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Session 1   Access To Land

Session 1 Access To Land






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    Session 1   Access To Land Session 1 Access To Land Presentation Transcript

    • Access to Land Access to Food Theme: The Food Crisis and the Asian Region Tony Quizon, CARRD 18 June 2008, Jakarta
    • Access to Land
      • Access to land , farm or a homelot, for a family :
      • source of livelihood and survival
      • increased sense of human dignity and security
      • increased resilience, and opportunity to break out of poverty
      • For many communities : the right to self-determination, cultural identity & integrity, and autonomy
    • Access to Land
      • Access to land, for society , is also:
      • Necessary first step to reduce unemployment and poverty, to stem rapid migration,
      • reduce social tensions and conflict,
      • increase productivity for food security, achieve sustainable management,
      • improve overall peace
      • Long-term democratizing effects: reduce overall inequality
    • Agrarian Reform in the Philippines
      • Philippine working context :
      • History of agrarian conflict, unrest and insurgencies
      • Land reforms: 1963, 1972, 1988 (+1998 IPRA)
      • Attempt to implement AR under democratic setting
      • 20 years later (as of 10 June 2008):
      • 6M hectares covered; 1.5M hectares still to be covered
      • Remaining areas with highest poverty, unrest
      • 132,620 agrarian cases pending
      • 85% of fisherfolk threatened by eviction
      • Funding by Congress still pending
      • Unrecovered Marcos billions
      • AR as a “continuing political act”
      • Task is not just transferring land, but reforming social relations
      • Formula for AR?
      • Economic and social impacts
      • AR and the “peace dividend”:
      • SWS survey, 1996: “AR as cause of peace in the
      • countryside”
      Review and Some Key Lessons AR = (LTI + SS) PP LOR + BI
    • Continuing CSO-World Bank Discussions on Agrarian Reforms
      • Market-Assisted Land Reforms (MALR)
        • Issue of level-playing field
        • Market access for the poor
        • Land as more than commodity
        • Cannot substitute for reforms
        • Can disrupt reforms, ex, Philippines, by driving up land prices
      • Land Administration Projects
        • Technical project only; should not decide property rights
        • Poor could be disenfranchised (knowledge, literacy issues)
        • Individual titling vs customary land systems
        • Increasing land conflicts
    • Farmers entering Philippine Congress, 10 June 2008 Lining up for NFA rice, 14 June 2008 Land and Food
    • New Threat: The Food Crisis
      • Converging trends – rising oil prices, agro-fuels, increase in food and commodity prices, potentials for carbon trading – under global trade liberalization, bring about increased competition for land and increase exclusion of the poorest.
      • Ex: six years ago, the production area for bio-fuel was about 1M hectares; today it covers some 25M hectares (FAO)
      • Also, growth of the China economy, demand for raw materials & extractive industries (logging, mining)
      • For many: the issue of food supply & market access
      • For others: displacement & competition for land
    • New Threat: The Food Crisis
      • Access to land not seen as priority by most governments in the context of the food crisis
      • Recent pronouncements by governments favor large-scale commercial agriculture (HLC, Rome, June 2008) :
        • Visions of large-scale commercial agriculture production (Malaysia: 6,000 hectares in Sarawak for rice cultivation)
        • No mention of smallholders as drivers for improved agricultural production
        • Discussions of technology-driven solutions: hybrid rice (China), GM crops, “golden” (green) revolution
      • Who benefits from higher food prices?
        • 50-60% increase in rice prices; yet farmers get only 12% of the increase
    • Reviewing CSO Statement to WFS: The Bangkok Declaration, 1995
      • Talking points:
      • Right to food vs the right of markets
      • Food sovereignty; principle of “reducing food kilometers”
      • Smallholder agriculture
      • Work on four themes: land, international trade, technology, vulnerable groups
      • Need for new social contract