Masters Project (2001)

496 views

Published on

A LOOK TOWARDS ANTILLEAN MANATEE CONSERVATION IN THE 21st CENTURY: EVALUATING THE PROGRESS OF THE CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME’S 1995 REGIONAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
496
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Good afternoon. I’d like to thank all of you for coming today, as I pick up where Phyllis left off by continuing to discuss the difficulties of marine policy enforcement in the Caribbean, but this time in terms of protecting a highly threatened species, the Antillean manatee. And my reasons for picking this topic is that no other species brings in a packed house like manatees.
  • Masters Project (2001)

    1. 1. A look towards Antillean manatee conservation in the 21 st century: evaluating the progress of the Caribbean Environment Programme’s 1995 Regional Management Plan William Barnhill III April 27, 2001 Duke University Marine Lab
    2. 2. Chronology <ul><li>Conservation efforts in the 21 st century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be expected? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What should be recommended? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 1995 Regional Management Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are its goals and objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What have been its successes and failures? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threats to the Antillean manatee population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are these animals found? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How have humans affected this species? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Mammals </li></ul>The quest for socioeconomic development Photo courtesy of ECOSUR has led to the over-exploitation of ... Antillean manatees occur in areas inhabited by some of the most impoverished peoples of the Western Hemisphere
    4. 4. Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) Trichechus manatus manatus (Antillean manatee)
    5. 5. Status of Antillean manatees in the Caribbean <ul><li>Vulnerable to extinction throughout entire range </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred habitats correspond to areas of </li></ul><ul><li>increasing development </li></ul><ul><li>Small, geographically fragmented populations </li></ul><ul><li>Recent maximum counts: </li></ul>country # individuals year source Guatemala 30 1994 Quintana Nicaragua 71 1994 Carr Puerto Rico 101 1995 US FWS Belize 318 1997 Auil Florida 3,276 2001 FMRI
    6. 6. Human-induced mortality of Antillean manatees <ul><li>Acute sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidental entanglement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collision with watercraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asphyxiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul>Photo courtesy of HSWRI Photo courtesy of Robert Rattner
    7. 7. Human-induced mortality of Antillean manatees <ul><li>Chronic sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease? </li></ul></ul>Photo courtesy of WFLA Image courtesy of Homosassa Springs Wildlife Park <ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Need for a Regional Management Plan <ul><li>Recommended by the </li></ul><ul><li>SPAW protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Nations at various stages, </li></ul><ul><li>but share similar problems </li></ul><ul><li>No coordinated network in </li></ul><ul><li>place to share information </li></ul><ul><li>and distribute funding </li></ul><ul><li>Manatees migrate!!! </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1995 Regional Management Plan <ul><li>Short-term priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Assess manatee status and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Develop guidelines for censusing and data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Provide protection to manatees and their habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Promote international cooperation and information exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Create a continuous monitoring program </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce activities detrimental to manatees </li></ul><ul><li>Provide training for local personnel and biologists </li></ul><ul><li>Develop guidelines for ecotourism and captive-rearing </li></ul>
    10. 10. Methodology <ul><li>Review of recent literature (post-RMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stock assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relevant websites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survey of US manatee specialists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inquired about their research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>summarized their views concerning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fulfillment of RMP priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asked about future conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initiatives and obstacles </li></ul></ul>James “Buddy” Powell, WPTI
    11. 11. Region-wide Successes <ul><li>Tremendous amount of US involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific, financial, and educational assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reserves, Special Development Areas created </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration of countries sharing populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belize and Mexico (Chetumal Bay population) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costa Rica and Nicaragua (Rio San Juan population) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion of education and awareness programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>media coverage, pamphlets, ecotourism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improved monitoring of manatee status </li></ul>USGS Sirenia Project
    12. 12. 1) Satellite Telemetry Source: WPTI 2) Aerial Surveys Caribbean Stranding Network 3) Stranding networks in Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia, Belize and Dominican Republic 4) Interviews with local residents WPTI
    13. 13. <ul><li>Mexico has declared Chetumal Bay a sanctuary </li></ul><ul><li>Belize has established reserves in North and South lagoons and regulates tourism in them </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico is protecting certain high use areas </li></ul><ul><li>Costa Rica has determined manatee density in Tortugero National Park </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba has implemented a biodiversity protection program to regulate tourism-oriented development </li></ul>Nation-specific Successes
    14. 14. Failures and shortcomings <ul><li>Some countries (Suriname, Haiti) have shown little to no progress since the 1995 RMP </li></ul><ul><li>Legal enforcement is still very weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frequent poaching around Port Honduras, Belize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gill nets often placed illegally within reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water quality standards rarely adhered to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local training has not been sufficient to allow US researchers to take a step back </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of accurate population assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scientific methods still in initial stages </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The International Management Regime <ul><li>Need for increased funding and resources to improve patrolling and legal enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Most efforts concentrated in countries with large manatee populations and lots of funding </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction very possible in poorer nations with already small manatee populations </li></ul>Overall improvement So … what’s next?
    16. 16. A look towards the future <ul><li>Conflict between conservation and development will continue </li></ul><ul><li>Large populations as sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potential for success is unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adherence to SPAW protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean nations must begin to pool resources </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting critical habitat is key </li></ul>
    17. 17. Management Recommendations <ul><li>Require developers to write </li></ul><ul><li>land use plans or HCPs </li></ul><ul><li>Place more area within SDAs </li></ul><ul><li>for complete protection </li></ul><ul><li>Write nation-specific recovery </li></ul><ul><li>plans or a regional plan </li></ul><ul><li>based upon genetic lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct habitat assessment </li></ul><ul><li>and mapping studies </li></ul>
    18. 18. Acknowledgements Advisor: Dr. Andrew Read (Duke University) <ul><li>For their expertise in Antillean manatee research and management: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. James “Buddy” Powell (WPTI, FMRI) </li></ul><ul><li>Caryn Self-Sullivan (Sirenian International) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. David Smethurst (UC Berkeley) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Antonio Mignucci-Giannoni (Caribbean Stranding Network) </li></ul><ul><li>Drs. James Reid and Lynn Lefebvre (USGS Sirenia Project) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jud Kenworthy (NOAA) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Nicole Duplaix </li></ul><ul><li>For their support and encouragement: </li></ul><ul><li>The CEM Class of 2001, and </li></ul>The NCAA Champs!!! It’s Over Baby!
    19. 19. QUESTIONS???
    20. 21. Sirenians of the World

    ×