Social Contexts of Youth Bullying


Published on

This PowerPoint addresses how bullying & harassment are not simply youth problems and behaviors, but rather, it looks at the ways that young people often acquire bullying and harassing attitudes and behaviors from the larger society through process of “social learning.”

Published in: Education, Career, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Social Contexts of Youth Bullying

  1. 1. SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF YOUTH BULLYING Warren J. Blumenfeld Ed.D.
  2. 2. Dr. Warren J. Blumenfeld is available to come to your campus or community organization. Contact:
  3. 3. TO “OTHER”  Other and Othering “Othering” is something people do – an action, a verb, not an adjective or noun.  “Otherness”: not static, intrinsic, immutable characteristics or traits.  “Other: From Noun to Verb,” Nathaniel Mackey, 1992. Representations, 32, pp. 51-70. Nathaniel Mackey
  4. 4. TO “MINORITIZE” An action, a verb, not an adjective or noun. The process of objectifying, subordinating, marginalizing, dominating, controlling, disenfranchising, violating “the Other” Through the elements of – Defining – Stereotyping – Scapegoating – Tokenizing
  5. 5. “It takes a village to raise a child.” African proverb.
  6. 6. THE FLOW Definitions My Assumptions “Messages” What Causes Prejudice and Discrimination Social Learning Theory and Role Modeling Scenarios Systems Oriented Approach Strategies for Change References
  7. 7. DEFINITION: Bullying Bullying is a specific type of aggression in which (1) the behavior is intended to harm or disturb, (2) the behavior occurs repeatedly over time, and (3) there is an imbalance of power, with a more powerful person or group attacking a less powerful one. This asymmetry of power may be physical or psychological, and the aggressive behavior may be verbal…, physical…, or psychological (e.g. spreading rumors, engaging in social exclusion, extortion, or intimidation). Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001
  8. 8. DEFINITION: Harassment Harassment is victimization based upon one’s real or perceived race, color, national origin, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, or marital status, physical appearance, or personality characteristics. Iowa Department of Education, Sample Policy on Bullying and Harassment, 2007.
  9. 9. MY ASSUMPTIONS 1. Crucial components of bullying prevention efforts often missing: social and cultural contexts & engagement. 2. Bullying & harassment not simply youth problems & behaviors. 3. Young people, through process of “social learning,” often acquire bullying & harassing attitudes and behaviors. 4. They also often learn the “socially sanctioned” targets for their aggressive behaviors. 5. Much of bullying behaviors based on social construction of mandatory, yet truly unattainable hyper-masculinity.
  10. 10. Social Learning Theory Individuals learn by observing & associating with others (modeling). Modeling alone — free from reinforcements — can be enough for people to incorporate and act on their own beliefs and behaviors. Albert Bandura
  11. 11. Social Learning Theory Society presents many role models, From very positive & to very negative, biased, aggressive, & destructive. Modeling process is very influential in beliefs and actions of young people. Albert Bandura
  12. 12. Social Learning Theory Modeling is more than concrete actions (“response mimicry”). Also abstract concepts (“Abstract Modeling”): following rules, taking on values & beliefs, making moral & ethical judgments. Albert Bandura
  13. 13. ROLE MODELS 1. Think back in your life to any role models you may have. Who were they? 2. How did they serve as role models? 3. What skills, knowledge, behaviors, views, perspectives, outlooks, feelings, etc. did you gain from them? 4. How have they impacted the course of your life?
  14. 14. Some of My Role Models My Maternal Grandparents: Simon & Eva Mahler Love, compassion, identity, survival, hope, sense of family, sense of history and identity
  15. 15. Some of My Role Models Frederick Douglass Abolitionist who escaped from slavery Vision of a greater nation, a reconciler, a survivor. “No person can place a chain about the ankles of another person without at last finding the chain around their own neck”
  16. 16. Some of My Role Models Harriet Tubman Abolitionist who escaped from slavery Visionary of a greater nation, a reconciler, a survivor. “If you hear the dogs, keep going. If you see the torches in the woods, keep going. If there’s shouting after you, keep going. Don’t ever stop. Keep going. If you want a taste of freedom, keep going.”
  17. 17. Some of My Role Models Eleanor Roosevelt First Woman of the USA. Strong, committed, self reflective, champion for equality, equity, cooperation, and understanding across apparent differences.
  18. 18. Some of My Role Models César Estrada Chávez Mexican American farm worker, union organizer, and civil rights activist Co-founder of United Farm Workers Tireless leader defending workers rights
  19. 19. Some of My Role Models Leonard Bernstein Jewish & Gay American Conductor, Composer, Educator Articulated a love of music making it accessible to younger people & generations
  20. 20. Television as Positive Role Model ABC: Extreme Makeover: Home Edition
  21. 21. Advertising as Positive Role Model “At Liberty Mutual, our job just isn’t about providing you with insurance. It’s about creating a relationship with you based on trust and mutual understanding. With our advertising, we want to engage you in what responsibility means to you.” Responsibility: What’s Your Policy?
  22. 22. What Causes Prejudice & Discrimination?
  23. 23. “You’ve Got To Be Carefully Taught” You've got to be taught To hate and fear, You've got to be taught From year to year, It's got to be drummed In your dear little ear You've got to be carefully taught. You've got to be taught to be afraid Of people whose eyes are oddly made, And people whose skin is a diff'rent shade, You've got to be carefully taught. You've got to be taught before it's too late, Before you are six or seven or eight, To hate all the people your relatives hate, You've got to be carefully taught! “South Pacific,” Richard Rogers & Oscar Hammerstein, 1949
  24. 24. Bullying Prevention Ad bullying-ad-aimed-at-grown-ups-will-break-your-heart- hesaid/
  25. 25. Social Learning Theory Young people observe negative role modeling in society, home, school Can result in young person exhibiting aggressive or violent behaviors. Albert Bandura
  26. 26. Social Learning Theory Bobo Doll experiment Purpose: determine if adult modeling resulted in either aggressive or non-aggressive behaviors in young children.
  27. 27. Social Learning Theory Participants: – 36 boys, 36 girls Control Group: 24 children Average Age: 4 years Children taken individually in room of “non-aggressive” toys: crayons, tinker toys, and “aggressive” toys: wooden mallet, Bobo doll.
  28. 28. Social Learning Theory Children told, only adult could play with toys, participants must watch adult. Control group: no adult, participants could play with any toys.
  29. 29. Social Learning Theory Half participants, adult played with tinker toys one minute, For nine minutes, attacked Bobo doll, verbal insults, physical violence: – kicking, punching, hitting the head with wooden mallet.
  30. 30. Social Learning Theory Other half of participants, adult model played with tinker toys, ignored Bobo doll entire 10-minutes of experiment.
  31. 31. Social Learning Theory Each child taken into another playroom with toys: airplane, fire engine, doll set. To instill anger & frustration, experimenter told children they could play with toys in room for short time, & toys reserved for other children.
  32. 32. Social Learning Theory Children taken individually to 3rd room. Left alone 20 minutes to play with aggressive & non-aggressive toys. Aggressive toys: – Bobo doll, wooden mallet, dart guns, tetherball with a face painted on it, and others. Non-aggressive toys: – paper and crayons, tea set, dolls, a ball, cars, trucks, plastic farm animals.
  33. 33. Social Learning Theory Experimenters observed each child behind one-way mirror, evaluated behaviors on measures of aggressive behavior.
  34. 34. Findings Children who observed aggressive adult model, much more likely to exhibit physical and verbal aggressive behaviors when left alone in 3rd room. As opposed to children who were exposed to non- aggressive model or no model.
  35. 35. Research Conclusions Children can learn behaviors, like verbal and physical aggression, by observing & imitating others. Even in absence of behavioral reinforcements. Children highly influenced by observing adult behavior, believe that such behavior is acceptable, freeing own aggressive inhibitions. More likely to behave aggressively in future situations.
  36. 36. National Civility Survey KRC Research & Weber Sandwick, 2010 Erosion of civility in modern life: – In human relationships – Government – Business – Media – On-line 65% - Major Problem 71% - Worsened Recently
  37. 37. Adults Construct the Rules; Youth Forced to Follow
  38. 38. Implications? What types of modeling and messages are we sending our young people in the following scenarios?
  39. 39. The “Trickle Down” Effect “I can remember adults in my mostly White town talking about how the Dutch were cheap, or the Norwegians were just a bunch of Vikings that stole, and the Germans were just dirty krouts. The ideas trickled down to the youth, where they would call others the same things their parents called people as well.” University Teacher Education Student
  40. 40. Popular Movie Movie parody of high budget war films. “Simple Jack,” portrayed by Ben Stiller. “Once upon a time there was a retard.” R-word used 17 times.
  41. 41. Popular Radio Talk Show Host Don Imus April 4, 2007 edition of MSNBC's Imus in the Morning Referred to the Rutgers University women's basketball team, composed of eight African-American and two white players, as "nappy-headed hos."
  42. 42. Advertising as Negative Role Model
  43. 43. Advertising as Negative Role Model V8 Juice “Punch” in the Head
  44. 44. Business
  45. 45. Business
  46. 46. Business: WHAT IF…? Cocks & Balls
  47. 47. Government UC-Davis Nov. 18, 2011 Occupy Movement Police Mace Peaceful Protesters
  48. 48. Gun Club Christmas Photo Children and parents are able to choose between grenade launchers, assault rifles, and AK-47s
  49. 49. Nations Truck Sales, Sanford, FL Free Assault Rifle voucher with each truck purchased “We started on Veterans Day. Hey, so many have given so much for this right.” Nick Ginetta, General Sales Manager
  50. 50. Holy Smoke Bullet Urns Stockton, Alabama Your Ashes into Bullets Thad Holmes & Clem Parnell, owners
  51. 51. Bushmaster Guns
  52. 52. ADULT CYBERBULLYING Andrew Breitbart Shirley Sherrod
  53. 53. Andrew Breitbart – “Big Journalism” Blog – Commentator, Washington Times Selectively edited Shirley Sherrod’s inspirational speech delivered March 2010 to a local NAACP chapter in an attempt to impugn the extraordinary reputation and career of Ms. Sherrod
  54. 54. ADULT CYBERBULLYING Andrew Shirvell Assistant Attorney General, Michigan Attacking on-line and stocking outside residence of Chris Armstrong, the first openly-gay student body president at the University of Michigan Shirvell accused Armstrong of “promoting the radical gay agenda”
  55. 55. ADULT CYBERBULLYING Lori Janine Drew Megan Meier
  56. 56. Drew, mother of Meier’s friend Dardenne, Prairie, Missouri Drew posed as 16-year-old boy on MySpace named “Josh Evans” “Evans” turned on Meier She committed suicide, Oct. 2006, 13 years old. Drew indicted, three counts of accessing protected computers to inflict emotional distress, and one count of criminal conspiracy.
  57. 57. College students throughout the world were asked to go 24 hours without digital media:
  58. 58. Product Marketing NO MORE WIMPY CHIPS! Tired of chips that go mush when you bite ’em or go to pieces when you dip ‘em? Chomp on Krunchers! the extra thick and hearty chips bursting with big potato taste. Don’t fool around with those weak-kneed chips anymore. Sink your teeth into Krrruuunchers!
  59. 59. Political Leader Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, 2004, referred to political opponents as “girly-men.” Legislators who opposed his budget plans. Called on voters to “terminate” them.
  60. 60. Political Leader Sharron Angle Republican Senatorial Candidate, Nevada, 2010 “Man up, Harry Reid” calling his manhood into question.
  61. 61. Political Leader Senate Republican Majority Leader, 1998, Trent Lott proclaimed homosexuality a disease and sin: “It is [a sin]….You should try to show them a way to deal with that problem, just like alcohol…or sex addiction…or kleptomaniacs.”
  62. 62. Oklahoma State Representative Sally Kern
  63. 63. Oklahoma State Representative Sally Kern “Studies show, no society that has totally embraced homosexuality has lasted for more than, you know, a few decades….I honestly think it’s the biggest threat our nation has, even more so than terrorism or Islam. . . It spreads! This stuff is deadly and it is spreading. It will destroy our young people and it will destroy this nation.”
  64. 64. Columnist & Author Ann Coulter, at Republican Party Conservative Political Action Conference, 2007 Called Democratic presidential candidate, John Edwards a “faggot.” Loud and sustained applause and laughter from most of the conference delegates.
  65. 65. Columnist & Author CNBC show “The Big Idea,” 2007, Ann Coulter said everyone on earth should be Christian and that Jews needed to be "perfected….It is better if we were all Christians.”
  66. 66. Alabama Governor Robert Bentley January 2011: "So anybody here today who has not accepted Jesus Christ as their savior, I'm telling you, you're not my brother and you're not my sister, and I want to be your brother."
  67. 67. Movie Star & Director Mel Gibson, arrested for drunk driving, 2006, ranted: “F*****g Jews….The Jews are responsible for all the wars in the world.” Gibson then asked the arresting officer, “Are you a Jew?”
  68. 68. Political Figure Donald Trump "[Mexico is] sending people that have lots of problems, and they are bringing those problems to us. They are bringing drugs, and bringing crime, and they’re rapists."
  69. 69. Political Figure Donald Trump I am calling for the “total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country's representatives can figure out what is going on.”
  70. 70. September 11, 2001
  71. 71. ISLAMOPHOBIA Islamophobia: prejudice and discrimination toward the religion of Islam and Muslims who follow its teachings and practices. Muslims Sikhs
  72. 72. Islamophobia
  73. 73. Political Divisions
  74. 74. Political Divisions
  75. 75. Shell Gas Station, Texas, Nov. 2012
  76. 76. Political Divisions
  77. 77. Political Divisions
  78. 78. GOP Platform, 2012 Preserving and Protecting Traditional Marriage The institution of marriage is the foundation of civil society. Its success as an institution will determine our success as a nation….The success of marriage directly impacts the economic well-being of individuals. Furthermore, the future of marriage affects freedom…. We recognize and honor the courageous efforts of those who bear the many burdens of parenting alone, even as we believe that marriage, the union of one man and one woman must be upheld as the national standard, a goal to stand for, encourage, and promote through laws governing marriage. We embrace the principle that all Americans should be treated with respect and dignity.
  79. 79. “Religious” Justifications
  80. 80. Orthodox Judaism Statement of Principles on the Place of Jews with a Homosexual Orientation in Our Community: “Judaism views all male and female same-sex sexual interactions as prohibited...[and] cannot give its blessing and imprimatur to Jewish religious same-sex commitment ceremonies and weddings, and halakhic values proscribe individuals and communities from encouraging practices that grant religious legitimacy to gay marriage and couplehood.”
  81. 81. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH CATECHISM 1995 “Basing itself upon Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that homosexual acts are gravely disordered. They are contrary to natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of love [i.e., children]. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.”
  82. 82. Religion on Trans* Identities Alex Salinas 21-year-old transman, Cadiz, Spain Applied, Godparent, of nephew Vatican denied request.
  83. 83. Catholic Church: Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith: Transgender status "reveals in a public way an attitude opposite to the moral imperative of solving the problem of sexual identity according to the truth of one's own sexuality. Therefore it is evident that this person does not possess the requirement of leading a life according to the faith and in the position of godfather and is therefore unable to be admitted to the position of godfather or godmother."
  84. 84. Southern Baptist Convention 2010 “Resolution on Homosexuality and the United States Military” “RESOLVED, That the messengers to the Southern Baptist Convention…affirm the Bible’s declaration that homosexual behavior is intrinsically disordered and sinful, and we also affirm the Bible’s promise of forgiveness, change, and eternal life to all sinners (including those engaged in homosexual sin) who repent of sin and trust in the saving power of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 6:9-11).”
  85. 85. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Homosexual behavior violates the commandments of God, is contrary to the purposes of human sexuality, distorts loving relationships, and deprives people of the blessings that can be found in family life and in the saving ordinances of the gospel. Those who persist in such behavior or who influence others to do so are subject to Church discipline. Homosexual behavior can be forgiven through sincere repentance. From Handbook of Instructions
  86. 86. Evangelical Covenant Church Resolution on Sexuality” adopted 1996: “We human beings misuse God’s creation of sexuality and distort its role in our lives. In I Corinthians 6:9-10 and Romans 1:24-27, Scripture succinctly declares this sin and God’s judgment on it. Throughout the Scriptures we see how sin in sexual relationships damages relationship with God and others. We live in a society characterized by imperfect and sinful sexual relationships of many kinds….Evangelical Covenant Church resolution to care for persons involved in sexual sins such as adultery, homosexual behavior, and promiscuity compassionately recognizing the potential of these sins to take the form of addiction.”
  87. 87. St. Patrick’s Day Parade: South Boston
  88. 88. Banned Books
  89. 89. Government
  90. 90. Boy Scouts “Boy Scouts of America believes that homosexual conduct is inconsistent with the obligations in the Scout Oath and Scout Law to be morally straight and clean in thought, word, and deed….”
  91. 91. Professional Hockey
  92. 92. Professional Wrestling
  93. 93. Ultimate Fighting
  94. 94. Youth Fight Clubs
  95. 95. Violent Movies
  96. 96. Violent Video Games
  97. 97. Bias-Related Victimization Each year, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) tracks incidents of hate crimes throughout the United States. In 2006 alone 7,722 criminal incidents involving 9,080 offenses “as a result of bias against a particular race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity/national origin, or physical or mental disability.”   51.8% were motivated by racial bias   18.9% were motivated by religious bias   15.5% were motivated by sexual-orientation bias   12.7% were motivated by ethnicity/national origin bias   1% was motivated by disability bias (U.S. Department of Justice, 2006)
  98. 98. LGBT MURDERED Gwen Araujo Brandie Coleman Sakia Gunn Lawrence King Delilah Corrales Ukea DavisTyra Hunter Mark Bingham Allen Schindler Harvey Milk Eric Plunkett Matthew Shepard Brandon Teena
  99. 99. Suicide Third leading cause of death among adolescents, & responsible for more deaths than all illnesses combined.
  100. 100. Youth Suicide from Bullying Tyler Clementi, 18 Seth Walsh, 13 Billy Lucas, 15 Asher Brown, 13 Raymond Chase, 19 Megan Meier, 13 Phoebe Prince, 15 Carl Joseph Walker Hoover, 11 Bobby Griffith, 20 Belinda Allen, 14
  102. 102. Systems Oriented Approach Bullying and harassment not simply involving people who bully and people who are bullied (the “dyadic view” ), Rather, involves a number of “actors” or roles across the social, community, & school environments. Some researchers define the roles:
  103. 103. Systems Oriented Approach Sutton and Smith (1999) identified six distinct though overlapping roles. – 1. The “Ringleader Bully” active role in initiating the bullying behaviors: – 2. The “Assistant to the Bully” very active in the bullying process, but a follower to the ringleader bully; – 3. The “Reinforcer to the Bully” acts in ways that encourage the bullying behavior; – 4. The “Defender of the Victim,” engages in behaviors to protect and help the target of the bullying; – 5. The “Outsider,” sometimes called the “Bystander,” aware of the bullying behaviors but does nothing and attempts to stay away from the bullying episodes – 6. The “Victim,” the person or persons targeted by those who bully.
  104. 104. Systems Oriented Approach Olweus (2000) eight roles in the bullying process. – 1. “Children Who Bully,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Ringleader Bully”; – 2. “Followers/Henchmen” actively engaging in the bullying process with the children who bully, similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Assistant to the Bully”; – 3. “Supporter, Passive Bully/Bullies,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Reinforcer to the Bully”; – 4. “Passive Supporter, Possible Bully,” those who are on the fence whether to engage in bullying behavior or simply observe; – 5. “Disengaged Onlooker,” sometimes referred to as a “Bystander”; – 6. “Possible Defender,” those who are on the fence whether to become involved to support and defend those targeted by bullying behaviors; – 7. “Defender of the Child Who Is Bullied,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s “Defender of the Victim”; – 8. “Children Who Are Bullied, The One Who Is Exposed,” similar to Sutton and Smith’s the “Victim.”
  106. 106. Bystander Behavior in Bullying Incidents ©The Olweus Prevention Group, 2004 38% 27% 35% % of students who do nothing % of students who wantto help, but don't % of students who try to help
  107. 107. Empowering the By-Stander to Become the Up-Stander Peer mediation and student leadership training empowering and assisting students in developing ways to successfully reduce bullying incidents, Include in anti-bullying policies language protecting allies from retaliation for taking action, Ongoing support from adult family members, school faculty and staff, community members, Social Justice type student clubs, Include students in school climate policy decisions.
  108. 108. What should students have learned by the time they graduate high school?
  109. 109. Strategies for Change In addition to teaching the 3 Rs (reading, writing, and arithmetic), Self Awareness: To “Read” the Self Solve Social, Emotional, and Ethical Problems Social, Emotional, Ethical, & Academic Education (SEEAE) Jonathan Cohen, 2006
  110. 110. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner
  111. 111. Theory of Multiple Intelligences 8 “intelligences” that are involved in solving problems and fashioning products He believed all 8 can be TAUGHT in school.
  112. 112. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Logical / Mathematical Verbal / Linguistic Musical / Rhythmic Visual / Spatial Bodily / Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist [Existentialist]
  113. 113. Home-School Partnerships Long-Term and Continuous Home & School Coordination & Cooperation Emphasize and Reinforce Efforts through common understanding, goals, and terminology (to be on the same page) Home and School Emphasizing Teaching and Learning of…
  114. 114. Home-School Partnerships Community Living Skills (cooperation, sharing) Responsible & Caring Participation in a Democracy (John Dewey) Find Sense of Meaning & Purpose in Life Critical Thinking Skills Critical Media Literacy Life-Long Learning Skills Social, Emotional, and Ethical Competencies
  115. 115. Mental Health-Home-School Partnerships Sex Education Drug Education Health Promotion Bullying Prevention Efforts School-Based Physical & Mental Health Centers
  116. 116. School Climate Assessment Structural Issues (size of school, etc.) Environmental Issues (physical condition, etc.) Social-Emotional, Physical Order, Safety Expectations for Student Achievement Quality of Instruction Collaboration & Communication Sense of School Community Peer Norms School-Home-Community Partnerships Student Morale Extent to Which the School is a Vital Learning Community Johathan Cohen, 2006
  117. 117. Policy Develop and enforce comprehensive Bullying Prevention Statewide Laws Implemented into every school. However…
  118. 118. Policy “No Child Left Behind,” while attempting to raise academic standards and levels, Does not fund initiates to improve Social, Emotional, and Ethical skill improvement. Illinois State Board of Education, 2004, for example, mandated school districts statewide to develop policies related to Social-Emotional Learning into educational programs.
  119. 119. Teacher Education Colleges & Universities offering Teacher Education Certification & Degrees, emphasize: – Self-Awareness of Pre-Service Teachers – Classroom Management Techniques – Bullying Prevention Strategies – Conflict Resolution Skills – Culturally Responsive Pedagogies
  120. 120. References Bandura, A. (1965). Influence of models’ reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 589-595. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggressions through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575- 582 Cohen, Jonathan. (2006). Social, Emotional, Ethical, and Academic Education: Creating a Climate for Learning, Participation in Democracy, and Well-Being. Harvard Educational Review. 76 (2), 201-237 JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, April 25, 2001. Vol. 285, No. 16 Olweus, Dan. (2000), Bullying at School. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Ltd. Rogers, Richard & Hammerstein, Oscar. (1949). “You’ve Got To Be Carefully Taught,” from South Pacific. Sutton, J., & Smith, P. K. (1999). Bullying as a group process: An adaptation of the participant role approach. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 97-111.
  121. 121. CONCLUSION "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed individuals can change the world. In fact, it's the only thing that ever has.“ Margaret Mead
  122. 122. The End