Management of Alewife


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Presentation from 2008 Wellfleet Harbor Conference

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Management of Alewife

  1. 1. The Life History and Management of Alewife ( Alosa pseudoharengus ) Abigail Franklin, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Department of Natural Resources Conservation
  2. 2. <ul><li>Natural history of herring </li></ul><ul><li>Population status & possible causes of declines </li></ul><ul><li>Nature-like fishway research </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies that manage alewife </li></ul><ul><li>New management plan! </li></ul><ul><li>Situation at Herring River, Wellfleet </li></ul>The Biology and Management of Alewife ( Alosa psuedoharengus )
  3. 3. Anadromous and Catadromous Species Atlantic Salmon American Shad Alewife Blueback Herring Sea Lamprey Atlantic Sturgeon Shortnose Sturgeon Sea-run Brown Trout Sea-run Brook Trout White Perch Rainbow Smelt Striped Bass American Eel Hickory Shad Gizzard Shad Alabama Shad Skipjack Herring
  4. 4. Alewife Blueback Herring White Perch Striped Bass American Eel Anadromous and Catadromous Species of Wellfleet
  5. 5. Range of Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus)
  6. 6. Alewife ( Alosa pseudoharengus) Ocean Estuary River Upstream spawning migration to natal river Downstream migration Spawning in ponds
  7. 7. Eggs <ul><li>0.80-1.27mm </li></ul><ul><li>Hatch in 2-5 days </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae form schools 2 weeks after hatching </li></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Juvenile alewife research <ul><li>Yako, Mather, & Juanes 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>- Not just temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate July-November </li></ul><ul><li>Migration is complex </li></ul><ul><li>First to leave are smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Peak migrations correspond to low food </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate during new moon </li></ul>
  10. 10. Where do they go in the ocean? Summer and Fall Gulf of Maine
  11. 11. Where do they go in the ocean? Winter
  12. 12. Where do they go in the ocean?
  13. 14. How do they switch from salt to freshwater? Gills Gill filaments Chloride cell
  14. 17. Pounds of River Herring Landed 1950-2004 River Intercept Fisheries Data from National Marine Fisheries Service Population Status
  15. 18. Who cares if herring populations are declining? So what?
  16. 19. Who cares if herring populations are declining? So what? People Zooplankton Atlantic cod Bluefish Striped Bass eat eat eat Blueback Herring Alewife eat eat eat
  17. 20.
  18. 21. Who cares if herring populations are declining? So what?
  19. 23. <ul><li>Water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Blocked access to spawning grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing mortality </li></ul>Cause of declines?
  20. 24. United States Geological Survey Silvio O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center One Migratory Way, Turners Falls, MA <ul><li>Research Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Fish Passage </li></ul><ul><li>-Dr. Alexander Haro </li></ul>
  21. 26. 2500
  22. 27. Goal: create appropriate slope and water velocity to allow fish to pass with minimum amount of stress, injury, delay, and mortality Technical Fishways Pool and weir Denil Steeppass
  23. 28. Technical Fishway Nature-like Fishway <ul><li>Constructed with metal, concrete, wood </li></ul><ul><li>Same hydraulic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Pass target species </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed with natural substrates </li></ul><ul><li>Range of velocities, design site specific </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: Stream continuity, pass all migratory fish, provide habitat </li></ul>Technical vs. Nature-like Fishways Steeppass Nature-like
  24. 29. Town Brook, Plymouth
  25. 31. Town Brook, Plymouth Billington St. Dam 2002
  26. 32. Billington St. Dam 2002 Town Brook, Plymouth
  27. 33. Town Brook, Plymouth Nature-like Fishway
  28. 34. Town Brook, Plymouth Length: 30m Slope: 1:20 Width: 7-8m
  29. 35. A1 Off Billington St. Dam Pool & weir Fishway A6 A8 A5 A4 A7 A2 A3 Town Brook Pond Release Site ~1 km downstream Nature-like Fishway Flow Antenna Layout – Town Brook
  30. 36. Town Brook, Plymouth <ul><li>103 fish detected at beginning of fishway </li></ul><ul><li>96 fish detected at top of fishway </li></ul><ul><li>Passage: 94% completed NLF </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5.8% pass beyond next dam </li></ul>Results
  31. 37. Town Brook, Plymouth Off Billington St. Dam = 96 =6
  32. 38. Town Brook Off Billington Dam, Plymouth How many attempts did they make to pass? How long did they stay below the dam on the first attempt?
  33. 40. Ocean intercept fishery CHOIR Coalition
  34. 41. CHOIR Coalition
  35. 42. CHOIR Coalition
  36. 43. Who manages river herring? <ul><li>Federal : NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service </li></ul><ul><li>Regional : Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission </li></ul><ul><li>States : Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Local : Town of Wellfleet </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed Associations </li></ul>
  37. 44. <ul><li>Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission </li></ul><ul><li>DRAFT AMENDMENT 2 to the </li></ul><ul><li>Interstate Fishery Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>For SHAD AND RIVER HERRING </li></ul><ul><li>For Public Comment </li></ul><ul><li>(River Herring Management) </li></ul> Comments due by January 1, 2009 Public Hearing December 1,2008
  38. 45. <ul><li>Technical Report: A Survey of Anadromous Fish Passage in Coastal Massachusets </li></ul><ul><li>River Herring Moratorium 2005, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Dockside Sampling </li></ul>Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries
  39. 46. What impacts river herring populations in the Herring River? Delay Water Quality
  40. 49.
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