The Indo-European Languages English 4613 Fall 2008
The Discovery of Sanskrit <ul><li>Classical Language of India </li></ul><ul><li>Heinrich Roth (1620-1668) </li></ul><ul><l...
Sanskrit Numbers <ul><li>The numbers from one to ten: </li></ul><ul><li>éka-  </li></ul><ul><li>dva-  </li></ul><ul><li>tr...
Grimm’s Law <ul><li>Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) </li></ul><ul><li>The “first Germanic sound shift” </li></ul><ul><li>A regular...
Grimm’s Law <ul><li>(2) t-th </li></ul><ul><li>Greek: tritos Gaelic: treas </li></ul><ul><li>English: third </li></ul><ul>...
Grimm’s Law <ul><li>(4) d-t </li></ul><ul><li>Latin: decem  Sanskrit: dasan </li></ul><ul><li>English: ten Dutch: tien </l...
More Grimm’s Law <ul><li>Bh becomes b </li></ul><ul><li>Dh becomes d </li></ul><ul><li>Gh becomes g </li></ul><ul><li>Gw b...
The Indo-European Family of Languages <ul><li>Who were the original Indo-Europeans? </li></ul><ul><li>Kurgan hypothesis: 5...
Indo-European Family <ul><li>Indian (Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali) </li></ul><ul><li>Iranian (Avestan, Persian/Farsi) </...
Indo-European Family <ul><li>Germanic (Gothic, Icelandic, swedish, German, Dutch, English) </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic </li><...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Indo European Languages

1,556 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,556
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
49
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Indo European Languages

  1. 1. The Indo-European Languages English 4613 Fall 2008
  2. 2. The Discovery of Sanskrit <ul><li>Classical Language of India </li></ul><ul><li>Heinrich Roth (1620-1668) </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries of Sanskrit texts in Late 1700s—Sir William Jones posits connection between Sanskrit and other languages </li></ul><ul><li>Rig Veda (1500 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Many Hindu Texts and a few Buddhist Texts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sanskrit Numbers <ul><li>The numbers from one to ten: </li></ul><ul><li>éka- </li></ul><ul><li>dva- </li></ul><ul><li>tri- </li></ul><ul><li>catúr- </li></ul><ul><li>páñcan- </li></ul><ul><li>ṣáṣ- </li></ul><ul><li>saptán- </li></ul><ul><li>aṣṭá- </li></ul><ul><li>návan- </li></ul><ul><li>dáśan- </li></ul><ul><li>What do you notice here? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grimm’s Law <ul><li>Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) </li></ul><ul><li>The “first Germanic sound shift” </li></ul><ul><li>A regularized and predictable series of changes that occur with the rise of the Germanic languages </li></ul><ul><li>(1) p-f </li></ul><ul><li>Latin: pedis Sanskrit: peda </li></ul><ul><li>English: foot Swedish: fot </li></ul>
  5. 5. Grimm’s Law <ul><li>(2) t-th </li></ul><ul><li>Greek: tritos Gaelic: treas </li></ul><ul><li>English: third </li></ul><ul><li>(3) k-x-h </li></ul><ul><li>Latin: canis Irish: cu </li></ul><ul><li>English: hound German: hund </li></ul>
  6. 6. Grimm’s Law <ul><li>(4) d-t </li></ul><ul><li>Latin: decem Sanskrit: dasan </li></ul><ul><li>English: ten Dutch: tien </li></ul><ul><li>(5) g-k </li></ul><ul><li>Latin: gelu </li></ul><ul><li>English: cold Danish: kold </li></ul>
  7. 7. More Grimm’s Law <ul><li>Bh becomes b </li></ul><ul><li>Dh becomes d </li></ul><ul><li>Gh becomes g </li></ul><ul><li>Gw becomes kw </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPTIONS: No change if consonant is preceded by “s” </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Indo-European Family of Languages <ul><li>Who were the original Indo-Europeans? </li></ul><ul><li>Kurgan hypothesis: 5 th -3 rd Millennia BCE </li></ul><ul><li>North of Caspain Sea </li></ul><ul><li>European home posited because of common IE words for honeybee, ox, birch, oak, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Indus river but not Ganges </li></ul><ul><li>European but not Asiatic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Indo-European Family <ul><li>Indian (Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali) </li></ul><ul><li>Iranian (Avestan, Persian/Farsi) </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenic </li></ul><ul><li>Albanian (remnant of Illyrian) </li></ul><ul><li>Italic (“Romance” languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Balto-Slavic (Baltic: Prussian, Latvian, Lithuanian; Slavic: Russian, Ukranian, Polish, Czech, Bulgarian, etc.) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Indo-European Family <ul><li>Germanic (Gothic, Icelandic, swedish, German, Dutch, English) </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic </li></ul><ul><li>Hittite (near Ankara) </li></ul><ul><li>Tocharian (related to Uygur language, texts discovered in Western China) </li></ul>

×