Child Development-Chapter 10
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Child Development-Chapter 10

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Child Development-Chapter 10 Child Development-Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

  • Intellectual Development In the First Year
    Child Development Ch 10
  • I. Understanding Intellectual Dev
    A. learning abilities during the first year
    i. from birth – hear, taste, see, smell, feel
    1. those are the building blocks of learning
    Ii. Age of 1:
    1. move to desired location by crawling, walking
    2. understand and perhaps say some words
    3. makes wants known by gesturing
    4. play simple games like peek-a-boo
    5. handle objects skillfully and manipulate them
  • B. mind body connection
    i. information is taken in through senses
    Ii. Information is transmitted from those senses through the nerves into the Central nervous system
    1. brain and spinal cord
    2. info moves through spinal cord to brain
    Iii. Brain is key to intellectual dev.
    1. receives and interprets messages from body
    2. develops ability to send messages to body, telling the body what to do
    3. newborns are simply reflexes
  • Iv. Brain structure
    1. cortex
    A. outermost layer of brain
    B. 2nd-3rd month – more clearly developed
    C. permits more complex learning
    D. perception also improves
    i. learning from senses
    E. rocking
    i. stimulates cortex of brain
    Ii. Helps with weight gain, devs sight and hearing, promotes regular sleep
  • 2. memory also begins to develop
    A. stop crying when people in the room – know help is here
    B. also develop association
    i. people = help
    3. cause and effect
    A. one action results in another action or condition
    B. sucking = milk
    C. pull string = toy makes noise
  • 4. attention span
    A. length of time a person can concentrate on a task without getting bored
    B. generally bright babies have short attention spans
    C. they get bored with seeing the same objects over and over
    D. however, beyond infancy this flip-flops
  • V. Piaget’s theories
    1. Swiss psychologist
    2. intellectual development progresses in accordance to age
    3. capacity for logical thought is not learned, but are determined by genes
    4. children cant be forced to develop understanding any faster than their abilities mature
  • 5. don’t push your kids to learn to do things they aren’t ready for
    6. give them to opportunity to learn, but don’t force things on them
    7. learning stages appear in same order
    8. the ages the stages appear are different for all kids
  • 9. 4 major periods of dev
    A. sensorimotor - first stage of learning
    i. lasting from birth until the age of 2
    Ii. Babies learn primarily through senses and their own actions
    Iii. Baby is totally egocentric – thinking only about him/herself
    Iv. 10 months – object permanence
    1. understanding of the fact that objects continue to exist even when they are not in sight
    2. go find certain objects, hide toy and they will go look for it
    V. has 6 different periods - handout
  • B. preoperational – 2nd stage of learning
    i. lasting from age 2 to 7
    Ii. Children think about everything in terms of their own activities and in terms of what they perceive at the moment
    Iii. Moon follows them, tall glass of water is more than short, fat glass
    Iv. Understand abstract terms like love, beauty
    V. pretend stage
    Vi. Blame problems on imaginary friend
  • C. concrete operations – 3rd stage
    i. lasting from 7 to 11
    Ii. Children are able to think logically but still learn best from direct experiences
    Iii. Pouring water from one container to another does not change the amount
    Iv. Classify animals and foods into groups
    V. learn adding, subtracting are opposites
  • D. formal operations – 4th stage
    i. lasting from 11 to adulthood
    Ii. Become capable of abstract thinking
    Iii. Make plans and goals
    Iv. Learn without direct experience
    V. subtle messages
  • 10. applying Piaget’s theories
    A. you know what a child is capable of at a certain age
    B. you can better teach them and understand them
    C. symbolic thinking – use of words and numbers to represent ideas
    D. not ready for this until older and can understand what numbers mean without seeing the concrete objects
  • vi. Heredity vs Environment
    1. continuing disagreement
    2. determined by both
    3. most never develop to full potential
    4. you cant force a child to learn more than capable of
    5. you can put a learning environment in front of them to enhance and stimulate learning
    **Assignment - ?s on pg 303 1-7
  • Chapter 10 Section 2
    I. Helping babies learn
    A. parents are the babies first and most important teachers
    B. babies learn more and learn faster when parents and caregivers comfort them, smile at them, talk to them, and play with them
  • C. providing care
    i. babies learn patterns
    1. discomfort, crying, parent comes, feeding comfort
    Ii. If patterns aren’t established, baby senses no relation b/n his/her expression and comfort of caregiver
    Iii. No pattern = nobody responds, set on strict schedule, not the babies own schedule
  • Iv. Learn behavior has consequences
    V. they can effect and change environment
    Vi. This care and learning motivates babies to learn more
  • D. Encouraging learning
    i. those caring for children have a huge influence on their intellectual development
    Ii. Learning doesn’t require money or toys
    Iii. Requires attention, knowledge, and time
  • iv. Suggestions for learning
    1. learn about child development
    A. helps you provide learning experiences that are age appropriate and meet individual needs
    2. give your time and attention
    A. you can help them thrive by talking to and playing with them
    B. doesn’t have to be every waking moment
  • 3. provide positive feedback
    A. when baby tries new skill or activity, show your pleasure by giving praise
    B. your reaction will encourage baby to try new things
    1. use your personal style to show love for baby
    4. Express love
    A. use your personal style to show love for baby
    5. Child proof your home so you can safely let your child navigate and explore and learn about the world around them
  • e. Toys – the tools of learning
    i. intellectual and physical development
    1. learn cause and effect
    2. strengthen muscle, refine motor skills, learn about the world
    Ii. Different toys for different ages
    1. birth- 3 months
    A. little but look and listen
    B. bright colors and interesting sounds stimulate child
    C. crib mobiles – colorful, noisy, can kick to move
  • 2. 3-6 months
    A. sense of touch is most important during this period
    B. need new things to touch, handle, bang, shake, suck, and chew
    C. choose toys that are small enough to handle but can’t swallow
    D. teething rings, cups, tattles, plastic toys
    E. squeaky toys
    F. simple picture books with colorful pictures of familiar objects
  • 3. 7-9 months
    A. noise fascinates at this age
    B. safe household items just as interesting as toys
    i. banging pots and pans
    C. stacking toys, things with lids, and plastic containers are good choices
    4. 10-12 months
    A. toys to push or pull if walking
    B. boxes are fun – like to put things in them and dump them out
  • 5. look for simple toys that encourage participation and use, then move on to more complex toys
    6. try and buy toys that kids can use for many years
    7. no need to buy the fancy, expensive toys
  • iii. Developing communication skills
    1. one of the major tasks for infants is to learn to communicate with others
    2. depends on development in all areas
    3. communicating without words
    A. can communicate long before they are able to talk
    B. crying is first means to communication
    C. within first month, baby cries, pauses to listen for reaction
  • D. baby soon develops different cries
    i. hunger – crying mixed with sucking movements
    Ii. Pain – crying with groans or whimpers
    E. babbling is the start to communicating through words
    F. giggles, grunts, shrieks carry obvious messages
    G. gestures – push away food, latch on to parent
  • 4. learning to speak
    A. before talk, must learn to associate meaning with words
    B. depends on the parents talking to the baby, even it if appears the child doesn’t respond
    C. go for a walk – talk to baby about what you see
    D. point to objects while saying name often
    E. babies need to develop listening habits in order to learn speech
  • F. imitate babbling to encourage development
    G. first words are simple – mama, dada, ball, bye-bye
    H. usually don’t combine words into simple sentences until after 1 yr
  • 5. learning through participation
    A. can promote language development by:
    1. use baby’s name often
    2. point to and name family members
    3. point to body parts and say body parts
    4. ask what part you are pointing to
    5. play games like peek-a- boo, tell them to wave bye-bye, or clap hands
    6. talk about what is going on around you as though the baby understands
    7. encourage baby to imitate sounds you make