More On Middle English

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More On Middle English

  1. 1. More on Middle English English 4613 Fall 2008
  2. 2. Five Languages Spoken in England after 1200 <ul><li>Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Norman </li></ul><ul><li>Welsh </li></ul><ul><li>Cornish </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>The Celtic “Cumbrian” language was virtually extinct </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trilingual Vocabulary 1100- <ul><li>“kingly” from OE, “royal” from French (Norman), “regal” from Latin </li></ul><ul><li>“warden” from French; “guardian” from French but of Germanic origin </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Norman vocabulary takes the primary place in jurisprudence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nouns and the loss of inflection (examples)”Angel” and “Name” Engles Nomen Engle Nome Dative Engle(ne) Nomen Engles Nome Genitive Engles Nomen Engel Nome Nominative/ Accusitive Plural Singluar
  5. 5. Verbs <ul><li>First Person singular (present tense) ends in “-e” (ich here) </li></ul><ul><li>Second person-”est” spekest </li></ul><ul><li>Third person-” eþ “-he comeþ “ </li></ul><ul><li>In the past tense, weak verbs have an –ed, -t, or –d ending. A system of strong verbs remains. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pronouns <ul><li>Here: </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_English_personal_pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I used Wikipedia. So what? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chancery Standard <ul><li>Much of the variation in Middle English writing before 1400 comes from the preferences of scribes </li></ul><ul><li>Henry V (reign 1413-1422) wanted a standard system developed </li></ul><ul><li>By 1430 it was standardized according to London and east Midland dialects although simpler forms from other dialects were included </li></ul>
  8. 8. Have you seen this before? <ul><ul><li>Whan þat Aprill with his shoures sote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Þe droghte of Marche haþ perced to the rote, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And baðed euery veyne in swich licour, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of which vertu engendred is þe flour; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeþ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired haþ in euery holt and heeþ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Þe tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haþ in the Ram his halfe course yronne, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And smale fowles maken melodye, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That slepen al the niȝt with open ye— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So prikeþ hem Nature in hir corages— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Þan longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And specially, from euery shires ende </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of Engelond to Caunterbury þey wende, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The holy blissful martir for to seke, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Þat hem haþ holpen, whan þat þey were seke </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Timeline <ul><li>William Langland 1332-1386 </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey Chaucer 1343-1400 </li></ul><ul><li>John de Mascy of Sale (?-1403) </li></ul>

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