Toward independence


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How tensions built between England and the Colonies

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Toward independence

  1. 1. Building Tensions England and the Colonies from 1763 to April, 1775
  2. 2. Aftermath of the French and Indian War Intense and expensive war between British on one side, French and Indian allies on the other. Having won the 7 Years War, England must organize empire, cut costs and pay back debt. Since colonies benefited, they were expected to pay their share of the costs one way to cut costs was to minimize the need for military protection from Native Americans ∴ Proclamation of 1763 - a line not to be
  3. 3. Proclamation line of 1763
  4. 4. other Acts unpopular as well Navigation Acts limit colonial merchants to trade with England only Stamp Act of 1765 [ first direct tax on colonies ] colonists boycott British goods; riots and violent protests 9 colonies unite in response with Stamp Act Congress [first unified action against British authority] Parliament repeals the Act, but . . Passes the Declaratory Act the next day
  5. 5. Tension mounts Sons of Liberty in all colonies Townshend Acts 1767 - additional duty on imports • • amounts to “taxation without representation” protests and boycotts, again leads to the “Liberty Incident” in 1768 • Hancock suspected of smuggling [he was] • ship seized; colonists protest
  6. 6. Heading toward a flashpoint The Boston Massacre - March 1770 • • • • • • mob outside Customs House baits guards shooting starts, 5 dead including Crispus Attucks Boston in an uproar propaganda opportunity John Adams successfully defends the British soldiers for some, this is an indication that England will never give in
  7. 7. What’s wrong with this picture?
  8. 8. The Gaspee Affair 1772 • English armed cutter Gaspee runs aground and is attacked and burned by Rhode Island colonists • colonists upset at the idea that any caught would have to stand trial in England • first planned attack by colonists and first shot aimed at a British officer Committees of Correspondence • quickest communication of the day • all 13 colonies have them - colonies beginning to act in unison against British rule • will constitute a “shadow” government on which the First Continental Congress will be based in 1774
  9. 9. The Tea Act and the Boston Tea Party Dec. 16, 1773 designed to help British East India Co. by selling surplus tea direct to colonies at bargain price reduced tax, but would amount to recognition of Parliament’s right to tax the colonies Tea refused in all colonies; in Boston the Sons of Liberty stage a raid, and pitch crates of tea into the harbor
  10. 10. King George III says, “Enough!” King and Parliament pass the Coercive Acts - known in the colonies as the Intolerable Acts in May and June of 1774 aimed at Boston and Massachusetts Colony • Administration of Justice Act - crown officials to be tried in England • Mass. Gov’t Act - virtual elimination of self- gov’t ; imposition of martial law by new military governor Gen. Gage • Quartering Act - private homes now required to put up soldiers [ applied to all colonies ] • Boston Port Act - port closed down until price of tea paid • conditions in Boston become horrific with lack of supplies and spread of disease 1st Continental Congress convenes, Sept. 5, 1774
  11. 11. 1st Continental Congress Sept. 5, 1774 North Carolina precedes this act with 1st Provincial Congress in Wilmington in Aug., 1774 all colonies but Georgia meet in Philadelphia, PA Organization of colonies-wide boycott of imports. Boycott on exports to follow by Sept. 1775 provision made for 2nd Congress the following May if things did not improve [ they won’t ]
  12. 12. The Shot Heard ‘round the World April 19, 1775 fighting begins at Lexington and Concord, Mass. Gen. Gage sets out from Boston to capture arms, Sam Adams and John Hancock in Concord
  13. 13. Paul Revere, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott raise the alarm Alerted by pre-arranged signal to ride and warn the Minutemen that the “regulars are coming!” successful in that militia are ready at Lexington and Concord Revere warns Adams and Hancock in time
  14. 14. Fighting at Lexington Green and Concord Bridge Patriots confronted at Lexington Green - no one knows who fired first Regulars push on to Concord and fight their way across the bridge arms and rebel leaders are gone Regulars are harassed all the way back to Boston, suffering heavy casualties