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Heterosexism & Cissexism: How We All Pay the Price

Heterosexism & Cissexism: How We All Pay the Price



This informative slide presentations details the ways that heterosexism and cissexism not only Oppress LGBTQIA people, but also Hurt heterosexual and cisgender people, and why it is, therefore, in ...

This informative slide presentations details the ways that heterosexism and cissexism not only Oppress LGBTQIA people, but also Hurt heterosexual and cisgender people, and why it is, therefore, in everyone's self interest to defeat these insidious forms of oppression.



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    Heterosexism & Cissexism: How We All Pay the Price Heterosexism & Cissexism: How We All Pay the Price Presentation Transcript

    • A Presentation by: Dr. Warren J. Blumenfeld Iowa State University wblumen@iastate.edu
    • THE FLOW  How Heterosexism & Cissexism Affect LGBTQAIs  How Heterosexism & Cissexism Affect Heterosexuals  Taking the Next Step  Conclusion
    • Homophobia: How We All Pay the Price Edited by Warren J. Blumenfeld “This invaluable collection of essays makes forcefully clear that homophobia stunts the hater even as it oppresses the hated.”
    • Risk Factors for LGBTQ Youth Within Past Month Because of Safety Concerns  29.1% missed a class at least once  30.0% missed at least one day of school National Average  8.0% missed a class at least once  6.7% missed at least one day of school GLSEN, 2009
    • Risk Factors for LGBTQ Youth Psychological Factors  Increased levels of victimization:  Increased levels of Depression  Increased levels of Anxiety  Decreased levels of Self-Esteem GLSEN, 2009
    • Risk Factors for LGBTQ Youth  Grade point average of students more frequently harassed because of sexual or gender identity almost ½ grade lower than students who were less often harassed: 2.7 vs. 3.1 GLSEN, 2009
    • State of Higher Education for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender People Campus Pride 2010 Campus Climate Survey
    • Seriously Considered Leaving Their Campus Because Negative Climate • 33% LGB • 38% Transgender Hide Identity to Avoid Intimidation • 52% LGB • 63% Transgender
    • Feared for Physical Safety • 13% LGB • 43% Transgender • LGBTQ People of Color more harassed than White • Transgender People of Color more harassed than White
    • 1. …the effect of recognition by the college of the Gay Liberation Front could conceivably be to endorse or promote homosexual behavior, to attract homosexuals to the campus, and to expose minors to homosexual advocacy and practices, and 2. …belief that the proposed Front created too great a risk for students – a risk which might lead students to engage in illegal homosexual behavior.
    • CAMPUSES DENIED ADMINISTRATIVE RECOGNITION San Jose State University Boston College University of New Hampshire Virginia Commonwealth University University of Southern California Texas A & M University Tulane University University of Maryland Florida State University Colorado College University of Tennessee University of Alabama Sacramento State University California Polytechnic William Jewell College University of Texas at Austin University of Southern Mississippi University of South Carolina University of Washington Austin Peay State University Polk Community College Pennsylvania State University University of Oklahoma at Norman University of Missouri at Columbia Georgetown University California State University Fullerton College of the Sequoias University of Kansas at Lawrence West Virginia University Fordham University
    • Interlocking Systems of Oppression Working Definitions SEXISM is the overarching system of advantages bestowed on males. It is prejudice and discrimination based on sex, especially against females, founded on a patriarchal structure of male dominance through social and cultural systems.
    • HETEROSEXISM is the overarching system of advantages bestowed on heterosexuals. Heterosexism is the institutionalization of a heterosexual norm or standard, which establishes and perpetuates the notion that all people are or should be heterosexual thereby privileging heterosexuals and heterosexuality, and excluding the needs, concerns, cultures, and life experiences of lesbians, gay males, bisexuals, asexuals, transgender, and intersex people. Many time blatant and at times subtle, heterosexism is oppression by neglect, omission, erasure, and distortion.
    • HOMOPHOBIA is derived from the Greek terms homos, meaning “same,” and phobikos, meaning “having a fear and hatred” of those who love and sexually desire those of the same sex. It includes prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and acts of violence brought on by that fear and hatred. It is oppression by intent, purpose, and design.
    • BIPHOBIA is oppression directed against people who love and sexually desire both males and females or those who are pansexual or polysexual. ASEXUAL OPPRESSION is prejudice and discrimination directed against asexual people.
    •  Cisgender: a term for individuals who match the sex assigned to them at birth with their bodies, and their personal gender identities. Other terms include “gender normative,” “cismale,” “cisfemale,” and others.  The Latin prefix cis means “on the same side (as)” or “on the side (of)” or “to/this the near side.”  CISSEXISM (“Binarism,” “Transgender Oppression,” “Genderism”) comprises a conceptual structure of oppression directed against those who live and function external to the gender/sex binary, and/or the doctrine that they do not exist at all.
    •  INTERSEX OPPRESSION is prejudice and discrimination directed against intersex people who comprise a significant proportion of the population.
    • INTERLOCKING SYSTEMS OF OPPRESSION Sexism Biphobia Heterosexism Cissexism Intersex Oppression
    •  “Born Out of Wedlock”  “Illegitimate Child”  “Bastard”  “Artificial Insemination” (“Alternative Insemination”)  “Normal” or “Natural” Sexuality & Gender Identity and Expression  “Regular Guy”  “Alternative” Sexuality & Gender Identity  “Red Blooded American”  Trying to “Pass” as Another Sex Heterosexist & Cissexist Language
    •  “Homosexual Lifestyle”  “Alternative Lifestyles”  “The Gay Agenda”  “Homosexual Choice”  “Transsexual Choice”  "Chosen Lifestyle“  “Fence Sitters” (bisexuals)  “Just Confused” Heterosexist & Cissexist Language
    •  “Just a Stage You’re Going Through”  “You’re Too Young to Know”  "How can you know? You don't have any experience.“  “They're Just Rebelling”  “We Hate the Sin but Love the Sinner”  “Old Maid”  “Maiden Name”  “Confirmed Bachelor”  “There are none of them (LGBT people) here.” Heterosexist & Cissexist Language
    • Heterosexist & Cissexist Language  “I don’t see you as an LGBT person. I just see you as a person.”  “Pre-marital sex”  “Losing your virginity” (“Sexual Debut”)  “Pre-op” & “post-op”  “Sexual Reassignment Surgery” (“Gender Confirmation”)  "Grow some balls"  "Man up"
    • Heterosexist & Cissexist Language  “Straight Acting”  “Sexual Preference” (“Sexual Identity”)  “Same-Sex Marriage/“Same-Gender Marriage”/“Gay Marriage” (“Marriage for Same-Sex Couples”)  “Act like a lady.”  “Act like a gentleman.”  “That’s so gay!”
    • Heterosexist & Cissexist Language  All Epithets Regarding Gender Non-Conformity  “Effeminate” (“fag,” “faggot,” “pansy,” “wimp,” “pussy,” “girly man,” “light in the loafers,” etc.)  “Butch” (“dyke,” “fem,” “tomboy,” “diesel,” etc.)
    • Jack, Karen, Will, & Grace
    • Luke Noah Simone AS THE WORLD TURNS
    • Spencer Dylan Marco
    • Queer Eye for the Straight Guy
    • Isabelle Sanjay Oscar
    • ER Chaz MAD MEN Salvatore
    • BROTHERS & SISTERS SIX FEET UNDER Mayor Lucy Rodell FRIDAY NIGHT LIGHTS David Kevin & Scotty Callie & Arizona
    • GOSSIP GIRL Eric
    • MODERN FAMILY Mitchell & Cameron
    • Blaine Curt Brittany Santana UniqueWade
    • THE SIMPSONS Smithers Patty
    • CARTIER Melissa Etheridge & Tammy Lynn Michaels SATURN Martina Navratilova
    • Levels of Heterosexism & Cissexism 2. INTERPERSONAL 3. INSTITUTIONAL 4. SOCIETAL (CULTURAL) 1. PERSONAL
    • SHOULD HOMOSEXUALS HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS IN JOB OPPORTUNITIES? 78% Yes - 17% No SHOULD HOMOSEXUALS BE HIRED IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING OCCUPATIONS? (Percent saying “No”) 46% - High School Teachers 49% - Elementary School Teachers 52% - Clergy
    • Gallup Poll, 2011 Should marriage for same-sex couples be legal? Legal: 53% Illegal: 45%
    • Levels of Heterosexism & Cissexism 1. PERSONAL 3. INSTITUTIONAL 4. SOCIETAL (CULTURAL) 2. INTERPERSONAL
    • Political Leader Senate Republican Majority Leader, 1998, Trent Lott proclaimed that homosexuality is a disease and sin: “It is [a sin]….You should try to show them a way to deal with that problem, just like alcohol…or sex addiction…or kleptomaniacs.”
    • Columnist & Author Ann Coulter, at Republican Party Conservative Political Action Conference, 2007 Called Democratic presidential candidate, John Edwards a “faggot.” Loud and sustained applause and laughter from most of the conference delegates.
    • ATTENTION ALL CHRISTIANS Homosexuality must not be condoned! You as followers of Christ must realize that homosexuality is an immoral lifestyle choice, not a result of biology! DO NOT compromise your Christian beliefs!
    • LGBT MURDERED Gwen Araujo Brandie Coleman Sakia Gunn Lawrence King Delilah Corrales Ukea DavisTyra Hunter Mark Bingham Allen Schindler Harvey Milk Eric Plunkett Matthew Shepard Brandon Teena
    • Youth Suicide from Bullying Tyler Clementi, 18 Seth Walsh, 13 Billy Lucas, 15 Asher Brown, 13 Raymond Chase, 19 Carl Joseph Walker Hoover, 11 Bobby Griffith, 20 Belinda Allen, 14
    • Levels of Heterosexism & Cissexism 1. PERSONAL 2. INTERPERSONAL 3. 4. SOCIETAL (CULTURAL) 3. INSTITUTIONAL
    • Orthodox Judaism  Halakhic (legal) Judaism views all male and female same-sex sexual interactions as prohibited...[and] cannot give its blessing and imprimatur to Jewish religious same-sex commitment ceremonies and weddings, and halakhic values proscribe individuals and communities from encouraging practices that grant religious legitimacy to gay marriage and couplehood.” Statement of Principles on the Place of Jews with a Homosexual Orientation in Our Community, 2010
    • Catholic Catechism  1997: #2357 “…Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that ‘homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.’ They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life [reproduction]. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.”
    • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints  Homosexual behavior violates the commandments of God, is contrary to the purposes of human sexuality, distorts loving relationships, and deprives people of the blessings that can be found in family life and in the saving ordinances of the gospel. Those who persist in such behavior or who influence others to do so are subject to Church discipline. Homosexual behavior can be forgiven through sincere repentance. From Handbook of Instructions
    • Southern Baptist Convention  2010 “Resolution on Homosexuality and the United States Military”  “RESOLVED, That the messengers to the Southern Baptist Convention…affirm the Bible’s declaration that homosexual behavior is intrinsically disordered and sinful, and we also affirm the Bible’s promise of forgiveness, change, and eternal life to all sinners (including those engaged in homosexual sin) who repent of sin and trust in the saving power of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 6:9-11).”
    • Banned Books
    • STATEWIDE LGBT LAWS 1. 1982 – Wisconsin 2. 1989 – Massachusetts 3. 1991 – Hawai’i 4. 1991 – Connecticut 5. 1992 – Vermont 6. 1993 – Minnesota 7. 1997 – New Hampshire 8. 1999 – Nevada 9. 2001 – Rhode Island 10. 2001 – Maryland 11. 2002 – New York 12. 2003 – New Mexico 13. 2003 – California 14. 2005 – Illinois 15. 2005 – D. C. 16. 2005 -- Maine 17. 2006 – Washington 18. 2006 -- New Jersey 19. 2007 – Iowa 20. 2007 – Oregon 21. 2007 – Colorado 22. 2009 -- Delaware
    • Lawrence v. Texas (2003) “The petitioners are entitled to respect for their private lives. The state cannot demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.” John Lawrence & Tyron Garner
    • Levels of Heterosexism & Cissexism 1. PERSONAL 2. INTERPERSONAL 3. INSTITUTIONAL 4. SOCIETAL (CULTURAL)
    • WHAT WE HEARD ABOUT LGBTI PEOPLE 1. Very Little / Nothing 2. Positive / Factual Information 3. Negative / Misinformation
    • HOW HCBIA (Heterosexism, Cissexism, Biphobia, Intersex Oppression, & Asexual Oppression) HURTS US ALL
    • No [person] can put a chain about the ankle of [another person] without at last finding the other end fastened about his [or her] own neck. Frederick Douglass
    • HCBIA restrict communication with a significant percentage of the population and more specifically limit family relationships.
    • HCBIA conditioning compromise the integrity of heterosexual and cisgender people by pressuring them to treat others badly, which are actions contrary to their basic humanity.
    • HCBIA lock all people into rigid gender-based roles, which inhibit creativity and self expression.
    • HCBIA inhibit one’s ability to form close, intimate relationships with members of one’s own sex.
    • HCBIA can be used to stigmatize, silence, and, on occasion, target people who are perceived or defined by others as lesbian, gay, bisexual, asexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTIA), but who are in actuality, heterosexual or cisgender.
    • HCBIA are causes of premature sexual involvement, which increase the chances of teen pregnancy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Young people, of ALL sexual and gender identities, are often pressured to become HETEROSEXUALLY active and CISGENDER expressive to prove to themselves and others that they are “normal.”
    • HCBIA (along with racism, sexism, classism, sexphobia – fear and revulsion of sex) inhibit a unified and effective governmental and societal response to HIV/AIDS.
    • HCBIA, combined with sexphobia results in the elimination of discussions of the lives, sexuality, and gender identities and expressions of LGBATI people as part of school-based sexuality education, keeping vital information from all students. Such a lack of information can kill people in the age of HIV/AIDS.
    • HCBIA diverts energy and attention from more constructive endeavors.
    • Societal HCBIA prevent some LGBTIA people from developing authentic self identities and add to the pressure to marry someone of the other sex, which in turn place undue stress and often time trauma on themselves as well as their heterosexual and cisgender spouses, and their children.
    • HCBIA prevent heterosexuals and cisgenders from accepting the benefits and gifts offered by LGBATIA communities: theoretical insights, social and spiritual visions and options, contributions in the arts and culture, to religion, to education, to family life, indeed to all aspects of society.
    • HCBIA inhibit appreciation of other types of diversity, making it unsafe for everyone because each person has unique traits not considered mainstream of dominant. Therefore, we are all diminished when any one of us is demeaned.
    • In Germany they first came for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for me — and by that time no one was left to speak up. Rev. Martin Niemoeller
    • “HOMOWORK”
    • 1. Be aware of the generalizations you make; assume there are LGBTIA people where you go to school, where you work, etc. 2. Notice the times you disclose your heterosexuality if you are heterosexual & your cisgender identity & expression. 3. Read positive LGBTIA books and periodicals.
    • 4. Wear pro-LGBTIA buttons and T-shirts, and display posters. 5. Attend LGBTIA cultural and community events. 6. Challenge sexist, heterosexist, and cissexist jokes and name calling.
    • 7. Financially support LGBTIA groups. 8. Use inclusive, affirming, and gender-neutral language (“hir,” “ze”) when referring to sexuality and human relationships in every-day speech, on written forms, etc. Say the words “lesbian,” “gay,” “bisexual,” “transgender,” “intersex,” “asexual” each day in a positive way.
    • 9. Include “sexual identity” and “gender identity and expression” as protected categories in your anti-discrimination policies. 10. Extend Partnership benefits to LGBTIA employees on par with heterosexual employees.
    • 11. Monitor politicians, the media, and organizations to ensure accurate coverage of LGBTIA issues. 12. Work and vote for candidates, including school boards taking pro-LGBTIA stands.
    • 13. Initiate serious discussions, coordinate workshops, and include material in educational curricula on the topic of Heterosexism & Cissexism and LGBTIA Studies across the academic disciplines. 14. Develop support groups for LGBTIA people and heterosexual allies.
    • 15. Implement and participate in a “Safe Space” or “Safe Zone” or “Brave Zone” Program in your school or workplace.
    • The End