CD - chapter 8


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CD - chapter 8

  1. 1. Unit 3 – Chapter 8 Physical Development During The First Year
  2. 3. Journal <ul><li>Abilities of a 1 yr old? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the baby move? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the baby communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the baby handle toys and other objects? </li></ul><ul><li>How has this baby grown/changed in the first year? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Assignment <ul><li>Take 2 pictures to school on ASAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. picture of you as a newborn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. picture of you as a 1 year old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT SHOW ANYBODY THESE PICTURES!!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WE ARE GOING TO PLAY A MATCHING GAME, SO KEEP THEM TO YOURSELF </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Growth & development during the 1 st year <ul><li>Development and growth during the first year are the most rapid of any time in life </li></ul><ul><li>In 12 months, the baby who begins as a helpless newborn triples his or her birth weight, learns to stand alone, and may even begin to walk. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Patterns of physical development <ul><li>Follows an orderly sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Proceeds step-by-step in the same order with most every baby </li></ul><ul><li>3 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head to foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near to far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple to complex </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Head to foot <ul><li>Head takes lead in development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 months into prenatal development – ½ of body is head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth – ¼ of body is head </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arms and legs don’t catch up until later </li></ul><ul><li>First, babies learn to lift their heads to see an interesting object </li></ul><ul><li>Later, changes to hands and feet to pick object up </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly, baby will walk on legs/feet to go get object </li></ul>
  7. 8. Near to far <ul><li>Development starts at trunk and moves outward </li></ul><ul><li>First, babies wave their arms when see an object they want </li></ul><ul><li>Later, they are able to grab an object with palm of hand </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly, babies learn to pick of small objects with their thumbs and fingers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposable thumbs </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Simple to Complex <ul><li>At first, babies main activities are eating and sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually they learn more complicated tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to hold bottle, eat with fingers, use fork and spoon for eating </li></ul>
  9. 10. Growing during 1 st year <ul><li>Measurable change in size </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the best indications of good health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight weight loss just after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st 6 months, gain 1-2 lbs per month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last 6 months, 1 lb per month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weigh usually doubles within the 1 st few months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triples by the 1 st year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20-22 lbs average </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth – 20 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st year – 30 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity has a large influence on height </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Proportion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size relationship of one thing to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head and abdomen are large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head grows fast to provide room for the rapidly growing brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over ½ the total growth of the head occurs in the 1 st year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fontanels close – allow room for growth </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Development during 1 st year <ul><li>Increase in skill </li></ul><ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t focus well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May blink at different times or look different ways due to lack of muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not produce tears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st week – focus on images 7-10 inches away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 3 ½ months – vision as good as young adult’s </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Depth perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to recognize that an object is 3-D, not flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed at 2 nd month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd month – babies prefer 3-D over flat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand-eye Coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to move the hands and fingers precisely in relation to what is seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-4 months – reach for objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for eating, catching ball, coloring, tying shoes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops before birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to sounds in the womb by change in heart rate and activity levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to tone of voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soothing – calms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angry, loud – alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for language development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning words – associating meaning with words is 1 st step in learning to speak </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Audiologist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional trained to diagnose and treat hearing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newborn is not startled by sharp noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 month old never turns toward source of noise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby is not awakened by loud noises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t respond to familiar voices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Smell & taste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of smell doesn’t develop much in womb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amniotic fluid surrounds baby </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do respond to bad odors shortly after birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 10 days they can distinguish the smell of their own mother from other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 weeks old can distinguish different tastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer sweet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initially shrill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Become softer after the lungs mature and voice is used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also results from the physical growth of throat muscles, tongue, lips, teeth, and vocal cords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These changes effect eating – eventually solids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of mouth effects speech development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth are necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different cry’s mean different needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for speech by babbling vowel sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many don’t say first word until after 1 st birthday </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 th week of pregnancy begins dev </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary teeth – first set of teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-7 months usually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painful process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretch and tear gums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranky, restless, won’t sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing, fever, loss of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 teeth </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>What to do during teething? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teething rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid filled teething ring – cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice cube on gums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medication </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Motor skills <ul><li>Abilities that depend on the use and control of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Mastering them takes physical development, but also social, intellectual and emotional as well, as these areas are interrelated </li></ul><ul><li>1 st – control of head </li></ul>
  21. 23. Month by Month Dev. <ul><li>1 st – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifts chin when put on stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining neck muscle to hold heavy head </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifts chest when placed on stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3-4th– </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches for objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds head up steadily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete head control when sitting on adult’s lap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds head up when carried </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>5-6th – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits alone briefly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches and grasps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns completely over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers to sit up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses hands for many tasks </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>7-8th – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches for spoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulls self up on furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts to army crawl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eats with fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picks up large objects </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>9-10 th – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walks when led </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picks up smaller objects – more control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stands by furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More skilled with spoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crawls </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>11-12 th – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stands alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be walking alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows preference for one hand over another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds an drinks from cup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands toys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picks up small object with thumb and forefinger - opposition </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Section 2 <ul><li>Handling a baby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby needs to lifted for many reasons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eat, dressed, bathed, diaper change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 more reasons – comfort and attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to strengthen the bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help baby feel secure and happy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Handle baby gently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of neck muscles/head control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby’s temperament may influence how you handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep hand or arm under baby’s neck at all times </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upright against your body – maintain eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking over shoulder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the baby grows older, they need less support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When setting a baby down, make sure you hold everything secure until he/she makes contact with next support system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby needs to trust you! </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Avoiding stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the baby down in crib and walk to another room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count to 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a friend or relative to come over for a break </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a deep breath, look out window, drink glass of water </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Feeding a baby <ul><li>Provides more than just nourishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to bond, learn more about the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuddling, body contact, nurturing words are as important as the food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeding schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to eat as much as they want, as often as they want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newborn – 6-8 times in 24 hrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach are very small </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><ul><li>2-3 rd month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby wakes every 3-4 hrs around the clock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually baby won’t need late night feedings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 lbs – usually sleep through the night </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach can hold more milk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End of 1 st year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eat 3 meals/day plus snacks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Mealtime methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. breast feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. a mother will receive help and instructions while in the hospital or from a midwife </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. information is also available from La Leche League </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. organization that promotes breast feeding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. head should be well above the stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. bottle at angle so can comfortably suck and nipple is always full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. limit the amount of swallowed air </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><ul><li>D. feed until baby feels satisfied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually eats the amount they need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. burp twice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. once during feeding, once after feeding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. may not burp each time, but needs the opportunity to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F. warm bottles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. put in pan of warm water until lukewarm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. don’t microwave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. hotspots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. kills valuable nutrients in breast milk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G. sterilize bottles and don’t let formula sit out after bottle is made </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Introducing new foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. 6 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. cereal is usually first – smooth, runny consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. add strained food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. solids processed to make them smooth and runny </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. buy baby food or puree your own food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. usually fruits and veggies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. add foods gradually so you know what may cause an allergic reaction </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><ul><li>E. Tips for adding foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. head foods if used to warm milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. check temp on wrist </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. large bib – messy feedings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. be ready for spitting – may not like food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. combine with food they do like </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>4. Weaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. process of changing from drinking form the bottle or breast to drinking from a cup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. sign of increasing independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. no precise age – 9 months in common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. wait until baby is ready </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. look for signs like pushing away eating, wanting to eat from a spoon, looking around or playing while sucking </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>5. Self-feeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. 8-10 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. ready to eat with fingers or from spoon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. open mouth when spoon is coming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. then want to handle spoon themselves – ready for self feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. choose finger foods for them to handle and get used to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. cut up toast, cheese, bananas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F. takes practice and sense of humor </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. II. Nutritional Concerns <ul><li>1. overfeeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. a baby who overeats will more than likely overeat later in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. same goes with sweets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. bottle-fed have a greater risk of overeating than breastfed </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>2. malnutrition – lack of enough food or a lack of the proper type of food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. need enough calories to provide for rapid growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. food that is easy to digest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. adequate amounts of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. needed nutrients like protein, iron, B vitamins, Vitamin C & D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. cow’s milk alone does not provide carbs needed for energy </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><ul><li>F. developing countries is a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G. skim milk is not enough calories from birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H. also in US b/c parents don’t know nutritional needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i. swollen stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ii. Hair falls out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iii. Wounds slow to heal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iv. Poor coordination and muscle tone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V. stunted growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vi. Learning problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vii. Slow brain development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I. WIC – women, infants, and children program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i. helps low income families with food costs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Section 3 notes <ul><li>I. bathing a baby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. for a newborn, anytime is a good time for a bath except right after feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i. need time to rest and digest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. newborn is given sponge bath until naval heals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. then move to basin tub or sink and eventually the normal tub </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><ul><li>D. sponge bath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i. 2 soft towels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ii. Washcloth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iii. Diaper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iv. Mild soap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V. baby shampoo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vi. Cotton balls – clean around naval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vii. Get clothes and such ready to go in a warm room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viii. 70-80 degrees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ix. Test water with elbow – should feel luke warm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X. place baby on towel – put water in separate bowl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xi. Place other towel on top of baby to keep warm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xii. Wash face with clear water and washcloth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xiii. Pat baby’s face dry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><ul><ul><li>Xiv. Clean out ears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xv. Wash rest of body with soapy water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xvi. Clean scalp 1-2 per week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xvii. Cradle cap – skin condition in which the scalp develops patches of yellowish, crusty scales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. apply baby oil to scalp at night </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. gently loosen scales in the morning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xviii. Apply baby lotion or powder after bath </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xix. Never let baby play with container – could inhale powder </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>E. tub bath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. rubber mat or towel on bottom of basin – prevent sliding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. luke warm water – 2-3 inches deep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. always support head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. go through same steps as sponge bath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. let them splash – good exercise and enjoyable </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. <ul><li>F. Normal tub safety tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. never leave the baby alone even for a second in shallow water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. keep baby seated – standing leads to falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. always check water temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. keep away from faucet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. may be hot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. very hard if hit head </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. don’t let baby drink bath water – a little is OK </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. II. Dressing baby <ul><li>A. dress them as you would dress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. they don’t need to be warmer than you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. if extremities feel cold, check body temp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. newborn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. sleepovers – one-piece garment with feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. cotton undershirt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C. older babies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. movable clothing so can crawl and walk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. soft cotton – sleeper for bed </li></ul></ul>
  47. 49. <ul><li>D. dressing tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. sing a song </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. talk with the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. work smoothly and quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. gather garment and slip it over back of baby’s head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. stretch it as you bring it over face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. put baby’s fist in armhole and pull the arm through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. do same with legs </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. III. Diapers <ul><li>A. dispose of diaper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. trash can or diaper geni </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. wash cloth diaper in hottest water with mild soap </li></ul><ul><li>C. diaper rash – patches of rough, irritated skin from bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. clean baby thoroughly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. use zinc oxide to treat - ointment </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. IV. Sleep <ul><li>A. by age one – 2-3 sleep periods </li></ul><ul><li>B. make sure baby is relaxed – read books, sing lullaby </li></ul><ul><li>C. keep a routine and keep it simple </li></ul><ul><li>D. let them fall back asleep on their own or else they will become reliant on you </li></ul>