Session 1 Access To Land


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Session 1 Access To Land

  1. 1. Access to Land Access to Food Theme: The Food Crisis and the Asian Region Tony Quizon, CARRD 18 June 2008, Jakarta
  2. 2. Access to Land <ul><li>Access to land , farm or a homelot, for a family : </li></ul><ul><li>source of livelihood and survival </li></ul><ul><li>increased sense of human dignity and security </li></ul><ul><li>increased resilience, and opportunity to break out of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>For many communities : the right to self-determination, cultural identity & integrity, and autonomy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Access to Land <ul><li>Access to land, for society , is also: </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary first step to reduce unemployment and poverty, to stem rapid migration, </li></ul><ul><li>reduce social tensions and conflict, </li></ul><ul><li>increase productivity for food security, achieve sustainable management, </li></ul><ul><li>improve overall peace </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term democratizing effects: reduce overall inequality </li></ul>
  4. 4. Agrarian Reform in the Philippines <ul><li>Philippine working context : </li></ul><ul><li>History of agrarian conflict, unrest and insurgencies </li></ul><ul><li>Land reforms: 1963, 1972, 1988 (+1998 IPRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to implement AR under democratic setting </li></ul><ul><li>20 years later (as of 10 June 2008): </li></ul><ul><li>6M hectares covered; 1.5M hectares still to be covered </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining areas with highest poverty, unrest </li></ul><ul><li>132,620 agrarian cases pending </li></ul><ul><li>85% of fisherfolk threatened by eviction </li></ul><ul><li>Funding by Congress still pending </li></ul><ul><li>Unrecovered Marcos billions </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>AR as a “continuing political act” </li></ul><ul><li>Task is not just transferring land, but reforming social relations </li></ul><ul><li>Formula for AR? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and social impacts </li></ul><ul><li>AR and the “peace dividend”: </li></ul><ul><li>SWS survey, 1996: “AR as cause of peace in the </li></ul><ul><li>countryside” </li></ul>Review and Some Key Lessons AR = (LTI + SS) PP LOR + BI
  6. 6. Continuing CSO-World Bank Discussions on Agrarian Reforms <ul><li>Market-Assisted Land Reforms (MALR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue of level-playing field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market access for the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land as more than commodity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot substitute for reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can disrupt reforms, ex, Philippines, by driving up land prices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Administration Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical project only; should not decide property rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor could be disenfranchised (knowledge, literacy issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual titling vs customary land systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing land conflicts </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Farmers entering Philippine Congress, 10 June 2008 Lining up for NFA rice, 14 June 2008 Land and Food
  8. 8. New Threat: The Food Crisis <ul><li>Converging trends – rising oil prices, agro-fuels, increase in food and commodity prices, potentials for carbon trading – under global trade liberalization, bring about increased competition for land and increase exclusion of the poorest. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: six years ago, the production area for bio-fuel was about 1M hectares; today it covers some 25M hectares (FAO) </li></ul><ul><li>Also, growth of the China economy, demand for raw materials & extractive industries (logging, mining) </li></ul><ul><li>For many: the issue of food supply & market access </li></ul><ul><li>For others: displacement & competition for land </li></ul>
  9. 9. New Threat: The Food Crisis <ul><li>Access to land not seen as priority by most governments in the context of the food crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Recent pronouncements by governments favor large-scale commercial agriculture (HLC, Rome, June 2008) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visions of large-scale commercial agriculture production (Malaysia: 6,000 hectares in Sarawak for rice cultivation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No mention of smallholders as drivers for improved agricultural production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions of technology-driven solutions: hybrid rice (China), GM crops, “golden” (green) revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who benefits from higher food prices? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50-60% increase in rice prices; yet farmers get only 12% of the increase </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Reviewing CSO Statement to WFS: The Bangkok Declaration, 1995 <ul><li>Talking points: </li></ul><ul><li>Right to food vs the right of markets </li></ul><ul><li>Food sovereignty; principle of “reducing food kilometers” </li></ul><ul><li>Smallholder agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Work on four themes: land, international trade, technology, vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><li>Need for new social contract </li></ul>