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SOCIAL CONTEXTS
OF YOUTH BULLYING
Warren J. Blumenfeld Ed.D.
University of Massachusetts
warrenblumenfeld@gmail.com
“It takes a village
to raise a child.”
African proverb.
THE FLOW
Definitions
My Assumptions
“Messages”
What Causes Prejudice and Discrimination
Social Learning Theory and Role Mo...
DEFINITION: Bullying
Bullying is a specific type of aggression in which
(1) the behavior is intended to harm or disturb,
(...
DEFINITION: Harassment
Harassment is victimization based upon one’s real
or perceived race, color, national origin, religi...
MY ASSUMPTIONS
1. Crucial components of bullying prevention efforts often
missing: social and cultural contexts & engageme...
Social Learning Theory
Individuals learn by
observing & associating
with others (modeling).
Modeling alone — free
from rei...
Social Learning Theory
Society presents many
role models,
From very positive & to
very negative, biased,
aggressive, & des...
Social Learning Theory
Modeling is more than
concrete actions
(“response mimicry”).
Also abstract concepts
(“Abstract Mode...
ROLE MODELS
1. Think back in your life to any role models
you may have. Who were they?
2. How did they serve as role model...
Some of My Role Models
My Maternal
Grandparents:
Simon & Eva Mahler
Love, compassion,
identity, survival,
hope, sense of
f...
Some of My Role Models
Frederick Douglass
Abolitionist who escaped
from slavery
Vision of a greater nation,
a reconciler, ...
Some of My Role Models
Harriet Tubman
Abolitionist who escaped from
slavery
Visionary of a greater nation,
a reconciler, a...
Some of My Role Models
Eleanor Roosevelt
First Woman of the
USA.
Strong, committed, self
reflective, champion
for equality...
Some of My Role Models
César Estrada Chávez
Mexican American farm
worker, union
organizer, and civil
rights activist
Co-fo...
Some of My Role Models
Leonard Bernstein
Jewish & Gay
American
Conductor, Composer,
Educator
Articulated a love of
music m...
Television as Positive Role Model
ABC: Extreme Makeover: Home Edition
Advertising as Positive Role Model
“At Liberty Mutual, our job
just isn’t about providing you
with insurance. It’s about
c...
What Causes Prejudice &
Discrimination?
“You’ve Got To Be Carefully Taught”
You've got to be taught
To hate and fear,
You've got to be taught
From year to year,
I...
Bullying Prevention Ad
http://goodmenproject.com/blog-classics/this-anti-
bullying-ad-aimed-at-grown-ups-will-break-your-h...
Social Learning Theory
Young people observe
negative role modeling
in society, home, school
Can result in young
person exh...
Social Learning Theory
Bobo Doll experiment
Purpose: determine if
adult modeling resulted
in either aggressive or
non-aggr...
Social Learning Theory
Participants:
– 36 boys, 36 girls
Control Group: 24 children
Average Age: 4 years
Children taken in...
Social Learning Theory
Children told, only adult
could play with toys,
participants must watch
adult.
Control group: no ad...
Social Learning Theory
Half participants, adult
played with tinker toys
one minute,
For nine minutes,
attacked Bobo doll,
...
Social Learning Theory
Other half of participants,
adult model played with
tinker toys, ignored Bobo
doll entire 10-minute...
Social Learning Theory
Each child taken into another playroom with
toys: airplane, fire engine, doll set.
To instill anger...
Social Learning Theory
Children taken individually to 3rd room. Left
alone 20 minutes to play with aggressive &
non-aggres...
Social Learning Theory
Experimenters observed each child
behind one-way mirror, evaluated
behaviors on measures of aggress...
Findings
Children who observed
aggressive adult model,
much more likely to exhibit
physical and verbal
aggressive behavior...
Research Conclusions
Children can learn behaviors, like verbal and
physical aggression, by observing & imitating
others.
E...
National Civility Survey
KRC Research & Weber Sandwick, 2010
Erosion of civility in modern life:
– In human relationships
...
Adults Construct the Rules;
Youth Forced to Follow
Implications?
What types of modeling
and messages are we
sending our young
people in the following
scenarios?
The “Trickle Down” Effect
“I can remember adults in my mostly White town
talking about how the Dutch were cheap, or the
No...
Popular Movie
Movie parody of high
budget war films.
“Simple Jack,”
portrayed by Ben
Stiller.
“Once upon a time there
was ...
Popular Radio Talk Show Host
Don Imus April 4, 2007
edition of MSNBC's
Imus in the Morning
Referred to the Rutgers
Univers...
Advertising as Negative Role Model
Advertising as Negative Role Model
V8 Juice “Punch” in the Head
Business
Business
Business: WHAT IF…?
Cocks & Balls
Government
UC-Davis
Nov. 18, 2011
Occupy
Movement
Police Mace
Peaceful
Protesters
Gun Club Christmas Photo
Children and parents are able to choose between
grenade launchers, assault rifles, and AK-47s
Nations Truck Sales, Sanford, FL
Free Assault Rifle voucher with each truck purchased
“We started on Veterans Day. Hey, so...
Holy Smoke Bullet Urns
Stockton, Alabama
Your Ashes into Bullets
Thad
Holmes
& Clem
Parnell,
owners
Bushmaster Guns
ADULT CYBERBULLYING
Andrew Breitbart Shirley Sherrod
Andrew Breitbart
– “Big Journalism” Blog
– Commentator, Washington Times
Selectively edited Shirley Sherrod’s inspirationa...
ADULT CYBERBULLYING
Andrew Shirvell
Assistant Attorney General,
Michigan
Attacking on-line and stocking
outside residence ...
ADULT CYBERBULLYING
Lori Janine Drew Megan Meier
Drew, mother of Meier’s friend
Dardenne, Prairie, Missouri
Drew posed as 16-year-old boy on MySpace named
“Josh Evans”
“Ev...
College students throughout the world were asked
to go 24 hours without digital media:
Product Marketing
NO MORE
WIMPY CHIPS!
Tired of chips that go mush when
you bite ’em or go to pieces when
you dip ‘em?
Cho...
Political Leader
Governor Arnold
Schwarzenegger, 2004,
referred to political
opponents as “girly-men.”
Legislators who opp...
Political Leader
Sharron Angle
Republican Senatorial
Candidate, Nevada,
2010
“Man up, Harry Reid”
calling his manhood
into...
Political Leader
Senate Republican
Majority Leader, 1998,
Trent Lott proclaimed
homosexuality a disease
and sin:
“It is [a...
Oklahoma State Representative
Sally Kern
Oklahoma State Representative
Sally Kern
“Studies show, no society that has totally
embraced homosexuality has lasted for ...
Columnist & Author
Ann Coulter, at Republican
Party Conservative Political
Action Conference, 2007
Called Democratic
presi...
Columnist & Author
CNBC show “The Big
Idea,” 2007, Ann Coulter
said everyone on earth
should be Christian and
that Jews ne...
Alabama Governor Robert Bentley
January 2011:
"So anybody here today
who has not accepted
Jesus Christ as their
savior, I'...
Movie Star & Director
Mel Gibson, arrested for
drunk driving, 2006,
ranted:
“F*****g Jews….The
Jews are responsible for
al...
September 11, 2001
ISLAMOPHOBIA
Islamophobia: prejudice and discrimination
toward the religion of Islam and Muslims who
follow its teachings ...
Islamophobia
Political Divisions
Political Divisions
Shell Gas Station, Texas, Nov. 2012
Political Divisions
Political Divisions
GOP Platform, 2012
Preserving and Protecting Traditional Marriage
The institution of marriage is the foundation of civil s...
“Religious” Justifications
Orthodox Judaism
Statement of Principles on the Place of Jews with
a Homosexual Orientation in Our Community:
“Judaism vie...
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
CATECHISM 1995
“Basing itself upon Sacred Scripture, which presents
homosexual acts as acts of grave...
Southern Baptist Convention
2010 “Resolution on Homosexuality and the United States Military”
“RESOLVED, That the messenge...
Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints
Homosexual behavior violates the
commandments of God, is contrary to the
purpo...
Evangelical Covenant Church
Resolution on Sexuality” adopted 1996:
“We human beings misuse God’s creation of sexuality and...
St. Patrick’s Day Parade:
South Boston
Banned Books
Government
Boy Scouts
“Boy Scouts of America believes that
homosexual conduct is inconsistent with the
obligations in the Scout Oath ...
Professional Hockey
Professional Wrestling
Ultimate Fighting
Youth Fight Clubs
Violent Movies
Violent Video Games
Bias-Related Victimization
Each year, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) tracks incidents of hate
crimes throughout...
LGBT MURDERED
Gwen Araujo
Brandie
Coleman
Sakia Gunn
Lawrence King
Delilah Corrales
Ukea DavisTyra Hunter
Mark
Bingham All...
Suicide
Third leading cause of death
among adolescents, &
responsible for more deaths
than all illnesses combined.
Youth Suicide from Bullying
Tyler Clementi, 18
Seth Walsh, 13
Billy Lucas, 15
Asher Brown, 13
Raymond Chase, 19
Megan Meie...
SYSTEMS ORIENTED
APPROACH:
BEYOND THE
“DYADIC VIEW”
Systems Oriented Approach
Bullying and harassment not simply
involving people who bully and people
who are bullied (the “d...
Systems Oriented Approach
Sutton and Smith (1999) identified six distinct though overlapping
roles.
– 1. The “Ringleader B...
Systems Oriented Approach
Olweus (2000) eight roles in the bullying process.
– 1. “Children Who Bully,” similar to Sutton ...
STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE
Bystander Behavior in Bullying Incidents
©The Olweus Prevention Group, 2004
38%
27%
35%
% of students who do
nothing
% of ...
Empowering the By-Stander
to Become the Up-Stander
Peer mediation and student leadership training
empowering and assisting...
What should students
have learned by the
time they graduate
high school?
Strategies for Change
In addition to teaching the 3 Rs (reading, writing,
and arithmetic),
Self Awareness: To “Read” the S...
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
8 “intelligences”
that are involved in
solving problems
and fashioning
products
He believ...
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Logical / Mathematical
Verbal / Linguistic
Musical / Rhythmic
Visual / Spatial
Bodily / K...
Home-School Partnerships
Long-Term and Continuous Home & School
Coordination & Cooperation
Emphasize and Reinforce Efforts...
Home-School Partnerships
Community Living Skills (cooperation, sharing)
Responsible & Caring Participation in a
Democracy ...
Mental Health-Home-School
Partnerships
Sex Education
Drug Education
Health Promotion
Bullying Prevention Efforts
School-Ba...
School Climate Assessment
Structural Issues (size of
school, etc.)
Environmental Issues
(physical condition, etc.)
Social-...
Policy
Develop and enforce comprehensive Bullying
Prevention Statewide Laws
Implemented into every school.
However…
Policy
“No Child Left Behind,” while attempting to raise
academic standards and levels,
Does not fund initiates to improve...
Teacher Education
Colleges & Universities offering Teacher
Education Certification & Degrees, emphasize:
– Self-Awareness ...
References
Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models’ reinforcement contingencies on the
acquisition of imitative responses....
CONCLUSION
"Never doubt that a
small group of
thoughtful committed
individuals can
change the world. In
fact, it's the onl...
The
End
Social Contexts of Youth Bullying
Social Contexts of Youth Bullying
Social Contexts of Youth Bullying
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Social Contexts of Youth Bullying

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This PowerPoint addresses how bullying & harassment are not simply youth problems and behaviors, but rather, it looks at the ways that young people often acquire bullying and harassing attitudes and behaviors from the larger society through process of “social learning.”

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Transcript of "Social Contexts of Youth Bullying"

  1. 1. SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF YOUTH BULLYING Warren J. Blumenfeld Ed.D. University of Massachusetts warrenblumenfeld@gmail.com
  2. 2. “It takes a village to raise a child.” African proverb.
  3. 3. THE FLOW Definitions My Assumptions “Messages” What Causes Prejudice and Discrimination Social Learning Theory and Role Modeling Scenarios Systems Oriented Approach Strategies for Change References
  4. 4. DEFINITION: Bullying Bullying is a specific type of aggression in which (1) the behavior is intended to harm or disturb, (2) the behavior occurs repeatedly over time, and (3) there is an imbalance of power, with a more powerful person or group attacking a less powerful one. This asymmetry of power may be physical or psychological, and the aggressive behavior may be verbal…, physical…, or psychological (e.g. spreading rumors, engaging in social exclusion, extortion, or intimidation). Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001
  5. 5. DEFINITION: Harassment Harassment is victimization based upon one’s real or perceived race, color, national origin, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, or marital status, physical appearance, or personality characteristics. Iowa Department of Education, Sample Policy on Bullying and Harassment, 2007.
  6. 6. MY ASSUMPTIONS 1. Crucial components of bullying prevention efforts often missing: social and cultural contexts & engagement. 2. Bullying & harassment not simply youth problems & behaviors. 3. Young people, through process of “social learning,” often acquire bullying & harassing attitudes and behaviors. 4. They also often learn the “socially sanctioned” targets for their aggressive behaviors. 5. Much of bullying behaviors based on social construction of mandatory, yet truly unattainable hyper-masculinity.
  7. 7. Social Learning Theory Individuals learn by observing & associating with others (modeling). Modeling alone — free from reinforcements — can be enough for people to incorporate and act on their own beliefs and behaviors. Albert Bandura
  8. 8. Social Learning Theory Society presents many role models, From very positive & to very negative, biased, aggressive, & destructive. Modeling process is very influential in beliefs and actions of young people. Albert Bandura
  9. 9. Social Learning Theory Modeling is more than concrete actions (“response mimicry”). Also abstract concepts (“Abstract Modeling”): following rules, taking on values & beliefs, making moral & ethical judgments. Albert Bandura
  10. 10. ROLE MODELS 1. Think back in your life to any role models you may have. Who were they? 2. How did they serve as role models? 3. What skills, knowledge, behaviors, views, perspectives, outlooks, feelings, etc. did you gain from them? 4. How have they impacted the course of your life?
  11. 11. Some of My Role Models My Maternal Grandparents: Simon & Eva Mahler Love, compassion, identity, survival, hope, sense of family, sense of history and identity
  12. 12. Some of My Role Models Frederick Douglass Abolitionist who escaped from slavery Vision of a greater nation, a reconciler, a survivor. “No person can place a chain about the ankles of another person without at last finding the chain around their own neck”
  13. 13. Some of My Role Models Harriet Tubman Abolitionist who escaped from slavery Visionary of a greater nation, a reconciler, a survivor. “If you hear the dogs, keep going. If you see the torches in the woods, keep going. If there’s shouting after you, keep going. Don’t ever stop. Keep going. If you want a taste of freedom, keep going.”
  14. 14. Some of My Role Models Eleanor Roosevelt First Woman of the USA. Strong, committed, self reflective, champion for equality, equity, cooperation, and understanding across apparent differences.
  15. 15. Some of My Role Models César Estrada Chávez Mexican American farm worker, union organizer, and civil rights activist Co-founder of United Farm Workers Tireless leader defending workers rights
  16. 16. Some of My Role Models Leonard Bernstein Jewish & Gay American Conductor, Composer, Educator Articulated a love of music making it accessible to younger people & generations
  17. 17. Television as Positive Role Model ABC: Extreme Makeover: Home Edition
  18. 18. Advertising as Positive Role Model “At Liberty Mutual, our job just isn’t about providing you with insurance. It’s about creating a relationship with you based on trust and mutual understanding. With our advertising, we want to engage you in what responsibility means to you.” http://www.whyresponsibility.com/ Responsibility: What’s Your Policy?
  19. 19. What Causes Prejudice & Discrimination?
  20. 20. “You’ve Got To Be Carefully Taught” You've got to be taught To hate and fear, You've got to be taught From year to year, It's got to be drummed In your dear little ear You've got to be carefully taught. You've got to be taught to be afraid Of people whose eyes are oddly made, And people whose skin is a diff'rent shade, You've got to be carefully taught. You've got to be taught before it's too late, Before you are six or seven or eight, To hate all the people your relatives hate, You've got to be carefully taught! “South Pacific,” Richard Rogers & Oscar Hammerstein, 1949
  21. 21. Bullying Prevention Ad http://goodmenproject.com/blog-classics/this-anti- bullying-ad-aimed-at-grown-ups-will-break-your-heart- hesaid/
  22. 22. Social Learning Theory Young people observe negative role modeling in society, home, school Can result in young person exhibiting aggressive or violent behaviors. Albert Bandura
  23. 23. Social Learning Theory Bobo Doll experiment Purpose: determine if adult modeling resulted in either aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors in young children.
  24. 24. Social Learning Theory Participants: – 36 boys, 36 girls Control Group: 24 children Average Age: 4 years Children taken individually in room of “non-aggressive” toys: crayons, tinker toys, and “aggressive” toys: wooden mallet, Bobo doll.
  25. 25. Social Learning Theory Children told, only adult could play with toys, participants must watch adult. Control group: no adult, participants could play with any toys.
  26. 26. Social Learning Theory Half participants, adult played with tinker toys one minute, For nine minutes, attacked Bobo doll, verbal insults, physical violence: – kicking, punching, hitting the head with wooden mallet.
  27. 27. Social Learning Theory Other half of participants, adult model played with tinker toys, ignored Bobo doll entire 10-minutes of experiment.
  28. 28. Social Learning Theory Each child taken into another playroom with toys: airplane, fire engine, doll set. To instill anger & frustration, experimenter told children they could play with toys in room for short time, & toys reserved for other children.
  29. 29. Social Learning Theory Children taken individually to 3rd room. Left alone 20 minutes to play with aggressive & non-aggressive toys. Aggressive toys: – Bobo doll, wooden mallet, dart guns, tetherball with a face painted on it, and others. Non-aggressive toys: – paper and crayons, tea set, dolls, a ball, cars, trucks, plastic farm animals.
  30. 30. Social Learning Theory Experimenters observed each child behind one-way mirror, evaluated behaviors on measures of aggressive behavior.
  31. 31. Findings Children who observed aggressive adult model, much more likely to exhibit physical and verbal aggressive behaviors when left alone in 3rd room. As opposed to children who were exposed to non- aggressive model or no model.
  32. 32. Research Conclusions Children can learn behaviors, like verbal and physical aggression, by observing & imitating others. Even in absence of behavioral reinforcements. Children highly influenced by observing adult behavior, believe that such behavior is acceptable, freeing own aggressive inhibitions. More likely to behave aggressively in future situations.
  33. 33. National Civility Survey KRC Research & Weber Sandwick, 2010 Erosion of civility in modern life: – In human relationships – Government – Business – Media – On-line 65% - Major Problem 71% - Worsened Recently
  34. 34. Adults Construct the Rules; Youth Forced to Follow
  35. 35. Implications? What types of modeling and messages are we sending our young people in the following scenarios?
  36. 36. The “Trickle Down” Effect “I can remember adults in my mostly White town talking about how the Dutch were cheap, or the Norwegians were just a bunch of Vikings that stole, and the Germans were just dirty krouts. The ideas trickled down to the youth, where they would call others the same things their parents called people as well.” University Teacher Education Student
  37. 37. Popular Movie Movie parody of high budget war films. “Simple Jack,” portrayed by Ben Stiller. “Once upon a time there was a retard.” R-word used 17 times.
  38. 38. Popular Radio Talk Show Host Don Imus April 4, 2007 edition of MSNBC's Imus in the Morning Referred to the Rutgers University women's basketball team, composed of eight African-American and two white players, as "nappy-headed hos."
  39. 39. Advertising as Negative Role Model
  40. 40. Advertising as Negative Role Model V8 Juice “Punch” in the Head
  41. 41. Business
  42. 42. Business
  43. 43. Business: WHAT IF…? Cocks & Balls
  44. 44. Government UC-Davis Nov. 18, 2011 Occupy Movement Police Mace Peaceful Protesters
  45. 45. Gun Club Christmas Photo Children and parents are able to choose between grenade launchers, assault rifles, and AK-47s
  46. 46. Nations Truck Sales, Sanford, FL Free Assault Rifle voucher with each truck purchased “We started on Veterans Day. Hey, so many have given so much for this right.” Nick Ginetta, General Sales Manager
  47. 47. Holy Smoke Bullet Urns Stockton, Alabama Your Ashes into Bullets Thad Holmes & Clem Parnell, owners
  48. 48. Bushmaster Guns
  49. 49. ADULT CYBERBULLYING Andrew Breitbart Shirley Sherrod
  50. 50. Andrew Breitbart – “Big Journalism” Blog – Commentator, Washington Times Selectively edited Shirley Sherrod’s inspirational speech delivered March 2010 to a local NAACP chapter in an attempt to impugn the extraordinary reputation and career of Ms. Sherrod
  51. 51. ADULT CYBERBULLYING Andrew Shirvell Assistant Attorney General, Michigan Attacking on-line and stocking outside residence of Chris Armstrong, the first openly-gay student body president at the University of Michigan Shirvell accused Armstrong of “promoting the radical gay agenda”
  52. 52. ADULT CYBERBULLYING Lori Janine Drew Megan Meier
  53. 53. Drew, mother of Meier’s friend Dardenne, Prairie, Missouri Drew posed as 16-year-old boy on MySpace named “Josh Evans” “Evans” turned on Meier She committed suicide, Oct. 2006, 13 years old. Drew indicted, three counts of accessing protected computers to inflict emotional distress, and one count of criminal conspiracy.
  54. 54. College students throughout the world were asked to go 24 hours without digital media:
  55. 55. Product Marketing NO MORE WIMPY CHIPS! Tired of chips that go mush when you bite ’em or go to pieces when you dip ‘em? Chomp on Krunchers! the extra thick and hearty chips bursting with big potato taste. Don’t fool around with those weak-kneed chips anymore. Sink your teeth into Krrruuunchers!
  56. 56. Political Leader Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, 2004, referred to political opponents as “girly-men.” Legislators who opposed his budget plans. Called on voters to “terminate” them.
  57. 57. Political Leader Sharron Angle Republican Senatorial Candidate, Nevada, 2010 “Man up, Harry Reid” calling his manhood into question.
  58. 58. Political Leader Senate Republican Majority Leader, 1998, Trent Lott proclaimed homosexuality a disease and sin: “It is [a sin]….You should try to show them a way to deal with that problem, just like alcohol…or sex addiction…or kleptomaniacs.”
  59. 59. Oklahoma State Representative Sally Kern
  60. 60. Oklahoma State Representative Sally Kern “Studies show, no society that has totally embraced homosexuality has lasted for more than, you know, a few decades….I honestly think it’s the biggest threat our nation has, even more so than terrorism or Islam. . . It spreads! This stuff is deadly and it is spreading. It will destroy our young people and it will destroy this nation.”
  61. 61. Columnist & Author Ann Coulter, at Republican Party Conservative Political Action Conference, 2007 Called Democratic presidential candidate, John Edwards a “faggot.” Loud and sustained applause and laughter from most of the conference delegates.
  62. 62. Columnist & Author CNBC show “The Big Idea,” 2007, Ann Coulter said everyone on earth should be Christian and that Jews needed to be "perfected….It is better if we were all Christians.”
  63. 63. Alabama Governor Robert Bentley January 2011: "So anybody here today who has not accepted Jesus Christ as their savior, I'm telling you, you're not my brother and you're not my sister, and I want to be your brother."
  64. 64. Movie Star & Director Mel Gibson, arrested for drunk driving, 2006, ranted: “F*****g Jews….The Jews are responsible for all the wars in the world.” Gibson then asked the arresting officer, “Are you a Jew?”
  65. 65. September 11, 2001
  66. 66. ISLAMOPHOBIA Islamophobia: prejudice and discrimination toward the religion of Islam and Muslims who follow its teachings and practices. Muslims Sikhs
  67. 67. Islamophobia
  68. 68. Political Divisions
  69. 69. Political Divisions
  70. 70. Shell Gas Station, Texas, Nov. 2012
  71. 71. Political Divisions
  72. 72. Political Divisions
  73. 73. GOP Platform, 2012 Preserving and Protecting Traditional Marriage The institution of marriage is the foundation of civil society. Its success as an institution will determine our success as a nation….The success of marriage directly impacts the economic well-being of individuals. Furthermore, the future of marriage affects freedom…. We recognize and honor the courageous efforts of those who bear the many burdens of parenting alone, even as we believe that marriage, the union of one man and one woman must be upheld as the national standard, a goal to stand for, encourage, and promote through laws governing marriage. We embrace the principle that all Americans should be treated with respect and dignity.
  74. 74. “Religious” Justifications
  75. 75. Orthodox Judaism Statement of Principles on the Place of Jews with a Homosexual Orientation in Our Community: “Judaism views all male and female same-sex sexual interactions as prohibited...[and] cannot give its blessing and imprimatur to Jewish religious same-sex commitment ceremonies and weddings, and halakhic values proscribe individuals and communities from encouraging practices that grant religious legitimacy to gay marriage and couplehood.”
  76. 76. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH CATECHISM 1995 “Basing itself upon Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that homosexual acts are gravely disordered. They are contrary to natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of love [i.e., children]. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.”
  77. 77. Southern Baptist Convention 2010 “Resolution on Homosexuality and the United States Military” “RESOLVED, That the messengers to the Southern Baptist Convention…affirm the Bible’s declaration that homosexual behavior is intrinsically disordered and sinful, and we also affirm the Bible’s promise of forgiveness, change, and eternal life to all sinners (including those engaged in homosexual sin) who repent of sin and trust in the saving power of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 6:9-11).”
  78. 78. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Homosexual behavior violates the commandments of God, is contrary to the purposes of human sexuality, distorts loving relationships, and deprives people of the blessings that can be found in family life and in the saving ordinances of the gospel. Those who persist in such behavior or who influence others to do so are subject to Church discipline. Homosexual behavior can be forgiven through sincere repentance. From Handbook of Instructions
  79. 79. Evangelical Covenant Church Resolution on Sexuality” adopted 1996: “We human beings misuse God’s creation of sexuality and distort its role in our lives. In I Corinthians 6:9-10 and Romans 1:24-27, Scripture succinctly declares this sin and God’s judgment on it. Throughout the Scriptures we see how sin in sexual relationships damages relationship with God and others. We live in a society characterized by imperfect and sinful sexual relationships of many kinds….Evangelical Covenant Church resolution to care for persons involved in sexual sins such as adultery, homosexual behavior, and promiscuity compassionately recognizing the potential of these sins to take the form of addiction.”
  80. 80. St. Patrick’s Day Parade: South Boston
  81. 81. Banned Books
  82. 82. Government
  83. 83. Boy Scouts “Boy Scouts of America believes that homosexual conduct is inconsistent with the obligations in the Scout Oath and Scout Law to be morally straight and clean in thought, word, and deed….”
  84. 84. Professional Hockey
  85. 85. Professional Wrestling
  86. 86. Ultimate Fighting
  87. 87. Youth Fight Clubs
  88. 88. Violent Movies
  89. 89. Violent Video Games
  90. 90. Bias-Related Victimization Each year, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) tracks incidents of hate crimes throughout the United States. In 2006 alone 7,722 criminal incidents involving 9,080 offenses “as a result of bias against a particular race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity/national origin, or physical or mental disability.”   51.8% were motivated by racial bias   18.9% were motivated by religious bias   15.5% were motivated by sexual-orientation bias   12.7% were motivated by ethnicity/national origin bias   1% was motivated by disability bias (U.S. Department of Justice, 2006)
  91. 91. LGBT MURDERED Gwen Araujo Brandie Coleman Sakia Gunn Lawrence King Delilah Corrales Ukea DavisTyra Hunter Mark Bingham Allen Schindler Harvey Milk Eric Plunkett Matthew Shepard Brandon Teena
  92. 92. Suicide Third leading cause of death among adolescents, & responsible for more deaths than all illnesses combined.
  93. 93. Youth Suicide from Bullying Tyler Clementi, 18 Seth Walsh, 13 Billy Lucas, 15 Asher Brown, 13 Raymond Chase, 19 Megan Meier, 13 Phoebe Prince, 15 Carl Joseph Walker Hoover, 11 Bobby Griffith, 20 Belinda Allen, 14
  94. 94. SYSTEMS ORIENTED APPROACH: BEYOND THE “DYADIC VIEW”
  95. 95. Systems Oriented Approach Bullying and harassment not simply involving people who bully and people who are bullied (the “dyadic view” ), Rather, involves a number of “actors” or roles across the social, community, & school environments. Some researchers define the roles:
  96. 96. Systems Oriented Approach Sutton and Smith (1999) identified six distinct though overlapping roles. – 1. The “Ringleader Bully” active role in initiating the bullying behaviors: – 2. The “Assistant to the Bully” very active in the bullying process, but a follower to the ringleader bully; – 3. The “Reinforcer to the Bully” acts in ways that encourage the bullying behavior; – 4. The “Defender of the Victim,” engages in behaviors to protect and help the target of the bullying; – 5. The “Outsider,” sometimes called the “Bystander,” aware of the bullying behaviors but does nothing and attempts to stay away from the bullying episodes – 6. The “Victim,” the person or persons targeted by those who bully.
  97. 97. Systems Oriented Approach Olweus (2000) eight roles in the bullying process. – 1. “Children Who Bully,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Ringleader Bully”; – 2. “Followers/Henchmen” actively engaging in the bullying process with the children who bully, similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Assistant to the Bully”; – 3. “Supporter, Passive Bully/Bullies,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Reinforcer to the Bully”; – 4. “Passive Supporter, Possible Bully,” those who are on the fence whether to engage in bullying behavior or simply observe; – 5. “Disengaged Onlooker,” sometimes referred to as a “Bystander”; – 6. “Possible Defender,” those who are on the fence whether to become involved to support and defend those targeted by bullying behaviors; – 7. “Defender of the Child Who Is Bullied,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Defender of the Victim”; – 8. “Children Who Are Bullied, The One Who Is Exposed,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s the “Victim.”
  98. 98. STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE
  99. 99. Bystander Behavior in Bullying Incidents ©The Olweus Prevention Group, 2004 38% 27% 35% % of students who do nothing % of students who wantto help, but don't % of students who try to help
  100. 100. Empowering the By-Stander to Become the Up-Stander Peer mediation and student leadership training empowering and assisting students in developing ways to successfully reduce bullying incidents, Include in anti-bullying policies language protecting allies from retaliation for taking action, Ongoing support from adult family members, school faculty and staff, community members, Social Justice type student clubs, Include students in school climate policy decisions.
  101. 101. What should students have learned by the time they graduate high school?
  102. 102. Strategies for Change In addition to teaching the 3 Rs (reading, writing, and arithmetic), Self Awareness: To “Read” the Self Solve Social, Emotional, and Ethical Problems Social, Emotional, Ethical, & Academic Education (SEEAE) Jonathan Cohen, 2006
  103. 103. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner
  104. 104. Theory of Multiple Intelligences 8 “intelligences” that are involved in solving problems and fashioning products He believed all 8 can be TAUGHT in school.
  105. 105. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Logical / Mathematical Verbal / Linguistic Musical / Rhythmic Visual / Spatial Bodily / Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist [Existentialist]
  106. 106. Home-School Partnerships Long-Term and Continuous Home & School Coordination & Cooperation Emphasize and Reinforce Efforts through common understanding, goals, and terminology (to be on the same page) Home and School Emphasizing Teaching and Learning of…
  107. 107. Home-School Partnerships Community Living Skills (cooperation, sharing) Responsible & Caring Participation in a Democracy (John Dewey) Find Sense of Meaning & Purpose in Life Critical Thinking Skills Critical Media Literacy Life-Long Learning Skills Social, Emotional, and Ethical Competencies
  108. 108. Mental Health-Home-School Partnerships Sex Education Drug Education Health Promotion Bullying Prevention Efforts School-Based Physical & Mental Health Centers
  109. 109. School Climate Assessment Structural Issues (size of school, etc.) Environmental Issues (physical condition, etc.) Social-Emotional, Physical Order, Safety Expectations for Student Achievement Quality of Instruction Collaboration & Communication Sense of School Community Peer Norms School-Home-Community Partnerships Student Morale Extent to Which the School is a Vital Learning Community Johathan Cohen, 2006
  110. 110. Policy Develop and enforce comprehensive Bullying Prevention Statewide Laws Implemented into every school. However…
  111. 111. Policy “No Child Left Behind,” while attempting to raise academic standards and levels, Does not fund initiates to improve Social, Emotional, and Ethical skill improvement. Illinois State Board of Education, 2004, for example, mandated school districts statewide to develop policies related to Social-Emotional Learning into educational programs.
  112. 112. Teacher Education Colleges & Universities offering Teacher Education Certification & Degrees, emphasize: – Self-Awareness of Pre-Service Teachers – Classroom Management Techniques – Bullying Prevention Strategies – Conflict Resolution Skills – Culturally Responsive Pedagogies
  113. 113. References Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models’ reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 589-595. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggressions through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575- 582 Cohen, Jonathan. (2006). Social, Emotional, Ethical, and Academic Education: Creating a Climate for Learning, Participation in Democracy, and Well-Being. Harvard Educational Review. 76 (2), 201-237 JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, April 25, 2001. Vol. 285, No. 16 Olweus, Dan. (2000), Bullying at School. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Ltd. Rogers, Richard & Hammerstein, Oscar. (1949). “You’ve Got To Be Carefully Taught,” from South Pacific. Sutton, J., & Smith, P. K. (1999). Bullying as a group process: An adaptation of the participant role approach. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 97-111.
  114. 114. CONCLUSION "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed individuals can change the world. In fact, it's the only thing that ever has.“ Margaret Mead
  115. 115. The End
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