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P&A - Skeletal System



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  • 1. Unit 2
    Skeletal System
  • 2. Please bring a chicken/pork bone to class
    Please bring a liquid of your choice
    Can be pop, milk, juice, powerade, acid, bleach, any liquid that is allowed in school
  • 3. I. Bones: Structure and Function
    A. Bone Structure – long bone – pg. 132
    1. Epiphysis
    A. expanded portions on end of bones which articulate with another bone
    2. Articular Cartilage
    A. layer of HYALINE CARTILAGE which covers articulating portions of epiphysis
    3. Diaphysis
    A. shaft/long portion of bone
    4. Periosteum
    A. tough, tissue covering of bone
    B. attaches to tendons and ligaments
    C. Forms and repairs bone tissue
  • 4. 5. Bony Process
    A. a bony projection/lump on a bone
    6. Compact bone
    A. Solid, strong bone
    B. located in diaphysis
    7. Spongy bone
    A. branching bony plates with much space
    B. webbed
    C. “light” bone – or else our bones would be too heavy to move around
    D. located in epiphysis, small amount in diaphysis
  • 5. 8. Medullary cavity
    A. hollow chamber in compact bone diaphysis and spaces of spongy bone
    B. houses marrow
    9. Marrow
    A. soft connective tissue located in medullary cavity
    B. red marrow: produces RBCs
    C. yellow marrow: stores fat
  • 6. Process
  • 7. B. Microscopic bone structure – pg. 125
    1. Haversian System
    A. compact bone is organized by haversian system units connected to each other around medullary cavity
    B. Lamellae
    1. circular patterns of matrix surrounding haversian canal
    C. haversian canal
    1. hollow, vertical space with in haversian system which houses 2 blood vessels and a nerve
    2. blood vessels provide nourishment for the bone
    D. osteocyte
    1. bone cells
    2. receive nutrients and eliminate wastes through canaliculi
    E. canaliculi
    1. passageways for nutrients form blood vessels to osteocytes
    F. Volkmann’s Canal
    1. parallel, horizontal canals between blood vessels in haversian canals
    2. connect canals/systems
  • 8. Drawing of Haversian System
  • 9. C. Bone Growth & Development
    1. Intramembranous bones
    A. def: bones which begin as sheetlike masses of connective tissue and form broad flat bones
    1. ex: skull bones
    2. Endochondral bones
    A. def: bones which begin as masses of hyaline cartilage and develop into “long bones”
    1. ex:femur
    B. ossification: formation of bone
  • 10. C. Growth & Development Process (lengthwise)
    1. Cartilagenous bone develops a Primary Ossification Center in diaphysis where compact bone develops towards outside
    A. middle becomes
    2.Secondary Ossification Center form in epiphysis of bone
    B. Spongy bone develops outward toward end from epiphysis
    3. Epiphyseal Disks form
    A. bands of cartilage b/t ossification centers which constantly grow new cells
    4. Epiphyseal disks remain active until ossification centers meet
    A. disks become ossified = growth stops
    B. Drs can check your growth plates (epiphyseal disks) to see if there is room to grow, or if they have met and ossified
    D. Growth in thickness
    1. compact bone tissue is constantly deposited beneath periosteum
  • 11. 3. Osteoblasts & osteoclasts
    A. osteoblasts
    1. def: bone cells which build up bone
    2. activated when bone tissue is deposited
    3. work in forming bone from cartilage in ossification centers
    B. osteoclasts
    1. def: bone cells which absorb bone tissue
    2. work to destroy old cartilage before osteoblasts build up bone
    3. aid in bone fracture repair – eat up all the fragments
    Read pg. 136-137
    List the process of repairing a fracture
    Bring to class tomorrow
  • 12. D. Bone Function
    1. support and protection
    A. bones of feet, legs, pelvis support body
    B. ribs protect and lungs
    C. helps body stand up straight
    2. Body movement/muscle attachment
    A. bones provide are for muscles/tendons/ligaments to attach to
    B. bones pull muscles so body can move
    C. tendons = connect bone to muscle
    D. ligaments = connect bone to bone
  • 13. 3. blood cell formation
    A. marrow forms RBCs – red marrow
    1. red marrow found in most bones of infant
    2. as age = yellow marrow (fat storage) replaces red
    3. adults = red marrow in spongy bone of ribs, sternum, vertebrae, pelvis
    4. Mineral storage
    A. Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Carbonate all found in bone tissue
    B. bones release Ca into blood when stimulated to
  • 14. II. Skeletal Structure Terms – pg. 142
    A. Condyle
    1. rounded process on a bone
    Ex: posterior distal femur
    B. crest
    1. a narrow ridge
    Ex: top of pelvic bone
    C. Epicondyle
    1. process above condyle
    Ex: medial distal portion of humerus
    D. Facet
    1. small, flat surface
    Ex: on vertebrae where ribs attach
  • 15. E. Fontanel
    1. soft spots where membrane covers space b/n bones
    When do we have these??
    F. Foramen
    1. opening in a bone
    Ex: in bone at base of skull
    G. Fossa
    1. deep pit or depression
    Ex: in humerus so ulna can go up and down
    H. Head
    1. enlargement at end of bone
    Ex: head of humerus fits into shoulder – ball and socket
  • 16. I. Process
    1. projection on a bone
    Ex: process on zygomatic bone
    J. Sinus
    1. cavity in bone
    Ex: nasal sinuses
    K. Spine
    1. thornlike projection
    Ex: scapular spine
    L. Suture
    1. union line b/n bone
    Ex: sutures b/n skull bones
    M. Trochantar
    1. LARGE process
    Ex: greater trochantar on femur bone
  • 17. III. Bones of the Skeleton
    A. Skull – pg. 143
    1. Parietal – 2
    2. frontal
    3. occipital
    4. temporal - 2
    5. sphenoid
    6. Ethmoid
    7. Vomer
    8. Lacrimal
    8. Mandible
    9. Maxilla
    A. palantine process – on roof of mouth
    10. Hyoid bone – suspended, does not attach to another bone
    11. nasal bone
  • 18. 12. zygomatic
    Zygomatic process – point on zygomatic
    13. foramen magnum
    14. coronal suture – b/n frontal & parietal
    15. Squamosal suture – b/n temporal & parietal
    16. Lambdoidal suture – b/n occipital, temporal & parietal
    17. Sagittal suture – b/n parietals
    18. Styloid process
    19. Mastoid process
  • 19. B. Vertebral column – pg 139
    33 vertebrae total
    24 separate
    1. 7 cervical
    2. 12 thoracic
    3. 5 lumbar
    4. sacrum – 5 fused vertebrae
    5. coccyx = “tailbone” – 4 fused vertebrae
  • 20. 6. Cervical Vertebrae
    A. 7 vertebrae
    B. atlas & axis – top 2 vertebrae on which the head rotates
    C. odontoid process
    1. on axis vertebrae
    2. rounded process which the atlas pivots around
    3. lies in the ring of the atlas
    D. vertebral foramen
    1. hole for spinal cord
    E. body – weight bearing
    F. Lamina – b/n spinous and transverse process
  • 21. 7. Thoracic Vertebrae
    A. 12
    B. lamina
    C. pedicle – b/n body and transverse process
    D. body
    E. spinous process – pointy spine that you feel on your back
  • 22. 8. Lumbar Vertebrae
    A. 5
    B. very thick because support most of the body weight
    C. lamina
    D. pedicle
    E. body – thicker than normal to support
    F. tranverse process – side spines
    G. spinous process
  • 23. 9. intervertebral disks
    A. cartilage between vertebrae for protection and shock absorption
  • 24. C. Ribs & Sternum
    1. rib cage – inverted cone shape
    A. 7 true ribs – connect to sternum
    B. 3 false ribs – don’t directly connect to sternum, but connect to a rib/cartilage that connects to the sternum
    C. 2 floating ribs – don’t connect to sternum
    D. Costal cartilage – cartilage which connects ribs to sternum
  • 25. 2. Sternum
    A. manubrium – top
    B. body – long, middle portion
    C. xyphoid process – bottom point
  • 26. E. Pectoral Girdle
    1. Clavicles
    A. Collar bone
    2. Scapula
    A. Shoulder blades
    B.Does not attach to skeleton directly
    C. Scapular spine
    D. acromion process
    E. coracoid process
    F. glenoid cavity
    Socket for head of humerus to fit into
  • 27. F. Arm
    1. humerus
    A. proximal arm bone
    B. head
    C. neck
    D. medial/lateral epicondyle
    E. olecranonfossa
    olecranon process fits into
    F. Coronoidfossa
    Coronoid process fits into
    G Capitulum
    2. radius
    A. thumb side
    B. radial tuberosity
    3. Ulna
    A. thinner than radius
    b. Pinky side
    c. Trochlear notch
    d. Olecranon process
    e. Coronoid process
  • 28. G. Hand
    1. carpals
    2. metacarpals – 5
    3. phalanges
    14 total – 3 in each finger, 2 in thumb
    Proximal, middle, distal
  • 29. H. Bones of the Wrist (carpals)
    8 bones
  • 30. I. Pelvic Girdle
    1. Ilium
    A. iliac crest
    2. ischium
    3. pubis
    Pubic arch
    Pubic symphysis
    4. obturator foramen
    5. acetabulum
    Fossa or cavity for head of femur
  • 31. H. Leg
    1. femur
    A. proximal leg bone
    b. longest bone in the body
    C. head
    D. Greater trochantar
    E. Medial & lateral condyles
    2. patella
    A. knee cap
    Rounded bone located in tendon which connects femur to tibia
  • 32. 3. tibia
    A. shin bone
    B. tibialtuberosity
    1. attachment for ligament
    4. fibula
    A. slender leg bone on lateral side of leg
    B. Lateral Malleolus
  • 33. J. Foot
    1. tarsals
    A. 7
    B. calcaneus – heel bone
    C. talus – connects foot to tibia and fibula
    D. navicular
    E. cuboid
    F. lateral cuneiform
    G. intermediate cuneiform
    H. medial cuneiform
    2. metatarsals
    A. 5
    3. Phalanges
    14 bones/foot
  • 34. IV. Joints
    Functional junctions between bones
    A. immovable joints
    1. no active movement occurs
    2. suture lines in skull
    B. moveable
    1. junctions between bones which freely move
    2. components
    A. joint capsule
    1. tubelike capsule of tissue surrounding joing
    A. outer layer - ligaments
  • 35. B. synovial membrane
    1. inner lining of joint capsule which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate joints
    C. bursae
    1. in some joints, not all
    2. shock absorbing pads of cartilage between skin and joint bones, filled with synovial fluid
    D. menisci
    1. in some joints
    2. shock absorbing pads between articulating surfaces
  • 36. 3. Types of moveable joints
    A. ball & socket
    1. ball shaped head of bone articulates with cup shaped socket of other bone
    2. ex – hip, shoulder
    3. head of femur into acetabulum
    Head of humerus into glenoid cavity
    4. allows for wide range of motion
    B. Condyloid joint
    1. oval shaped condyle fits into oval shaped cavity of other bone
    2. ex – metacarpals into phanlanges
    3. good movement, no rotation
  • 37. C. gliding
    1. joints with flat or slightly curved articulating surface
    2. ex – wrist bones
    3. gliding or twisting movement
    D. hinge
    1. joint where convex surface articulates with concave surface – fit like a puzzle piece
    2. ex – elbow, knee
    3. movement in only one direction
    4. like a hinge on a door
  • 38. E. pivot
    1. circular surface rotates around a ring
    2. ex – head of radius around ulna
    3. only movement is rotation around axis
    F. Saddle
    1. ex – thumb
    2. variety of movement
  • 39. C. Types of joint movement
    1. flexion
    A. bending a joint so that the angle between its parts is decreased
    B. flexing your bicep – bringing lower arm toward upper arm
    2. extension
    A. straightening a joint so the angle between its parts increases
    B. bringing lower arm back down, straighten the arm
  • 40. 3. dorsiflexion
    A. flexing foot upward at ankle
    B. pointing toes up
    4. plantar flexion
    A. flexing foot downward
    B. pointing toes down
    5. hyperextension
    A. bending a joint beyond extension of joint parts
    B. hyperextend knee or elbow
    6. abduction
    A. moving a part away from midline
    B. lifting arms or legs away from body
  • 41. 7. adduction
    A. moving parts toward midline
    B. bring arms or legs back to the body
    8. rotation
    A. moving a part around axis
    B. twisting head side to side, twisting lower arm – radius around ulna
    9. circumduction
    A. moving a part so its end follows a circular path
    B. moving finger in a circular path without moving the hand
  • 42. 10. pronation
    A. turning hand palm down
    11. supination
    A. turning hand palm up – holding a bowl of “soup”
    12. eversion
    A. bringing foot sole out
    13. inversion
    A. bring foot sole in
    14. protraction
    A. moving a part directly forward
    B. sticking chin out from neck
    A. moving a part directly backward
  • 43. 15. elevation
    A. raising a part toward body’s superior
    B. shrug shoulders
    16. Depresssion
    B. Bringing a part towards body’s inferior
  • 44.
  • 45. Compound /Open Fracture