Energy
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><li>Energy Transfer and ATP – </li></ul><ul><li>A. Metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>–  all...
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Anabolism - synthesis – “building up” reactions (catalyzed by ???) </li></ul></...
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>2. Catabolism – decomposition – “breaking down” reactions (catalyzed by ???) </li>...
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>3. What do cells do with this energy? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. S...
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>4. Synthesis and decomposition reactions coordinated to provide for cell’s needs f...
Energy Transfer and ATP
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><li>B. Energy currency –  ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. ATP =  adenosine triphosph...
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>2. Free energy  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a.  Released through decom...
Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>3. Mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. ATP becomes ADP, and energ...
Energy and Nutrients <ul><li>Energy and Nutrients  </li></ul><ul><li>A.  Energy  – the capacity to do work or cause change...
Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>a.  Mechanical work  – movement of limbs, breathing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Energy and Nutrients <ul><li>Remember, energy is stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules like sugars, fats, prot...
Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><li>B. How do living things get energy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Autotrophs  (“self...
Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>b. Solar energy “trapped” or stored as chemical energy in organic molecules, then tha...
Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>2.  Heterotrophs  (“other feeding”) - get food from other living organisms (plants or...
Energy and Nutrients
Energy and Nutrients
Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>3. To release the energy (as ATP) stored in organic molecules (their food),  both aut...
Digestion <ul><li>III.  Digestion  -  Chapter 24.5   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Introduction  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Digestion
Digestion <ul><ul><li>B. Intracellular – digest food inside cells  – don’t require a separate digestive system -  plants, ...
Digestion <ul><ul><li>B. Extracellular – digest food outside cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals eat relatively l...
Digestion <ul><ul><li>3. 2 parts to digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Chemical  – breakdown of large molecul...
Digestion <ul><ul><li>D. Human digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans (and all complex multicellular animals) hav...
Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>4. Physical digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Food enters via  oral cavity  –...
Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>c. Small intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Digestion completed  </li></ul></u...
Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>5. Chemical digestion of  carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Mouth – saliv...
Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>6. Chemical digestion of  proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Stomach </li></ul>...
Digestion <ul><li>7. Digestion of lipids </li></ul><ul><li>a. Small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Lipids are  hyd...
Digestion <ul><li>What is Cholesterol? When you have your blood drawn to measure cholesterol, what is being measured? </li...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Energy, and Digestion

3,279 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,279
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Energy, and Digestion

  1. 1. Energy
  2. 2. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><li>Energy Transfer and ATP – </li></ul><ul><li>A. Metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– all reactions in a cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- 2 types? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Anabolism - synthesis – “building up” reactions (catalyzed by ???) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Photosynthesis – making glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Making polymers – amino acids to protein, nucleotides to DNA and RNA, simple sugars to starch </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Making tissues – proteins to muscle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>2. Catabolism – decomposition – “breaking down” reactions (catalyzed by ???) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Starch to glucose monomers (digestion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Glucose to CO 2 and H 2 O + free energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>3. What do cells do with this energy? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Some free energy + some simple molecules used to build new macromolecules needed by cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Some free energy available for other cellular work (like active transport, movement) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>4. Synthesis and decomposition reactions coordinated to provide for cell’s needs for energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Energy Transfer and ATP
  8. 8. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><li>B. Energy currency – ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. ATP = adenosine triphosphate = nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>2. Free energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Released through decomposition reactions is stored as ATP , </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. ATP used to fuel reactions requiring energy (synthesis reactions, mechanical work, transport) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Energy Transfer and ATP <ul><ul><ul><li>3. Mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. ATP becomes ADP, and energy is released </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. ADP “recharged” by the addition of free energy and another phosphate group (called phosphorylation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Energy and Nutrients <ul><li>Energy and Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>A. Energy – the capacity to do work or cause change </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. All living organisms require constant supply of energy. Why? What do they need energy for? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>a. Mechanical work – movement of limbs, breathing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Chemical work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Constructing, breaking down macromolecules* </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Organizing macromolecules into structural components of cells, tissues – membrane, muscle, skin, etc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Transport – movement and concentration of raw materials (nutrients like C, N, O, water, etc) needed to build the macromolecules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Energy and Nutrients <ul><li>Remember, energy is stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules like sugars, fats, proteins and nucleic acids, so it takes energy to make these bonds. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><li>B. How do living things get energy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Autotrophs (“self-feeding”) – make their own food using energy and nutrients from non-living sources (sun, air, water minerals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Plants, some bacteria use solar energy + CO 2 + H 2 O to synthesize organic molecules ( photosynthesis – Ch. 4) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>b. Solar energy “trapped” or stored as chemical energy in organic molecules, then that energy can be used later as source of free energy to do work. </li></ul></ul></ul>Starch Glucose
  16. 16. Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>2. Heterotrophs (“other feeding”) - get food from other living organisms (plants or animals, dead or alive) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Includes…? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Energy and Nutrients
  18. 18. Energy and Nutrients
  19. 19. Energy and Nutrients <ul><ul><ul><li>3. To release the energy (as ATP) stored in organic molecules (their food), both auto- and heterotrophs must perform cellular respiration (a series of chemical reactions that completely breaks down food to yield CO 2 , H 2 O and ATP -Chapter 5). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Digestion <ul><li>III. Digestion - Chapter 24.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All organisms need food to provide raw materials and energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each type of organism has a digestive system that is adapted to whatever food it uses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Herbivores – long, complex digestive system – takes a long time to break down and absorb plant material </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Carnivores – shorter, but still complex digestive system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Plants??? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Digestion
  22. 22. Digestion <ul><ul><li>B. Intracellular – digest food inside cells – don’t require a separate digestive system - plants, single celled organisms </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Digestion <ul><ul><li>B. Extracellular – digest food outside cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals eat relatively large pieces of food, but only very small molecules (individual amino acids, sugars, etc) can pass through cell membranes and enter the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals need a way to break down their food so they can use it - digestion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Digestion <ul><ul><li>3. 2 parts to digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Chemical – breakdown of large molecules to smaller ones through the action of enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Physical - break large particles to smaller ones, increase surface area, making chemical part of digestion easier </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of different parts of digestive system – including chewing (teeth), grinding (gizzard), mixing (stomach) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Digestion <ul><ul><li>D. Human digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans (and all complex multicellular animals) have digestive tube with 2 openings, one for taking in food and one for eliminating wastes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Along the way are specialized parts that each has a particular function (mouth, stomach, intestines). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think of it as a finely-tuned disassembly line! (about 9 m long) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>4. Physical digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Food enters via oral cavity – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth start physical digestion by chewing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue mixes food with saliva (contains enzymes that start carbohydrate digestion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Stomach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractions of muscles break up and mix food with gastric juices (acid, enzymes, mucus) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually empties about 4 hours after a meal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>c. Small intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Digestion completed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Small food molecules absorbed (individual sugars, amino acids, fatty acids) move through wall of small intestine into blood stream, carried to all cells of body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d. Large intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Undigested food enters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Most water absorbed into blood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Waste eliminated via anus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>5. Chemical digestion of carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Mouth – saliva contains amylase – breaks starch to shorter glucose chains </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Stomach – no carbohydrate digestion (amylases don’t work in acidic environment) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. Small intestine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) pH raised by secretions from liver and pancreas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Amylases, lactase, sucrase break carbohydrates to monosaccharides (usually glucose), which are then absorbed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Digestion <ul><ul><ul><li>6. Chemical digestion of proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Stomach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Enzymes that digest proteins require acidic environment. Some cells in stomach secrete HCl (ph=2). Where do you think this is stored in a cell? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Other cells secrete mucus to coat and protect cells lining stomach from HCl! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Pepsin (peptidase) digests large polypeptides to smaller polypeptides </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Small intestine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Trypsin and other peptidases (that work in basic pH) digest polypeptides to amino acids, which are then absorbed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Digestion <ul><li>7. Digestion of lipids </li></ul><ul><li>a. Small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Lipids are hydrophobic – don’t mix with water, form fat droplets (like oil in water). Enzymes (lipases) can only work on parts of fats on the outer part of droplets. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Bile salts (secreted by gall bladder) mix with fat droplets, break them into smaller droplets increasing the surface area for enzymes to do their jobs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Lipases digests lipids to fatty acids and glycerol, then absorbed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Digestion <ul><li>What is Cholesterol? When you have your blood drawn to measure cholesterol, what is being measured? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triglycerides are made from the fats we eat, as well as from excess foods we eat. Normal levels should be below 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-density lipoprotein, or LDL cholesterol, is the bad cholesterol. The higher the level of LDL cholesterol, the greater your risk of a heart attack . When the level of LDL cholesterol goes up, excess cholesterol can build up and stick to the walls of your arteries. An LDL of less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is optimal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-density lipoprotein, or HDL , is the good cholesterol. The benefit of HDL lies in the fact that it carries bad cholesterol back to the liver. In doing so, it cleanses cholesterol from the bloodstream. HDL 60 mg/dL or higher is good -- it protects against heart disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total cholesterol = LDL + HDL should be 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or less </li></ul></ul>

×