<ul><li>Photosynthesis is the Source of Your Energy   </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is the source of energy for biologi...
<ul><li>Sunlight energy is absorbed by chlorophyll – found in chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Plants also take in carbon di...
<ul><li>The process of photosynthesis can be summarized by the following equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Light energy  +  6 CO...
<ul><li>Remember, photosynthesis is a process, catalyzed by many enzymes </li></ul>
<ul><li>Electrons can be removed from atoms and change energy levels when energy added (like energy from sun) </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>The electron transport system (ETS), located in the membranes of chloroplasts, uses redox reactions to transfer en...
<ul><li>An electron transport system (ETS)  generates energy to make ATP.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-energy electrons, su...
<ul><li>http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/energy/ets.html </li></ul>
<ul><li>Coenzymes  help enzymes complete their reactions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept or give up electrons in redox react...
NADH NADPH FADH
<ul><li>Photosynthesis takes place in  chloroplasts , organelles with a double membrane subdivided into two regions </li><...
 
<ul><li>Overview:  http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/calvin1.html </li></ul><ul><li>There ...
<ul><li>Photosynthesis uses the energy from visible light  </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll absorbs red, blue and violet ligh...
<ul><li>In the thylakoids, light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, producing excited electrons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chl...
<ul><li>There are 3 basic steps in the process of photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-capturing events  –  thylako...
<ul><li>Excited electrons are used to produce ATP and to split water molecules . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some electrons ente...
 
<ul><li>“Light reactions” yield  </li></ul><ul><li>- ATP </li></ul><ul><li>- NADPH (reduced coenzyme) </li></ul><ul><li>- ...
<ul><li>There are 3 basic steps in the process of photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-capturing events  –  thylako...
<ul><li>ATP and NADPH  from light reactions enter stroma and are used to  assemble CO 2   molecules (from the atmosphere) ...
<ul><li>“Dark reactions” yield: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PGAL (3 carbon sugar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul></u...
<ul><li>The products of photosynthesis (simple sugars) can be used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making ATP via cellular resp...
 
<ul><li>Animation: http://www.cix.co.uk/~argus/Dreambio/photosynthesis/photosynthesis%201.htm </li></ul>
<ul><li>Special adaptations  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In hot/dry conditions, plants close stomates to conserve water.  </li><...
<ul><li>C4/CAM plants – sugarcane, corn, desert plants like cacti  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomates often closed during day ...
<ul><li>End of photosynthesis </li></ul>
<ul><li>Autotrophs manufacture their own organic molecules (like glucose), but they must also perform cellular respiration...
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Photosynthesis

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  • Figure 6.3 (p. 106) Enger.
  • Electrons on outside of atom, can be lost easily. When energy added to electrons in outer orbitals, they move to a higher energy level. When they “fall” back to their original position, they give up that energy.
  • There is a stepwise passage of energy from molecule to molecule. Some of this bond energy is put into the ATP bond. The rest of this energy is released as heat.
  • http://www.steve.gb.com/images/molecules/cofactors/acetyl_coenzyme_A.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Flavin_adenine_dinucleotide.png
  • There are 3 basic steps in the process of photosynthesis: Light-capturing events Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions
  • Figure 6.19 Enger p. 122
  • Tilt of earth, distance from sun critical for sustaining life. Creator perfectly planned our world, solar system to allow us to live! Pigments absorb visiible light, even tho UV has more energy, it damages cells Light comes in discrete packages called photons
  • Figure 6.19 Enger p. 122
  • www.biology4all.com/resources_library/source/61a.swf (animation)
  • Figure 6.19 Enger p. 122
  • Write summary eqn: light energy + chlorophyll – energized electrons Energized electrons + H20 + NADP+ - NADPH2 + O2 + ATP NADPH2 + ATP + CO2 + 5-C sugar (carrier molecule) – C6H12O6 (after 6 turns of Calvin cycle) + H2O
  • Works on Mac
  • Rubisco binds O2, which then breaks down to co2 and H2o and decreases PGAL production – called photorespiration. Includes soybeans, oats, wheat and rice
  • http://wc.pima.edu/~bfiero/tucsonecology/plants/plants_photosynthesis.htm C3 Photosynthesis : C3 plants.Called C3 because the CO2 is first incorporated into a 3-carbon compound.Stomata are open during the day.RUBISCO, the enzyme involved in photosynthesis, is also the enzyme involved in the uptake of CO2.Photosynthesis takes place throughout the leaf.Adaptive Value: more efficient than C4 and CAM plants under cool and moist conditions and under normal light because requires less machinery (fewer enzymes and no specialized anatomy)..Most plants are C3.C4 Photosynthesis : C4 plants.Called C4 because the CO2 is first incorporated into a 4-carbon compound.Stomata are open during the day.Uses PEP Carboxylase for the enzyme involved in the uptake of CO2. This enzyme allows CO2 to be taken into the plant very quickly, and then it &amp;quot;delivers&amp;quot; the CO2 directly to RUBISCO for photsynthesis.Photosynthesis takes place in inner cells (requires special anatomy called Kranz Anatomy)Adaptive Value:Photosynthesizes faster than C3 plants under high light intensity and high temperatures because the CO2 is delivered directly to RUBISCO, not allowing it to grab oxygen and undergo photorespiration.Has better Water Use Efficiency because PEP Carboxylase brings in CO2 faster and so does not need to keep stomata open as much (less water lost by transpiration) for the same amount of CO2 gain for photosynthesis.C4 plants include several thousand species in at least 19 plant families. Example: fourwing saltbush pictured here, corn, and many of our summer annual plants.CAM Photosynthesis : CAM plants. CAM stands for Crassulacean Acid MetabolismCalled CAM after the plant family in which it was first found (Crassulaceae) and because the CO2 is stored in the form of an acid before use in photosynthesis.Stomata open at night (when evaporation rates are usually lower) and are usually closed during the day. The CO2 is converted to an acid and stored during the night. During the day, the acid is broken down and the CO2 is released to RUBISCO for photosynthesisAdaptive Value:Better Water Use Efficiency than C3 plants under arid conditions due to opening stomata at night when transpiration rates are lower (no sunlight, lower temperatures, lower wind speeds, etc.).May CAM-idle. When conditions are extremely arid, CAM plants can just leave their stomata closed night and day. Oxygen given off in photosynthesis is used for respiration and CO2 given off in respiration is used for photosynthesis. This is a little like a perpetual energy machine, but there are costs associated with running the machinery for respiration and photosynthesis so the plant cannot CAM-idle forever. But CAM-idling does allow the plant to survive dry spells, and it allows the plant to recover very quickly when water is available again (unlike plants that drop their leaves and twigs and go dormant during dry spells).CAM plants include many succulents such as cactuses and agaves and also some orchids and bromeliads
  • Photosynthesis

    1. 2. <ul><li>Photosynthesis is the Source of Your Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis is the source of energy for biological activity in almost all organisms on earth!! </li></ul><ul><li>(producers and consumers alike) </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>Sunlight energy is absorbed by chlorophyll – found in chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Plants also take in carbon dioxide from the air and water molecules from the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Light energy, CO 2 , and H 2 O are the raw materials used to make sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>Water molecules are split into hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>The hydrogen is combined with the CO 2 to make sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>The oxygen is released into the air as oxygen gas. </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>The process of photosynthesis can be summarized by the following equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Light energy + 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>carbon + water -> Glucose + Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>dioxide </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Remember, photosynthesis is a process, catalyzed by many enzymes </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Electrons can be removed from atoms and change energy levels when energy added (like energy from sun) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction = gaining electrons (gaining energy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation = losing electrons (losing energy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redox reactions are used to capture and transfer energy in living systems </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>The electron transport system (ETS), located in the membranes of chloroplasts, uses redox reactions to transfer energized electrons to make ATP. </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>An electron transport system (ETS) generates energy to make ATP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-energy electrons, such as those made when light strikes a chlorophyll molecule, are passed from one carrier molecule to another along a chain, like a hot potato. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every time the electron is passed, some of its energy is released and can be used to build an ATP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are redox reactions. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/energy/ets.html </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Coenzymes help enzymes complete their reactions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept or give up electrons in redox reactions. They act as electron shuttles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important coenzymes in photosynthesis are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NADH and NADPH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FADH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzymes are derived from vitamins like niacin, riboflavin (B2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Chapter 5.3 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. NADH NADPH FADH
    11. 12. <ul><li>Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts , organelles with a double membrane subdivided into two regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thylakoids - contain chlorophyll </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grana - stacks of thylakoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroma - Fluid-filled space between thylakoids </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. <ul><li>Overview: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/photosynth/calvin1.html </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 basic steps in the process of photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-capturing events – thylakoid membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-dependent reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-independent reactions </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Photosynthesis uses the energy from visible light </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll absorbs red, blue and violet light and reflects green. </li></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><li>In the thylakoids, light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, producing excited electrons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophylls arranged into clusters in thylakoid membranes to most efficiently excite and transfer electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called Photosystems I and II </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>There are 3 basic steps in the process of photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-capturing events – thylakoid membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-dependent reactions – inside thylakoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-independent reactions </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Excited electrons are used to produce ATP and to split water molecules . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some electrons enter electron transport system and produce ATP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other electrons split water into hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen is released </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (and its electrons) are used to make the coenzyme NADPH. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 20. <ul><li>“Light reactions” yield </li></ul><ul><li>- ATP </li></ul><ul><li>- NADPH (reduced coenzyme) </li></ul><ul><li>- O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Light reactions worksheet </li></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><li>There are 3 basic steps in the process of photosynthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-capturing events – thylakoid membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-dependent reactions – inside thylakoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-independent reactions – in the stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “dark reactions,” since light is not needed for them to take place. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 22. <ul><li>ATP and NADPH from light reactions enter stroma and are used to assemble CO 2 molecules (from the atmosphere) into sugars </li></ul><ul><li>There are many reactions in the process, called the Calvin Cycle , each catalyzed by an enzyme. </li></ul><ul><li>ADP and NADP + are recycled to light-dependent reactions. </li></ul>
    20. 23. <ul><li>“Dark reactions” yield: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PGAL (3 carbon sugar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark reactions worksheet </li></ul></ul>
    21. 24. <ul><li>The products of photosynthesis (simple sugars) can be used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making ATP via cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making other sugars or starch for storage or plant growth </li></ul></ul>
    22. 26. <ul><li>Animation: http://www.cix.co.uk/~argus/Dreambio/photosynthesis/photosynthesis%201.htm </li></ul>
    23. 27. <ul><li>Special adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In hot/dry conditions, plants close stomates to conserve water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more CO 2 enters cells, no more O 2 exits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis shuts down, sugar production decreases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad for the plant, bad for us if these are food crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called C3 plants because the first product made from “fixed” CO 2 is the 3 carbon compound PGAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes plants like soybeans, wheat and rice </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 28. <ul><li>C4/CAM plants – sugarcane, corn, desert plants like cacti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomates often closed during day to prevent water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-capturing, light-dependent reactions continue as usual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon fixation and Calvin cycle separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 fixed onto a 4 Carbon compound during night (when stomates open) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 released to Calvin cycle during day (when energy from light-dependent reactions available) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 29. <ul><li>End of photosynthesis </li></ul>
    26. 30. <ul><li>Autotrophs manufacture their own organic molecules (like glucose), but they must also perform cellular respiration to obtain energy from food molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants do both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. </li></ul>
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