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Workplace Violence Presentation at Annual Conference

Workplace Violence Presentation at Annual Conference

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  • 1. Workplace Violence Prevention: Strategies and Interventions Presented By: W. Barry Nixon, SPHR National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 2. W. Barry Nixon, SPHR
    • Executive Director, National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
    • Creator of www.Workplaceviolence911.com (the leading source on the Internet for comprehensive information on workplace violence)
    • Contact Information: wbnixon@aol.com or Telephone – (949)770-5264
  • 3. Learning Objective
    • Participants will increase their knowledge of the size, scope, nature, the legal and financial implications of workplace violence  
    • Participant will increase their knowledge of management practices that are effective in deterring incidents of violence
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 4. Definition - Workplace Violence
    • National Institute for the Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc .
      • Acts of aggression or v iolence, whether intentional or reckless , including assaults, threats, disruptive, aggressive, hostile, or verbal or emotionally abusive behaviors that generate anxiety, that occurs in, or are related to the workplace and entails a real or perceived risk of physical, emotional and/or psychological harm to individuals, or damage to an organization’s resources or capabilities.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 5. Riskiest Jobs
    • Jobs that involve handling cash and/or other valuable items
    • Jobs that provide service to the public as a clientele and have direct contact with service recipients
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 6. US Workplace Violence Overview
    • Nearly five percent of the 7.1 million private industry business establishments in the United States had an incident of workplace violence within the 12 months prior to completing a new survey on workplace violence prevention.
    • While 5 percent of all establishments, including State and local governments, had a violent incident, half of the largest establishments (employing 1,000 or more workers) reported an incident.
    • Survey Of Workplace Violence Prevention, US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 7. Violence in the Workplace NOTE: Data from 2001 exclude fatalities resulting from the September 11 terrorist attacks. SOURCE: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 2000-2008
    • 21 st Century – 5902 people murdered at work
    • 21 st Century – average homicides at work 590 per year
    • Annually close to 2 million people report violent victimizations while they are working or on duty
  • 8. Violence in the Workplace
    • 2007 - 628
    • 2006 – 540
    • 2005 – 567
    • 2004 – 559
    • 2003 – 632
    • 2002 – 609
    • 2001 – 643
    • 2000 – 677
    • NOTE: Data from 2001 exclude fatalities resulting from the September 11 terrorist attacks.
    • SOURCE: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 2009
    •        
    • 2008 – 526
    Workplace Deaths
    • 2009 – 521
    • Workplace suicides rose to a series-high total of 263 in 2008; down to 237 in 2009
  • 9.
    • Size of the Problem
    • During 21 st Century - Third leading cause of Death
        • 80% of victims are Men
        • 80% Involved Guns, 10% Knives
        • 2 nd Leading Cause of Death for Women at Work
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 10. 2011Workplace Violence Shootings
    • Jan 7 - Two Nurses Stabbed by Patient : Voluntarily committed resident was considered low risk. Senior nurse killed, one other critically injured.
    • Jan 7 - Hospital Worker Kills Supervisor after Poor Performance Review
    • Jan 9 - Congresswoman Gabrielle Gifford, staff members Shot at Arizona Speaking event.
    • Feb 4 - $300,000 Charge against Night Club Owner for Sex Assault of Staff member : Allegedly chose location of assault where there were no security cameras.
    • Feb 10 - Real Estate Agent Attacks Wife of Business Partner : He jumped over the desk and repeatedly punched her. 
    • Feb 11 - Man Shot Trying to Defuse Co-worker at Pittsburgh Welding Company They were reportedly close friends and motive is unknown. Suspect had been knocked down in a fight. 
    • Feb 11 - Man Brings Flowers and Gun to Queen's Pharmacy to Kill Ex : Made previous threats at workplace and TRO  
    • Feb 15 - Auditor Sentenced for 15 Years for Firing Shotgun at Indiana Dept. of Workforce Developmen t: Right after negative review, he retrieves shotgun.  
    • Feb 22 - Principal Killed by Janitor During School Hours
    •  
  • 11.
    • Triggering Events
    • Performance reviews
    • Disciplinary action and terminations
    • Denial of disability, unemployment, worker's compensation claims, etc.
    • Rude and disrespectful treatment
    • Change and transition
    • Work force reduction
    • Business conflicts
    • Personality conflicts
    • Interpersonal issues
    • Unresolved problems
    • Domestic issues
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 12. Verbal Assault
    • “ When a person is demeaned, disrespected, shamed, treated unjustly, or their boundaries are violated it is a terrible assault on their psychic.”
    • Pauline Salvucci, SelfCare Connections;
    • How to Survive the Workplace Bully, 20 Proven Strategies to Regain Control of Your Life."
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 13.
    • NIOSH estimates the economic cost of workplace violence nationwide at around $121 billion a year.
    • Nonfatal workplace assaults alone result in more than 876,000 lost workdays and $16 millions in lost wages.
    • According to NIOSH the average cost for a workplace homicides exceeds $850,000.00.
    • The average jury award for negligent cases is more than $3 million and cases that are settled average around $500,000.00
    Financial Impact Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 14.
    • Potential Legal Issues
    • Negligent Hiring
    • Negligent Retention
    • Duty to Warn
    • OSHA general requirements
    • Confidentiality
    • Worker's Compensation
    • Employee Notification
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 15. OSHA’s General Duty Clause Section 5(a)(1) Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm This includes the prevention and control of the hazard of workplace violence
  • 16. Steps to Prevent Workplace Violence
  • 17. Workplace Violence Prevention Policy
  • 18. Violence in the Workplace Policy
    • Focus on creating and maintaining a safe workplace environment
    • Implement programs that will mitigate the risk of injury or physical harm to employees, customers, vendors and others who are in your offices
    • Form and empower a Threat Management Team
    • Clearly define threats and policy violations
    • Encourage employee reporting
    • Train supervisors and employees
    • Investigate all reported threats and incidents
  • 19. Levels of Threats
    • Each threat or alleged threat must be assessed and managed based on the uniqueness of the situation and considering the clarity, severity and imminence of the threat.
  • 20.
    • How Managers Treat Employees Makes a Difference
    • Indifference
    • Rude
    • Exceptional
    • Caring
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 21.
    • Toxic Organizations
    • A culture and workplace characterized by:
    • on going and extreme levels of conflict and stress
    • abusive and arbitrary managerial practices
    • frequent displays of warning signs of potential
    • violence by employees and supervisors, including
    • threats
    • widespread perception of injustice and unfair
    • treatment on the job
    • persistent fear of job loss by employees whether
    • actual or perceived
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 22.
    • Creating A Violence Free Culture
    • Open communications/constant open door
    • Clear and fair problem resolution processes
    • Employees receive basic skill training in interpersonal relations (how to treat people with the kind of respect and dignity you would expect to be treated with)
    • Quality Initiative, e.g., Baldridge/ISO 9000 type standards
    • Employee Suggestion system supported and valued
    • Select employees carefully
    • Policies and practices to treat 'all employees as being important, with respect and that reinforce treating employees as responsible adults’
    • Pro-actively communicated EAP
    Award Winning Employee Treatment Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 23. Zero Incidents
    • The target of an effective workplace violence program is injury prevention. By focusing on reducing “at risk” behaviors and practices, organizations can attack and remove the root causes of injuries and intervene before incidents happen.
    Detect Prevent Protect Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 24. Detect – Prevent – Protect Model
    • Detect – focus efforts on understanding and discovering ‘at risk’ behaviors for individuals and violence prone trends for organizations.
    • Prevent - anticipate and deal with possible problematic situations before they escalate into problematic behaviors or conflict actually erupts.
    • Protect – implement measures to contain issues, resolve hostilities and activate crisis response plan.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 25. 1-Detect
    • Human Resources knows pulse of workforce, early detection of problems, employee relations issues, complaints, etc.
    • Threat/Incident investigations and assessment geared towards identifying underlying ‘root causes’ of issues and learning from incidents to continuously improve early detection.
    • Risk Assessments
      • Identify potential workplace security hazards/resolve risk factors
      • Track incidents, close calls and threats. Look for patterns.
      • Individual Threat Assessment process
      • Organization Risk Assessment
      • Fitness for duty evaluations
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 26. 1-Detect
    • Enlist employee support to enhance employee reporting
    • Monitor employee relations issues, complaints, EAP reports for patterns, trends, hot issues, etc.
    • Implement ‘hot line’ or other anonymous means of reporting key information
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 27. Threat Assessment Begins Before You Hire an Employee
    • “ Past behavior provides powerful insights into potential future behavior”
    • Background Screening
    • Reference Checking
    • Reference Assessments
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 28. Threat Assessment Begins Before You Hire an Employee
    • Jan 2011 Police and the Montgomery County State's Attorney's Office report that Keith D. Little, a Suburban employee who reported to Brockington, was charged in his murder. Brockington was Little’s direct supervisor, and that had reprimanded Little on several recent occasions and his performance appraisal denied Little a raise.
    • Police uncover court records indicating that Little was charged in 2005 with murder of a co-worker inside a secured facility in Washington, D.C., though he was never convicted . Court records described the motive for the murder as the victim accusing Little of stealing tools from the workplace.  
    • Source:  http://gaithersburg.patch.com/articles/murder-at-suburban-hospital-timeline-of-events-2
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 29.
    • How many of your organizations conduct Infinity Screening of employees post hire?
  • 30. Infinity Screening
    • Post hiring screening can help identify threats to the organization during the employment life cycle of an employee.
  • 31.
    • Why Don't Employees Report Threats or Acts of Violence?
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 32. You Know the Reasons Why Employees Don’t Report
    • Organizations need to focus on addressing the factors that deter employees from reporting threats or acts of violence and engage them in being part of the solution to preventing workplace violence.
    • Invest organization resources and time on increasing employee awareness of importance of reporting threats and incidents.
    • Ensure reporting procedures and contact information are clear and are widely understood .
    “ Workplace Violence Prevention is Everybody’s Business” Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 33. Identify Threats To Prevent Escalation
    • Organizations need to significantly increase their knowledge and awareness of the full range of behaviors that may indicate an increased risk for the potential for an individual to commit violence.
    • Identify the key indicators of aberrant behavior and clearly outline the process to report.
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 34. Threats Lead To Cache Of Guns
    • Police say John Macombe, 50 made threats involving guns against a co-worker while being evaluated at MidState Medical Center and that prompted the investigation. He was arrested Wednesday and is being held in lieu of $250,000 bail.
    • Source: http://www.myrecordjournal.com/meriden/article_78d1fd60-1f92-11e0-8a6e-001cc4c03286.html
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 35. Threat Intervention
    • Organizations must establish an array of possible interventions to address identified ‘risk:’
      • Supervisor has dialogue with employee
      • HR has dialogue with employee
      • Referral to EAP
      • Fitness for Duty Assessment
      • Formal Threat Assessment
      • Contact Law Enforcement
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 36. There are Hundreds of Eyes at Ken’s. We’re Counting on All of Them . IF YOU SEE SOMETHING, SAY SOMETHING. Tell a Supervisor, Call HR or Security or Police. Source:NYC Metropolitan Transportation Authority
  • 37.
    • Recognizing
    • Early Warning Signs
    • Threats: Person makes direct, veiled or conditional threats of harm.
    • Unreasonable ; Person constantly makes slighting references to others, are never happy with what is going on and is consistently unreasonable.
    • Intimidation and Control Oriented; Person feels a need to constantly force their opinion on others. He has a compulsive need to control others. He uses intimidation of others to get his way (can be physical or verbal intimidation).e.g., fear tactics, threats, harassing behaviors including phone calls, stalking, etc.
    • Paranoid ; Person thinks other employees are out to get them. She thinks there is a conspiracy to all functions of society. She feels persecuted, or victim of injustice.
    • Irresponsible ; Person doesn’t take responsibility for any of their behaviors or faults or mistakes, it's always someone else's fault. Blames others, the company, the system for problems, errors and disruptive behaviors, etc.
    • Angry, Argumentative & Confrontive ; Person has many hate and anger issues on and off the job with co-workers, family, friends, or the government. He is frequently involved in confrontations, belligerent and arguments and has low impulse control.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 38.
    • Recognizing
    • Early Warning Signs
    • Violence Fascination and Acceptance; Person applauds violent acts portrayed in the media in racial incidences, domestic violence, shooting sprees, etc. He is fascinated with the killing power of weapons and their destructive effect on people. Has extreme interest in guns.
    • Vindictive; Person makes statements like "he will get his" or "what comes around goes around" or "one of these days I'll have my say".
    • Bizarre Behavior : Person is quirky, strange; considered weird and behaves in unusual manner; their presence makes others feel uncomfortable;
    • Desperation : Person expresses extreme desperation over recent family, financial or personal problems.
    • Obsessions : Person has obsessive involvement with the job, particularly when no apparent outside interests exist. He may have a romantic obsession with co-worker who has no interest in him. He suffers from other forms of obsessions.
    • Substance Abuse : Person has signs of alcohol and/or drug abuse.
    • Depression : Person displays chronic signs of depression, loss of interest and confident in life or work, is lethargic, lacks energy, particularly when this is a significant change in behavior.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 39.
    • Employee Assistance Program(EAP)
    • Purpose:
    • To provide confidential preventative services to employees and assist them in the following areas:
      • Marital/Family Discord
      • Grief & Loss
      • Alcohol/Drug Abuse
      • Parenting/Family
      • Self Improvement
      • Emotional/Mental Health (depression, stress, anxiety, etc.)
      • Interpersonal Relationship Problems
      • Gambling
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 40. Anticipating Organization Violence
    • Review the factors common to organizations in which violence has occurred against your organization.
    ‘ Common Factors to Violence Prone Organizations’ available at www.Workplaceviolence911.com Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 41. Anticipating Organization Violence
    • Educate Supervisors and Employees to increase their awareness of the problem and to know how spot trouble signs.
    • Supervisors trained in how to appropriately intervene.
    • Employees trained in how to report, react to situations; what to do.
    • Ensure HR and Security Staff is knowledgeable about ‘what to do’ and ‘how to handle’(they will be looked upon as the experts).
    • Utilize threat assessment process to diagnose level of threat.
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 42. 2-Prevent
    • “ If you can anticipate it, you can plan for it”
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 43. Prevention
    • Workplace Violence Prevention Management Team/Incident Response Team: coordinate cross functional efforts to create a security and safety conscious work culture
    • Fitness for Duty Evaluation: psychological
    • Restraining Orders – individual and workplace, if available
    • Education and Training (warning signs, staying calm, taking reports seriously)
    • Intervene with intent of disrupting the ‘Cycle of Aggression’
    • ‘ Think About It Time-off’
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 44. Prevention
    • Anger management coaching and counseling
    • Proactive use of EAP: consultations and referrals
    • Stay Safe @ Work plan
    • Law Enforcement or Security Consultant meet with potential aggressor to assess level of danger and to put the person on notice
    • Termination and other adverse action planning
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 45. Security Conscious Culture
    • Cultural expectations and patterns of behavior guide what people consider to be appropriate conduct and they guide what people do.
    • Burill, C.W., & Ledolter, J., Achieving quality management through continual improvement, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 46. Respect is Key
    • “ Nothing is more important than letting a person know that you are treating them with respect and that you will try to help them find a way to save face . . . [even if you think they don’t deserve it]”
    • This is particularly true when a employee is being subjected to an adverse employment action, e.g., disciplinary action, demotion, layoff, termination, etc.
    • James Gilligan, a psychiatrist who directed mental health programs in the Massachusetts Prisons, THE WORKPLACE : How a job can lead to deadly ends, The Times Center, International Herald Tribune, http://www.iht.com/articles/2004/01/28/workcol_ed3__0.php
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 47.
    • “ Conflict is inevitable,
    • Violence is not”
  • 48. Anger Management Toolkit: Steps to Diffusing Angry Person
    • Practice active listening
    • Treat the person with Respect/Acknowledge the person’s anger – I don't blame you for being angry”
    • Give the person choices - “Would you prefer to keep yelling at me or would rather we try to find a solution to this issue.”
    • Get the person into a Problem Solving dialogue - “What alternatives do he/she believe would help resolve the issue?"
  • 49. Anger Management Toolkit: Steps to Diffusing Angry Person
    • Validate their ideas - Say something like "those are good suggestions worth considering" or "those are good points, you may be on to something" or "you could be right in making that suggestion.”
    • Stay Calm - this allows you to maintain full use of your skills.
  • 50. Conflict Resolution Training
    • Does your conflict resolution training include skill building for supervisors to learn how to effectively defuse angry or hostile situations?
    • Conflict resolutions skills should be a key competency for supervisors.
  • 51. Prevention
    • “ Stop it, before it begins”
  • 52. 3-Protect
    • Notify threatened employee of potential danger.
    • Maintain surveillance of potential perpetrator.
    • If trouble starts, call Security to intervene immediately notify Threat Management Team, implement law enforcement protocol in place (remember in active shooter situations shots are generally fired in the first 5 minutes; plan accordingly).
    • Have Crisis Response Plan prepared and ready to put into action.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 53. Crisis Response Plan
    • Focus is to reduce the impact on people and business resources
    • Mass communication process in place to reach off site and onsite employees, supervisors, clients, community, etc.
    • Prepare for meeting the press ahead of time
    • Communication plan with ‘First Responder’ community
    • Have an ‘Active Shooter’ plan (recognize it is different from other emergencies because of the human element)
    • Training and practice to ensure necessary level of preparation
    Copyrighted Materials: National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 54. Rapid Response
    • Active Shooter events require a rapid transition from normal operations to ensure effective response.
      • Develop mass warning and notification capabilities with the ability to warn all personnel within 10 minutes of incident notification.
      • Advance preparation efforts must include first responders to ensure an integrated response.
    • Ensure you have a clear emergency number for employees to call and regularly communicate this information.
  • 55. Survival Mind Set
    • Take responsibility for your own safety; mentally prepare using ‘what if’ scenarios
    • Rehearsing for the event; mental walk through of actions I will take
    • Practicing response Training and pre-preparation helps to control anxiety by providing a framework of actions that can to be taken.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 56. Preparation is Key
    • “ People often think that when there is a crisis or danger people will rise to the occasion, however, more often than not, people will rise to the level of their preparation .”
    • Unknown Fire Chief
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 57. Survival Mind Set
    • Evaluate available options
    • Escape, if possible
    • Hide, concealment
    • Lock or barricade doors to keep the perpetrator out
    • Be prepared to attack shooter if no other options available; consider this action very carefully because once this decision is made ‘there is no turning back’ and your survival is at stake.
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 58.
    • Avoid Becoming a Victim by
    • Keeping These Thoughts in Mind
    • Assess your employee’s ability to de-escalate conflict situations and develop training plans for those that need their skills enhanced
    • Develop ‘what if’ scenarios on situations your employees might encounter hostile or violent encounters and think through a plan of action that identifies your options
      • Diffusing the situation; talking the person down
      • Know how to get help
      • Exit strategy
    • Encourage employees to be alert and assess their surroundings
    • Encourage employees to learn to trust their instincts, if it doesn't feel right then get out of there
    Department Security Plan Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 59.
    • Food for Thought
    • " You can't say that every threat is going to happen,
    • but you can't say that this threat will not happen, and because you don't know which ones are going to be the real ones you need to be proactive in addressing all of them.”
        • Survivor of Workplace Violence Shooting Spree
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 60.
    • Respect is the Key
    "The principle of mutual respect is a starting point for enhancing excellence in interpersonal relations." Michael J. Sales, Designing Magnetic Organizations in an Age of Insecurity Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 61. Winning the Battle Against Workplace Violence
    • “ 80% of Success is Preparation”
    • Joe Louis
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 62. Key to Fewer Incidents
    • Fewer “at risk” behaviors equals
    • fewer incidents
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 63.
    • Key Points to Remember
    • Focus on prevention
    • Treat all individuals with respect
    • Treat all threats seriously and report immediately
    • Don't escalate conflicts; be willing to walk away or resolve it some other way
    • Don't isolate yourself and go it alone; use the resources available to help you
    • Don't minimize the facts or underestimate the potential danger
    • Don't over react, become emotional or part of the problem
    • Don't get caught unprepared - Have a plan
    Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 64.
    • Rolling the Dice
    " You Can Only Be Lucky for so Long" Travis Walker, Director Security, Radisson Hotel from a presentation by Barry Nadell, Info-Link Copyright 2011 - National Institute for Prevention of Workplace Violence, Inc.
  • 65. Workplace Violence Prevention Resource Center
    • www.Workplaceviolence911.com
      • The Workplace Violence Prevention eReport
      • The 2011 Workplace Violence Fact Sheet
      • Common Factors to Violence Prone Organizations
      • Zero Tolerance is Not Enough: Making Workplace Violence Prevention Really Work
      • The Ultimate Workplace Violence Prevention Policy Maker Software
      • Comprehensive Guide for Selecting a Background Screening Firm
    • www.Caepv.org (domestic violence)
    • www.ASISOnline.org (workplace violence prevention guidelines)