Circulatory System
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Circulatory System

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  • Human body circ system
  • Focus on human but will give a little info about other organisms as we go. Figure 7.7 p. 193
  • Open circulation photo – grasshopper, crab, etc
  • Blood flows from the heart to arteries to capillaries to veins and back to the heart
  • elasticity reducedhttp://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=A9gnMiW9PF1Fo9wAhVajzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBsNXZtZnJjBHNlYwNwcm9mBHZ0aWQDSTk5OV83Mw--/SIG=12mcev9vs/EXP=1163824701/**http%3a//health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/artery-cut-section.html
  • http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=A9gnMiDcO11FZDoB0HijzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTBsNXZtZnJjBHNlYwNwcm9mBHZ0aWQDSTk5OV83Mw--/SIG=13me90n79/EXP=1163824476/**http%3a//media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_essentials_2/cipl/23/HTML/source/23-09a-capillary-l.htm
  • http://www.ohsu.edu/bbb/graphics/brain_vasc.jpg
  • http://www.lauragrady.com/www/Imagesmrsgrady/Resources/Copy%20of%20good%20cIRC.gif
  • relatively thin-walled chambers
  • Figure 18.4
  • “ lub dub” mitral (L AV valve), then aortic (L semilunar) valves closing. R side lower pressure, less noise when “door slamming”
  • Photo of blood
  • More Than Meets the Eye
  •   Plasma: The remainder of blood volume is plasma, a watery substance in which proteins that trigger blood clotting mechanisms are suspended. Plasma can be transfused directly to a patient, but, more often, plasma is used as a raw material for pharmaceuticals. Plasma is “fractionated” into its different protein components, which are then manufactured into pharmaceuticals. Factor VIII, which is required by hemophiliacs to control bleeding, is one such plasma derived medicine. Plasma can be stored frozen for up to one year. Plasma: the fluid portion of blood.
  • Diffusion, osmosis

Circulatory System Circulatory System Presentation Transcript

  • Human Circulatory System Chapter 24.2
  • Circulatory System
    • Circulatory system is responsible for moving nutrients, gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide, hormones (signal molecules) and fluids like water throughout the body of a multicellular organism.
  • Circulatory System
    • Overview
      • Circulatory systems includes:
        • Heart – a muscular pump
        • Blood vessels – tubes that transport the blood
        • Blood – fluid that transports substances around the body
      • Also called the cardiovascular system.
  • Circulatory System
      • Closed system – meaning that blood is always confined to vessels
        • Some simpler animals have open circulation – blood surrounds the organs and tissues, oozing around open cavities inside the organism. This is less efficient.
  • Blood Vessels
    • Blood vessels – tubes that transport blood
      • 60,000 miles of blood vessels in human body!!!
      • 3 types – What are they? What does each do?
        • Arteries – carry blood away from the heart
        • Capillaries – where material exchange occurs
        • Veins – carry blood to the heart
        • arteries capillaries veins
      • Arteries
        • Carry blood away from the heart
        • Have relatively thick, muscular walls because blood in arteries is under pressure
        • Elastic - expand as blood is pumped into them, return to normal as pressure decreases.
          • If arteries become hardened because of cholesterol deposits or old age, blood pressure increases, which increases work load of the heart.
        • Major artery is the aorta
  • Blood Vessels
      • Capillaries
        • Site of materials exchange between blood and cells
        • Tiny – only one cell thick
          • Thin barrier maximizes exchange of gases, nutrients and wastes
        • Blood flow slows down to allow time for movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, glucose and other materials into and out of the blood.
  • Blood Vessels
        • Red blood cells must go through single file
        • So numerous that every cell in the body is near a capillary!
        • So delicate that it will rupture under a tension 1/3,000 that required to tear toilet tissue!
      • Veins
        • Carry blood toward the heart
        • Have thinner, less muscular walls because blood in veins is under much lower pressure
        • Have valves that prevent blood from flowing backward
        • Movement of body helps push blood through veins
          • Sometimes sitting or standing still for long periods can cause blood to pool in leg veins, so not enough blood available to brain, and the person faints.
        • Major veins are the vena cava (upper and lower)
  • Blood Vessels
      • Remember:
        • Arteries carry blood away from the heart
        • Veins take it toward the heart
        • It has nothing to do with whether the blood is oxygenated or not!
  • Heart
    • The heart
      • Verses
      • Can you believe…?
        • Heart beats an average of 70 times per minute, 100,000 times per day, or 2.5 billion times in an average lifespan
        • Heart pumps 2,000 gallons of blood per day or 60 million gallons in an average lifespan
  • Heart
      • Heart is a 4-chambered muscular pump that provides energy to move blood throughout the body.
        • Designed to prevent mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
          • Right side handles deoxygenated blood
          • Left side pumps oxygenated blood
        • Designed to ensure one-way flow of blood
  • Heart
      • Anatomy
        • 4 chambers
          • 2 atria –thin walled chambers that collect blood from veins and empty it into the ventricles
          • 2 ventricles – larger, thick-walled chambers that contract, pumping blood out into arteries
            • Left ventricle is the largest because it is working under highest pressure
  • Heart
        • 4 valves – prevent blood from flowing backward in the heart
          • AV (atrioventricular) valves between atria and ventricles
          • Semilunar valves between ventricles and arteries
  • Heart
        • Blood vessels
          • Veins
            • Vena cava collect blood from the body
            • Pulmonary vein brings blood from the lungs to the heart (note this vein carries oxygenated blood)
          • Arteries
            • Pulmonary takes blood from heart to lungs
            • Aorta takes blood from left ventricle to the body
  • Heart
  • Heart
      • Cardiac cycle
        • Blood enters right atrium from vena cava
        • As atrium fills , AV valve opens and right ventricle begins to fill
        • Atrium contracts, filling the ventricle
        • Ventricle contracts , AV valve closes, semilunar valve opens, blood moves into pulmonary artery , then to the lungs
  • Heart
        • Blood enters capillaries in lungs , where it picks up oxygen, releases carbon dioxide
        • Oxygenated blood flows into pulmonary vein, then enters left atrium
        • AV valve opens and left ventricle begins to fill
        • Atrium contracts, filling the ventricle
        • Ventricle contracts , AV valve closes, semilunar valve opens, blood moves into aorta and is distributed to the body.
  • Cardiac Cycle
      • Heart muscle itself gets its blood supply from the coronary arteries (which branch off the aorta), not the blood flowing through it.
  • Cardiac Cycle
    • Animation http://www.guidant.com/condition/heart/interact_5.html
  • Blood
    • Blood is the fluid that transports substances around the body.
      • Its job is to “nourish and cleanse each living cell.” ( In His Image , Brand and Yancey, p.59)
      • Consists of cells suspended in plasma (liquid)
  • Blood
      • Cells
        • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
          • Round cells that carry oxygen
            • Contain hemoglobin , an iron-containing protein that binds oxygen very strongly in lungs, then releases it in oxygen-poor environment of the capillaries
  • Blood
          • Don’t have a nucleus
          • Live about 120 days
          • Made in the bone marrow
            • We make about 2 million new RBC per second
          • Normally have about 5 million RBC in speck of blood the size of a letter “o”
  • Blood
        • White blood cells (leukocytes)
          • Several different types, all part of immune system
          • Defend the body against disease (bacteria, viruses fungi worms), toxins and cancer
            • Many act by surrounding and engulfing invaders
  • Blood
          • When infection present in the body, WBC count increases to combat it. Doctors measure WBC levels to determine presence and extent of infections.
          • More Than Meets the Eye
  • Blood
        • Platelets – small fragments of WBC that help form blood clots when a blood vessel is damaged.
          • Platelets stick to wound site, attract more platelets
  • Blood
          • Clotting proteins circulating in blood become activated
          • Fibrin becomes activated by clotting factors, forms a network of threads (like a spiderweb) that traps more platelets and RBC to form a clot
  • Blood
      • Plasma – watery fluid containing cells and dissolved molecules like proteins, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients (glucose, amino acids and fats), waste products (like urea) and hormones
    • End of Chapter 7
  • Circulatory System
    • Introduction (slide 2 for me)
      • Talked about how cells move substances across cell membranes
        • How?
      • Respiratory system brings oxygen into the body, gets rid of carbon dioxide
      • Excretory system removes wastes from cells
  • Circulatory System
    • Goals for this unit: (Slide 4 for me)
      • Know what the circulatory system is.
        • Know the components of the system
      • What the circulatory system does.
        • How each of the components contributes to the overall function of the whole.
      • What are some of illnesses that result from problems in the circulatory system? (You will get this from the written assignment you’re doing.)
  • Cardiac Cycle
    •   Patients requiring blood almost never receive transfusions of whole blood. Instead, a patient typically receives only the components necessary to treat their clinical condition. Therefore, whole blood donations must be processed to separate out each component. Each component plays a different role in the health and survival of a patient. Red blood cells comprise 40-50% of blood volume. They carry oxygen to vital organs and are required by surgical patients who lose blood during surgery or by trauma victims who have lost blood as a result of an accident or injury. Red blood cells that have been donated can be stored in a refrigerator for up to 42 days. If they are not used within six weeks, they must be thrown away. They can also be stored frozen for up to 10 years. Red cells are the most commonly transfused blood component and most whole blood collections are done with the specific intent of capturing the red cell component. Red Blood Cells carry oxygen to organs.       Platelets account for a small percentage of whole blood volume. They are used therapeutically to control bleeding and are often transfused in multiple doses to cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Platelets must be stored at room temperature to retain their visibility. Therefore, they have only a five day shelf life before they must be discarded due to possible growth of bacteria. Platelets aid in clotting.       Plasma: The remainder of blood volume is plasma, a watery substance in which proteins that trigger blood clotting mechanisms are suspended. Plasma can be transfused directly to a patient, but, more often, plasma is used as a raw material for pharmaceuticals. Plasma is “fractionated” into its different protein components, which are then manufactured into pharmaceuticals. Factor VIII, which is required by hemophiliacs to control bleeding, is one such plasma derived medicine. Plasma can be stored frozen for up to one year. Plasma: the fluid portion of blood.
  • Blood
          • Illnesses
            • Anemia – too few RBC, can’t carry enough oxygen. Person gets very tired, prone to infections. Treat with iron for less severe cases or blood transfusion for severe cases. Females especially prone to this.
            • Sickle cell anemia
            • Hemophilia – inadequate clotting
            • Mutations in clotting proteins cause profuse bleeding from even minor wounds.
            • Treat by giving clotting factor. Used to be obtained from blood donors, so many patients contracted HIV and hepatitis. Now use factors produced by bacteria. (Insert human gene into bacteria and have them mass produce the correct protein.)
  • Blood
          • Clotting disorders
            • Clots can form in blood vessels due to internal damage (fatty plaques, for example). If clot obstructs vessels to heart heart attack. Obstruct vessels to brain stroke. Both are debilitating and can be fatal.