2. radius • A. thumb side • B. radial tuberosity  3. Ulna • A. thinner than radius b. Pinky side c. Trochlear notch d. Olecranon process e. Coronoid process
  27. 27. 1. carpals 2. metacarpals – 5 3. phalanges • 14 total – 3 in each finger, 2 in thumb • Proximal, middle, distal
  28. 28. 8 bones Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Triquetrum Pisiform Lunate Scaphoid
  29. 29. 1. Ilium • A. iliac crest 2. ischium 3. pubis • Pubic arch • Pubic symphysis 4. obturator foramen 5. acetabulum • Fossa or cavity for head of femur
  30. 30. 1. femur • A. proximal leg bone • b. longest bone in the body • C. head • D. Greater trochantar • E. Medial & lateral condyles 2. patella • A. knee cap • Rounded bone located in tendon which connects femur to tibia
  31. 31. 3. tibia • A. shin bone • B. tibial tuberosity  1. attachment for ligament 4. fibula • A. slender leg bone on lateral side of leg • B. Lateral Malleolus
  32. 32.  1. tarsals • A. 7 • B. calcaneus – heel bone • C. talus – connects foot to tibia and fibula • D. navicular • E. cuboid • F. lateral cuneiform • G. intermediate cuneiform • H. medial cuneiform  2. metatarsals • A. 5  3. Phalanges • 14 bones/foot
  33. 33. Functional junctions between bones A. immovable joints • 1. no active movement occurs • 2. suture lines in skull B. moveable • 1. junctions between bones which freely move • 2. components  A. joint capsule  1. tubelike capsule of tissue surrounding joing  A. outer layer - ligaments
  34. 34.  B. synovial membrane  1. inner lining of joint capsule which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate joints  C. bursae  1. in some joints, not all  2. shock absorbing pads of cartilage between skin and joint bones, filled with synovial fluid  D. menisci  1. in some joints  2. shock absorbing pads between articulating surfaces
  35. 35.  3. Types of moveable joints • A. ball & socket  1. ball shaped head of bone articulates with cup shaped socket of other bone  2. ex – hip, shoulder  3. head of femur into acetabulum  Head of humerus into glenoid cavity  4. allows for wide range of motion • B. Condyloid joint  1. oval shaped condyle fits into oval shaped cavity of other bone  2. ex – metacarpals into phanlanges  3. good movement, no rotation
  36. 36. • C. gliding  1. joints with flat or slightly curved articulating surface  2. ex – wrist bones  3. gliding or twisting movement • D. hinge  1. joint where convex surface articulates with concave surface – fit like a puzzle piece  2. ex – elbow, knee  3. movement in only one direction  4. like a hinge on a door
  37. 37. • E. pivot  1. circular surface rotates around a ring  2. ex – head of radius around ulna  3. only movement is rotation around axis • F. Saddle  1. ex – thumb  2. variety of movement
  38. 38. C. Types of joint movement • 1. flexion  A. bending a joint so that the angle between its parts is decreased  B. flexing your bicep – bringing lower arm toward upper arm • 2. extension  A. straightening a joint so the angle between its parts increases  B. bringing lower arm back down, straighten the arm
  39. 39. • 3. dorsiflexion  A. flexing foot upward at ankle  B. pointing toes up • 4. plantar flexion  A. flexing foot downward  B. pointing toes down • 5. hyperextension  A. bending a joint beyond extension of joint parts  B. hyperextend knee or elbow • 6. abduction  A. moving a part away from midline  B. lifting arms or legs away from body
  40. 40. • 7. adduction  A. moving parts toward midline  B. bring arms or legs back to the body • 8. rotation  A. moving a part around axis  B. twisting head side to side, twisting lower arm – radius around ulna • 9. circumduction  A. moving a part so its end follows a circular path  B. moving finger in a circular path without moving the hand
  41. 41. • 10. pronation  A. turning hand palm down • 11. supination  A. turning hand palm up – holding a bowl of “soup” • 12. eversion  A. bringing foot sole out • 13. inversion  A. bring foot sole in • 14. protraction  A. moving a part directly forward  B. sticking chin out from neck • Retraction  A. moving a part directly backward
  42. 42. • 15. elevation  A. raising a part toward body’s superior  B. shrug shoulders • 16. Depresssion  B. Bringing a part towards body’s inferior

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