Child Development-Chapter 10


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Child Development-Chapter 10

  1. 1. Intellectual Development In the First Year<br />Child Development Ch 10<br />
  2. 2. I. Understanding Intellectual Dev<br />A. learning abilities during the first year<br />i. from birth – hear, taste, see, smell, feel<br />1. those are the building blocks of learning<br />Ii. Age of 1:<br />1. move to desired location by crawling, walking<br />2. understand and perhaps say some words<br />3. makes wants known by gesturing<br />4. play simple games like peek-a-boo<br />5. handle objects skillfully and manipulate them<br />
  3. 3. B. mind body connection<br />i. information is taken in through senses<br />Ii. Information is transmitted from those senses through the nerves into the Central nervous system<br />1. brain and spinal cord<br />2. info moves through spinal cord to brain<br />Iii. Brain is key to intellectual dev.<br />1. receives and interprets messages from body<br />2. develops ability to send messages to body, telling the body what to do<br />3. newborns are simply reflexes<br />
  4. 4. Iv. Brain structure<br />1. cortex<br />A. outermost layer of brain<br />B. 2nd-3rd month – more clearly developed<br />C. permits more complex learning<br />D. perception also improves<br />i. learning from senses<br />E. rocking<br />i. stimulates cortex of brain<br />Ii. Helps with weight gain, devs sight and hearing, promotes regular sleep<br />
  5. 5. 2. memory also begins to develop<br />A. stop crying when people in the room – know help is here<br />B. also develop association<br />i. people = help<br />3. cause and effect<br />A. one action results in another action or condition<br />B. sucking = milk<br />C. pull string = toy makes noise<br />
  6. 6. 4. attention span<br />A. length of time a person can concentrate on a task without getting bored<br />B. generally bright babies have short attention spans<br />C. they get bored with seeing the same objects over and over<br />D. however, beyond infancy this flip-flops<br />
  7. 7. V. Piaget’s theories<br />1. Swiss psychologist<br />2. intellectual development progresses in accordance to age<br />3. capacity for logical thought is not learned, but are determined by genes<br />4. children cant be forced to develop understanding any faster than their abilities mature<br />
  8. 8. 5. don’t push your kids to learn to do things they aren’t ready for<br />6. give them to opportunity to learn, but don’t force things on them<br />7. learning stages appear in same order<br />8. the ages the stages appear are different for all kids<br />
  9. 9. 9. 4 major periods of dev<br />A. sensorimotor - first stage of learning<br />i. lasting from birth until the age of 2<br />Ii. Babies learn primarily through senses and their own actions<br />Iii. Baby is totally egocentric – thinking only about him/herself<br />Iv. 10 months – object permanence<br />1. understanding of the fact that objects continue to exist even when they are not in sight<br />2. go find certain objects, hide toy and they will go look for it<br />V. has 6 different periods - handout<br />
  10. 10. B. preoperational – 2nd stage of learning<br />i. lasting from age 2 to 7<br />Ii. Children think about everything in terms of their own activities and in terms of what they perceive at the moment<br />Iii. Moon follows them, tall glass of water is more than short, fat glass<br />Iv. Understand abstract terms like love, beauty<br />V. pretend stage<br />Vi. Blame problems on imaginary friend<br />
  11. 11. C. concrete operations – 3rd stage<br />i. lasting from 7 to 11<br />Ii. Children are able to think logically but still learn best from direct experiences<br />Iii. Pouring water from one container to another does not change the amount<br />Iv. Classify animals and foods into groups<br />V. learn adding, subtracting are opposites<br />
  12. 12. D. formal operations – 4th stage<br />i. lasting from 11 to adulthood<br />Ii. Become capable of abstract thinking<br />Iii. Make plans and goals<br />Iv. Learn without direct experience<br />V. subtle messages<br />
  13. 13. 10. applying Piaget’s theories<br />A. you know what a child is capable of at a certain age<br />B. you can better teach them and understand them<br />C. symbolic thinking – use of words and numbers to represent ideas<br />D. not ready for this until older and can understand what numbers mean without seeing the concrete objects<br />
  14. 14. vi. Heredity vs Environment<br />1. continuing disagreement<br />2. determined by both<br />3. most never develop to full potential<br />4. you cant force a child to learn more than capable of<br />5. you can put a learning environment in front of them to enhance and stimulate learning<br />**Assignment - ?s on pg 303 1-7<br />
  15. 15. Chapter 10 Section 2<br />I. Helping babies learn<br />A. parents are the babies first and most important teachers<br />B. babies learn more and learn faster when parents and caregivers comfort them, smile at them, talk to them, and play with them<br />
  16. 16. C. providing care<br />i. babies learn patterns<br />1. discomfort, crying, parent comes, feeding comfort<br />Ii. If patterns aren’t established, baby senses no relation b/n his/her expression and comfort of caregiver<br />Iii. No pattern = nobody responds, set on strict schedule, not the babies own schedule<br />
  17. 17. Iv. Learn behavior has consequences<br />V. they can effect and change environment<br />Vi. This care and learning motivates babies to learn more<br />
  18. 18. D. Encouraging learning<br />i. those caring for children have a huge influence on their intellectual development<br />Ii. Learning doesn’t require money or toys<br />Iii. Requires attention, knowledge, and time<br />
  19. 19. iv. Suggestions for learning<br />1. learn about child development<br />A. helps you provide learning experiences that are age appropriate and meet individual needs<br />2. give your time and attention<br />A. you can help them thrive by talking to and playing with them<br />B. doesn’t have to be every waking moment<br />
  20. 20. 3. provide positive feedback<br />A. when baby tries new skill or activity, show your pleasure by giving praise<br />B. your reaction will encourage baby to try new things<br />1. use your personal style to show love for baby<br />4. Express love<br />A. use your personal style to show love for baby<br />5. Child proof your home so you can safely let your child navigate and explore and learn about the world around them<br />
  21. 21. e. Toys – the tools of learning<br />i. intellectual and physical development<br />1. learn cause and effect<br />2. strengthen muscle, refine motor skills, learn about the world<br />Ii. Different toys for different ages<br />1. birth- 3 months<br />A. little but look and listen<br />B. bright colors and interesting sounds stimulate child<br />C. crib mobiles – colorful, noisy, can kick to move<br />
  22. 22. 2. 3-6 months<br />A. sense of touch is most important during this period<br />B. need new things to touch, handle, bang, shake, suck, and chew<br />C. choose toys that are small enough to handle but can’t swallow<br />D. teething rings, cups, tattles, plastic toys<br />E. squeaky toys<br />F. simple picture books with colorful pictures of familiar objects<br />
  23. 23. 3. 7-9 months<br />A. noise fascinates at this age<br />B. safe household items just as interesting as toys<br />i. banging pots and pans<br />C. stacking toys, things with lids, and plastic containers are good choices<br />4. 10-12 months<br />A. toys to push or pull if walking<br />B. boxes are fun – like to put things in them and dump them out<br />
  24. 24. 5. look for simple toys that encourage participation and use, then move on to more complex toys<br />6. try and buy toys that kids can use for many years<br />7. no need to buy the fancy, expensive toys<br />
  25. 25. iii. Developing communication skills<br />1. one of the major tasks for infants is to learn to communicate with others<br />2. depends on development in all areas<br />3. communicating without words<br />A. can communicate long before they are able to talk<br />B. crying is first means to communication<br />C. within first month, baby cries, pauses to listen for reaction<br />
  26. 26. D. baby soon develops different cries<br />i. hunger – crying mixed with sucking movements<br />Ii. Pain – crying with groans or whimpers<br />E. babbling is the start to communicating through words<br />F. giggles, grunts, shrieks carry obvious messages<br />G. gestures – push away food, latch on to parent<br />
  27. 27. 4. learning to speak<br />A. before talk, must learn to associate meaning with words<br />B. depends on the parents talking to the baby, even it if appears the child doesn’t respond<br />C. go for a walk – talk to baby about what you see<br />D. point to objects while saying name often<br />E. babies need to develop listening habits in order to learn speech<br />
  28. 28. F. imitate babbling to encourage development<br />G. first words are simple – mama, dada, ball, bye-bye<br />H. usually don’t combine words into simple sentences until after 1 yr<br />
  29. 29. 5. learning through participation<br />A. can promote language development by:<br />1. use baby’s name often<br />2. point to and name family members<br />3. point to body parts and say body parts<br />4. ask what part you are pointing to<br />5. play games like peek-a- boo, tell them to wave bye-bye, or clap hands<br />6. talk about what is going on around you as though the baby understands<br />7. encourage baby to imitate sounds you make<br />