Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:     An Exportable Product:Preliminary Research on Supply,  Demand and Capacity Issues      ...
-i-AcronymsAPNT           Aboriginal Peoples Television NetworkBC             British ColumbiaCANDO          Council for t...
- ii -Executive SummaryThere has been a rapid growth in the export of goods and services from Indigenous businessesin Cana...
- iii -The study documents that Canadian Indigenous Peoples organizations have skills and expertisethat closely maps those...
- iv -Finland, Norway and Germany – all of which have programs that focus on indigenousdevelopment. Additionally, examples...
-v-and maximize its potential, additional research and support is required. Furthermore, toeffectively support the develop...
- vi -•   INAC taking out a subscription of Development Business and explore the applicability of a    group subscription ...
- vii -Table of Contents                  ................................................................                ...
- viii -    4.3     OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................ 25                  ...
-1-1 Introduction and Background                   Background1.1 IntroductionRecent years have seen a rapid growth in the ...
-2-1.1.1 Terms of ReferenceThe Terms of Reference and background, as stated in the contracting document, are:BackgroundIn ...
-3-    It will also highlight where Canadian indigenous expertise has been deployed with CIDA    and other agencies.3. Pro...
-4-2 Development Expertise Utilized By CIDA And Other              Expertise  AgenciesCIDA, other nation state development...
-5-           sustainable utilization of local environmental resources and the participation of local           stakeholde...
-6-The next section discusses these skill combinations of the developmental expertise of CanadianIndigenous Peoples and ma...
-7-3 Canadian Indigenous Expertise in DevelopmentCanadian Indigenous Peoples have a plethora of developmental expertise th...
-8-                                                         Box 3-1: Example of Business                                  ...
-9-Indigenous Peoples. Over the past thirty years Indigenous Peoples have worked tirelessly tocreate organizations and, of...
- 10 -3.1.4 Women in DevelopmentCanadian Indigenous Women have created many thriving organizations dedicated to theirpolit...
- 11 -Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada, which was formed to promote better physical,mental, social and spiritual we...
- 12 -Indigenous Peoples with expertise that is particularly relevant to many internationally fundeddevelopment projects.I...
- 13 -                Communications3.1.9 Media and Communications                                Box 3-4: Example of Indi...
- 14 -other donor country agencies. (However, as discussed in Section 4, there will likely be a needto supplement existing...
- 15 -ventures. Others, such as the Mudjatik/Thyssen underground mining joint venture, aboundthroughout Canada.The above r...
- 16 -    •   The first one is a bilingual education project in Nicaragua. The purpose of this project is        the stren...
- 17 -potential of engaging Canadian Indigenous organizations for the provision of developmentexpertise.      Inter-3.2.5 ...
- 18 -well, CIDA provides funds to the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank and mostother international financial i...
- 19 -3.3 International Utilization of Canadian Indigenous Developmental    Expertise    ExpertiseThis recognition of the ...
- 20 -         northern Russia6. Both are multi-year projects with budgets well in excess of $1         million. A unique ...
- 21 -Numerous other efforts are underway to initiate and develop inter-indigenous partnershipprojects that utilize the de...
- 22 -Furthermore, there are several other considerations and issues that should be addressed in orderto fully understand ...
- 23 -                           Issues4 Other Considerations and IssuesThis section outlines a preliminary set of screeni...
- 24 -Communication skills – international development work requires strong communication andwriting skills.   Organizatio...
- 25 -development expertise (e.g., health, education, etc.) may be well advised to collaborate withother organizations (in...
- 26 -have developed, they have encouraged more extensive language training amongst theparticipants.In-Canada partnerships...
- 27 -requested four firms (two of them were Canadian), to submit proposals to undertake a trainingneeds analysis of the P...
- 28 -World Bank project in Russia required several months and at least two trips to Russia just tonegotiate the contract....
- 29 -5 Next Steps/Additional InitiativesThe foregoing discussion has confirmed that there is a real opportunity for Canad...
- 30 -    3. Identify and review existing export readiness assessments processes to determine if an         existing proce...
- 31 -    •   Support for the development of the sector itself (the steps outlined in this report – e.g.,        determini...
- 32 -    at a minimum, INAC take out a subscription in order to allow appropriate officials to    familiarize themselves ...
- 33 -    6. Revise/debug database and put it online (Note: as part of the marketing strategy below,        a communicatio...
- 34 -    Preliminary research suggests that these could include; international project marketing and    bidding skills, i...
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
Indigenous Knowledge Transfer:  An Exportable Product   Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues
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Indigenous Knowledge Transfer: An Exportable Product Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues

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An analysis of Canadian Indigenous expertise in development and its applicability to support the development aspirations of Indigenous Peoples and traditional communities in the developing world.

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Indigenous Knowledge Transfer: An Exportable Product Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues

  1. 1. Indigenous Knowledge Transfer: An Exportable Product:Preliminary Research on Supply, Demand and Capacity Issues Date: February 2001 Prepared For: Indian & Northern Affairs Canada Prepared By: Wayne Dunn & Associates Canada Tel: +1-250-743-7619 Fax: +1-250-743-7659 wayne@waynedunn.com www.waynedunn.com
  2. 2. -i-AcronymsAPNT Aboriginal Peoples Television NetworkBC British ColumbiaCANDO Council for the Advancement of Native Development OfficersCANDO Council for the Advancement of Native Development OfficersCEA Central Executing AgenciesCESO Canadian Executive Service OrganizationCIDA Canadian International Development AgencyCONAP Confederación de Nacionalidades Amazónicas del PerúDFAIT Department of Foreign Affairs and International TradeDIAND Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and Northern DevelopmentEC European CommissionEDO Economic Development OfficersGTZ German Agency for International DevelopmentIADB Inter-American Development BankICC Inuit Circumpolar ConferenceIFC International Finance CorporationIPF Indigenous Peoples FundMLTC Meadow Lake Tribal CouncilNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationNORAD Norwegian Agency for Development CooperationOLIFI Office for Liaison with International Financial InstitutionsRBA Romanow Bear & AssociatesRFP Request for ProposalsSIFC Saskatchewan Indian Federated CollegeUNACH National Autonomous University of ChiapasUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  3. 3. - ii -Executive SummaryThere has been a rapid growth in the export of goods and services from Indigenous businessesin Canada in recent times. Indigenous businesses from nearly every sector of the Canadianeconomy have examined export opportunities and, according to recent estimates by a DFAITOfficial, over 300 of them have become active exporters or are export ready. Concurrent withthis growth of export capacity and interest has been a worldwide growth in the ‘business ofdevelopment’. Many donor countries have actually established Indigenous cooperationprogrammes aimed at supporting the development of Indigenous Peoples. Some of theseprogrammes have identified the development experiences of Canadian Indigenous Peoples asbest practices worthy of emulating.As part of their efforts to support indigenous economic development, Indian and NorthernAffairs Canada (INAC) has commissioned an initial study on the opportunity for CanadianIndigenous Peoples to expand their export of development services. Wayne Dunn andAssociates Ltd., a Canadian firm with international expertise in both indigenous developmentand development business, was contracted to conduct a study, documenting and analysing theopportunity for Indigenous Peoples to provide development expertise in various areas of export.The study employed a variety of methods such as; desktop research, literature survey andreview of relevant reports, review and analysis of procurement notices, identification andreview of marketing and information documents, and meetings and interviews withorganizations and multi-lateral institutions to arrive at its findings.The study identified areas of skills and expertise that are regularly required in manyinternationally financed development projects in Latin America and in other developingcountries. They include: business and economic development, institutional strengthening andcapacity development, and community development. Others are: women in development,environmental management, health care management, social services, education, media andcommunications, and project management and execution.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  4. 4. - iii -The study documents that Canadian Indigenous Peoples organizations have skills and expertisethat closely maps those often required on development projects. They have a plethora ofdevelopmental expertise that has been gained through their organization of people and resourcesin support of their development priorities and objectives.One of the key expertise areas is the development and operation of Indigenous enterprises.There are over 20,000 Canadian Indigenous Peoples businesses, operating in most of theeconomic sectors. Canadian Indigenous Peoples have gained worldwide recognition as leadersin indigenous business and economic development. However, many of the Canadian firms thathave domestic experience in this area lack direct international experience.The study revealed a number of additional skill and expertise areas that closely mirror thoseutilized by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and other developmentinstitutions. This include: • Institutional strengthening and capacity development; • Community development; • Women in development; • Environmental management; • Health care; • Social services; • Education; • Media and communications; and • Project management and execution.Other skills identified skill sets related to international development included: • Culturally appropriate organizational governance; • Cross-cultural awareness; • Land claim negotiation and settlement • Natural resource development; and • Structuring and negotiating joint ventures.The report examines several specific instances where international development institutionshave prioritised indigenous development and the utilization of the development expertise ofCanadian Indigenous Peoples. These include the World Bank’s Population, Energy andEnvironment Program, which attempts to address the challenge of developing petroleumresources in 11 sub-Andean countries in a way that incorporates the development aspirations oflocal Indigenous Peoples. Other examples include the international development agencies ofIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  5. 5. - iv -Finland, Norway and Germany – all of which have programs that focus on indigenousdevelopment. Additionally, examples are taken from the Inter-American Development Bankand the International Finance Corporation. As well, the Fund that CIDA is developing tosupport inter-indigenous collaboration is noted.The report profiles several examples where Canadian Indigenous organizations havesuccessfully undertaken development projects internationally. Those profiled include theSaskatchewan Indian Federated College, Meadow Lake Tribal Council, Inuit CircumpolarConference, Four Directions International, and the First Nations community of Kahnawake inQuebec.The authors analyze a number of supply and capacity issues related to successfully securingcontracts in international development. Several criteria (e.g., project management, marketing,availability of resources, organizational commitment, etc.) are identified that are essential pre-requisites for organizations wishing to target international development opportunities. Severalother areas are identified and several strategic opportunities are noted. For example, IndigenousPeoples can provide a strategic advantage to other businesses seeking to provide services toprivate and public sector projects. (e.g., Canada has abundant expertise in supplying goods andservices to large resource projects and Canadian firms regularly compete for the supply ofgoods and services to projects in Latin America.) This section goes on to discuss other issuessuch as the long lead time of many development projects and the fact that assembling a winningteam often requires the development of partnerships and collaboration with other organizations.Other considerations the study discusses concern screening criteria for identifying appropriateCanadian Indigenous organizations. The study suggests that such organizations should have:marketing expertise, genuine interest and willingness to pursue international development work,available resources and an organizational structure that allows them to undertake fee for serviceassignments. Other requirements are: project management expertise, commitment, cross-cultural sensitivity, the ability to collaborate as well as compete, and familiarity withinternational project identification, marketing and bidding process, and the ability to bridgelanguage (e.g., Spanish-English) divide.The report confirms that there is a real opportunity for Canadian Indigenous Peoples to beginexporting development consultancy services. However, to fully capitalize on this opportunityIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  6. 6. -v-and maximize its potential, additional research and support is required. Furthermore, toeffectively support the development and growth of Indigenous developmental expertise as anexport product, it is important to develop a more thorough understanding of the sector and thecapacity and export readiness of organizations that have the requisite skill sets identified earlier.This approach requires a two-step process; developing a set of criteria that will assist inidentifying firms that have the potential to become exporters of developmental services, andundertaking a formative export readiness assessment that would enable firms to evaluate theirexport readiness as well as identify their strengths and areas requiring furtherenhancement/support. Concurrently, efforts should be directed at ensuring that moreIndigenous organizations are aware of the process for identifying and securing internationaldevelopment work (e.g., project pipelines, opportunity identification, proposal development,etc.)If the opportunity to expand the export of Canadian Indigenous development expertise is simplyleft for various organizations and firms to explore and develop on an ad hoc basis, it may takeyears to fully realize the potential and many firms may miss out on lucrative export andbusiness development opportunities. The report suggests that INAC should take thisopportunity to play a catalytic role, working with First Nations and other stakeholders tosupport further exploration of these opportunities; gather and disseminate information; providestrategic support and marketing assistance to those firms ready to begin developing the market;and identify firms that are nearly ready to enter the market and provide them with assistance.Presently, INAC can contribute to the development of this sector through supporting thedevelopment of the sector itself, and supporting the individual firms that are ready or nearlyready to begin exporting their skills. Two immediate actions that can be taken are:• The setting up of Information sessions/workshops on development business for Indigenous firms and Departmental employees to clarify the complexities in the development business, enabling the firms to compete effectively. The sessions should address how projects develop, how to identify opportunities, how to get invited to bid (shortlisted) for competitive contracts, how to prepare proposals, and how to identify and secure appropriate expertise to round out teams.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  7. 7. - vi -• INAC taking out a subscription of Development Business and explore the applicability of a group subscription to the online version that would allow export ready indigenous organizations to peruse the opportunities directly.In addition to these two actions, a database of Canadian Indigenous Development expertiseshould be developed to enable potential clients and partners to easily identify and undertakepreliminary evaluation of potential contractors/partners and to enable INAC and otherstakeholders to better support the development of this sector. Finally, an internationalmarketing strategy for indigenous development expertise should be prepared.The export of development consultancy expertise can offer a lucrative opportunity for a numberof Canadian indigenous organizations and individuals. There is a significant overlap betweenthe types of expertise contracted for by development agencies and international institutions andthe skill sets of many Indigenous Peoples and organizations. However, this is a complex sectorwith strong competition. There are several supply and capacity issues that must be addressed inorder to fully develop the latent potential. While a readiness assessment of organizations wasnot part of this study, it suggests that few Indigenous organizations are currently ready tocompete effectively in this sector on a stand-alone basis. However, some are ready, or nearlyready, to play productive roles as part of project teams. This would enable them to gainvaluable experience and begin addressing some of the supply and capacity issues.The Development Business market can provide a meaningful opportunity for CanadianIndigenous businesses and organizations. INAC has an opportunity to play a catalytic role tosupport the successful realization of this opportunity.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  8. 8. - vii -Table of Contents ................................................................ .............................................Executive Summary ............................................................................. ii1 Introduction and Background ......................................................... 1 ......................................................... ................................................................ ............................................ 1.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................ 1 1.1.1 Terms of Reference ................................................................... 2 ................................................................... ................................ 1.1.2 Methodology ............................................................................. 3 ............................................................................. ................................2 Development Expertise Utilized By CIDA And Other Agencies ......... 43 Canadian Indigenous Expertise in Development .............................. 7 3.1.1 Business and Economic Development ......................................... 7 Development......................................... ................................ 3.1.2 Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Development ................ 8 3.1.3 Community Development ........................................................... 9 Development ........................................................... 3.1.4 Women in Development............................................................ 10 Development............................................................ ................................ 3.1.5 Environmental Management ..................................................... 10 ..................................................... 3.1.6 Health Care ............................................................................. 10 Care............................................................................. ................................................................ 3.1.7 Social Services........................................................................ 11 Services........................................................................ ................................................................ 3.1.8 Education ............................................................................... 11 ............................................................................... ................................ 3.1.9 Media and Communications ..................................................... 13 ..................................................... 3.1.10 Project Management and Execution ....................................... 13 ....................................... 3.1.11 Other Relevant Expertise ...................................................... 14 ...................................................... 3.1.11.1 Governance............................................................................................................ 14 3.1.11.2 Cross-Cultural Awareness ................................................................................... 14 3.1.11.3 Land Claim Settlement......................................................................................... 14 3.1.11.4 Participating in Natural Resource Development................................................ 14 3.1.11.5 Structuring and Negotiating Joint Venture ........................................................ 14 .............................................. 3.2 INTERNATIONAL PROJECT EXAMPLES.............................................. 15 3.2.1 Population, Energy and Environment Program (World Bank) ...... 15 3.2.2 Finland Ministry for Foreign Affairs ........................................... 15 ........................................... 3.2.3 Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) ....... 16 3.2.4 German Agency for International Development (GTZ) ................ 16 3.2.5 Inter-American Development Bank ........................................... 17 Inter- ........................................... 3.2.6 CIDA....................................................................................... 17 CIDA ....................................................................................... ................................................................ 3.2.7 International Finance Corporation ............................................ 18 ............................................ 3.3 INTERNATIONAL UTILIZATION OF CANADIAN INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENTAL ................................................................ ............................................... EXPERTISE ............................................................................... 19 3.3.1 Summary ................................................................................ 21 ................................................................................ ................................4 .................................................. Other Considerations and Issues .................................................. 23 4.1 ............................................... PRELIMINARY SCREENING CRITERIA ............................................... 23 4.2 ..................................................... SUPPLY AND CAPACITY ISSUES ..................................................... 24Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  9. 9. - viii - 4.3 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................ 25 ............................................................5 Next Steps/Additional Initiatives ................................................... 29 ................................................... 5.1 EXPORT READINESS OF INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENTAL EXPERTISE ........ 29 5.1.1 Support for Firms .................................................................... 30 .................................................................... ................................ 5.2 DATABASE OF INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENTAL EXPERTISE .................... 32 5.3 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING STRATEGY FOR INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENTAL EXPERTISE ........................................................................................ 33 ................................................................ ........................................................6 Conclusion................................................................ Conclusion................................................................................... 35 ...................................................................................AppendicesAppendix 1 List of Meetings, Interviews and Source Documents ......................... IAppendix 2 Canadian Offices and Contacts Supporting IFI Business Development........................................................................................ VIList of Tables and BoxesBOX 3-1: EXAMPLE OF BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT EXPERTISE .......................................8BOX 3-2: EXAMPLE OF INDIGENOUS HEALTH CARE EXPERTISE ................................10BOX 3-3: EXAMPLE OF INDIGENOUS TRAINING EXPERTISE .........................................11BOX 3-4: EXAMPLE OF INDIGENOUS COMMUNICATIONS EXPERTISE ..........................13Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  10. 10. -1-1 Introduction and Background Background1.1 IntroductionRecent years have seen a rapid growth in the export of goods and services from Indigenousbusinesses in Canada. Indigenous businesses from nearly every sector of the Canadianeconomy have examined export opportunities and over 200 of them have become activeexporters or are export ready. As many as 3,000 more have indicated that they expect to growin international markets in the next few years1.Concurrent with the growth of export capacity and interest has been a worldwide growth in the‘business of development’. Nation state donor agencies and multi-lateral institutions such asthe World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) are contracting firms andorganizations to design, deliver and support development programmes. Many donor countries(e.g., Britain, Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands and the European EconomicCommunity as well as the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank and the UNDP)have actually established Indigenous cooperation programmes aimed at supporting thedevelopment of Indigenous Peoples. Some of these programmes have identified thedevelopment experiences of Canadian Indigenous Peoples as best practices to be emulated.The Economic Development Programs Unit of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairsand Northern Development (DIAND), as part of their efforts to support indigenous economicdevelopment, is committed to developing a better understanding of the opportunities andpotential for Canadian Indigenous Peoples to export their development expertise. As an initialstep, Wayne Dunn and Associates Ltd., a Canadian firm with international expertise in bothindigenous development and development business, was contracted to undertake a preliminaryreview of the opportunity for Canadian Indigenous Peoples to expand their export ofdevelopment services.1 Aboriginal International Business Development Action Plan 1999-2002 – working paper updated for Oct. 20, 1999meeting.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  11. 11. -2-1.1.1 Terms of ReferenceThe Terms of Reference and background, as stated in the contracting document, are:BackgroundIn recent years there has been a growing interest in, and support for, Indigenous business whohave more traditional export products. There also has been a growing interest in the concept ofindigenous partnerships between Canada and other parts of the Americas. However, there hasbeen little focus on what seems to be a substantial export opportunity for Canadian IndigenousPeoples. There is a competitive opportunity for Indigenous Peoples to supply developmentexpertise in various inter-related areas. The services detailed in this contract would initiate theprocess of documenting and analysing this process.ObjectiveThis project (study) is a first step in the process of documenting and analysing the opportunityfor Indigenous Peoples to supply development expertise in various areas of export.Scope of WorkThe Contractor shall perform the following to the satisfaction of the DepartmentalRepresentative: 1. Identify the range of development expertise that CIDA and other development agencies contract to support their indigenous development objectives; 2. Identify and document the range of Canadian indigenous expertise that could be used to support indigenous development; 3. Identify and document the current range of experiences of Canadian indigenous peoples in technology transfer/development projects with indigenous peoples elsewhere in the hemisphere; 4. Develop a preliminary set of criteria to be used to screen indigenous organization to determine potential to export development related services; 5. Identify and document the supply and capacity issues to be addressed in more detail to effectively support the export development of Canadian indigenous development expertise; and 6. Prepare a set of recommendations in support of export development of Canadian indigenous development expertise.Output/DeliverablesThe Contractor shall submit to the Departmental Representative:1. A draft report based on research findings specific to the Canadian Aboriginal development expertise sources and resources.2. A final report illustrating overlaps between indigenous development expertise required by CIDA (and other agencies) and the development expertise of Canadian indigenous peoples.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  12. 12. -3- It will also highlight where Canadian indigenous expertise has been deployed with CIDA and other agencies.3. Provide a Terms of Reference for the following: a. Creating a database of exportable Canadian indigenous development expertise. b. Assessing the export readiness of Canadian indigenous development expertise; identifying firms and organizations that have the potential to be export ready; and developing a strategy for supporting firms and organizations wishing to upgrade their export readiness. c. Developing a corresponding budget for developing a marketing strategy for Canadian indigenous development expertise.1.1.2 MethodologyThe methodology used by the consulting team as they gathered data to meet the objectives ofthese terms of reference included: • Desktop research of various websites and electronic documents; • Literature survey and review of relevant reports, articles and publications; • Review and analysis of procurement notices in Development Business; • Identification and review of marketing and information documents from various donor agencies and international institutions; • Meetings and interviews with: o Indigenous businesses and organizations from Canada; o Officials from donor agencies and multi-lateral institutions; o Canadian and international businesses currently targeting the development business market; o Indigenous Peoples and organizations from outside of Canada; and, o Private sector firms that hire development expertise.The data and information gathered were analysed, cross-checked and utilized in compiling thisreport.The rest of the report is organized into four parts. Part one discusses development expertiseutilized by CIDA and other agencies, while part two comprises Canadian Indigenous expertiseand experience in development. The next part explores the export of indigenous developmentexpertise and the last part presents an action plan for supporting further development of thissector.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  13. 13. -4-2 Development Expertise Utilized By CIDA And Other Expertise AgenciesCIDA, other nation state development agencies (e.g., Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish,Spanish, Swiss, British, American, European Union, etc.), and multi-lateral agencies such as theUnited Nations, The World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) all haveprograms and priorities that focus on providing developmental assistance to economically andsocially marginalized people and groups. While it is true that different programs and agencieshave priorities and programs that have unique focus and objectives, certain skill sets andexperiences are common to many development efforts. Our research indicates that thefollowing skill sets are required in many internationally financed development projects in LatinAmerica and elsewhere in the developing world: o Business and economic development – the ability to identify community level business and economic opportunities and then to support the organization of people and resources in order to capitalize on these opportunities. o Institutional strengthening and capacity development – the ability to assess organizational and operational capacity of community and development organizations, identifying strengths and weaknesses, systematically building on the strengths and providing training and support to overcome organizational weaknesses and challenges. o Community Development – the ability to work with local stakeholders to motivate and organize them at the grassroots/community level in support of local development priorities. o Women in Development – the ability to analyze and organize development activities in such a way as to maximize the participation of women and the eventual benefits that accrue to women. “CIDA will ensure that all (its) initiatives are planned using sound gender analysis, building on opportunities for the empowerment of women and men, respecting human rights, and working to help close gender gaps that stand in the way of social development.2” o Environmental Management – the ability to integrate traditional and scientific resources into environmental management programs and regimes, maximizing both theIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  14. 14. -5- sustainable utilization of local environmental resources and the participation of local stakeholders in environmental management processes. o Health Care Management – community and personal health issues often permeate development projects. The ability to assist communities and groups to develop health related organizations and to integrate traditional and institutional health practices and methods is a skill that is often an important component of development projects. o Social Services – many development projects have a component that addresses social services and requires the ability to assist communities and organizations to develop the capacity to manage and deliver their own social services in culturally appropriate ways. o Education – educational enhancement and the development and support of local educational capacity is a priority of many development projects. The ability to support people and communities to organize and support the development of local, culturally appropriate educational institutions is a skill set that is required on many development projects. o Media and Communications – communications and the development of local media is an area that is of growing interest to developmental agencies. Many projects have specific media and communications components where an objective of the project is the creation of awareness of the project through various communication methods. Others are strictly focused on supporting the development of local media and communications capacity. Skills and experience in this area are required on many developmental projects. o Project Management and Execution – as the management of development projects becomes more and more professional, the ability to effectively manage complex projects has become increasingly important. CIDA and other agencies routinely contract for project management and execution services. Most CIDA projects are managed by Central Executing Agencies (CEA) that submit proposals in response to an RFP issued by the Agency.The above skill areas (often in combination with each other and with specific operationalexpertise such as human resources, agriculture, etc.) are often required of firms andorganizations bidding for development projects/contracts with CIDA and other institutions.2 From CIDA website http://www.acdi-cida.gc.caIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  15. 15. -6-The next section discusses these skill combinations of the developmental expertise of CanadianIndigenous Peoples and maps the ‘fit’ with the expertise sought by developmental projectsinternationally.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  16. 16. -7-3 Canadian Indigenous Expertise in DevelopmentCanadian Indigenous Peoples have a plethora of developmental expertise that has been gainedthrough their organization of people and resources in support of their development priorities andobjectives. Some of the areas in which they have acquired significant levels of developmentexpertise are discussed below.3.1.1 Business and Economic DevelopmentCanadian Indigenous Peoples, with over 20,000 businesses operating in almost every sector ofthe Canadian economy, are gaining recognition worldwide as leaders in indigenous businessand economic development. This is a recent phenomenon. Twenty (or even ten) years ago,Canadian Aboriginal business was, at best, at an incipient stage with only a few firms operatingin limited sectors of the economy and almost no consideration given to exporting.In the process of creating this transition in the aboriginal economy, an exportable expertise hasalso been created; the expertise of how to organize, build and grow Indigenous enterprises.Indigenous Peoples throughout the Americas and around the world are seeking to replicate orlearn from this Canadian success story. Development agencies such as the United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP), the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), manynation state development agencies (e.g., Danish, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Spanish, etc.),private foundations and even private enterprise are seeking to support transitions such as this.Many are challenged by the lack of available expertise in facilitating and supporting theprocess.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  17. 17. -8- Box 3-1: Example of Business Development Expertise Romanow Bear & Associates (RBA)-provides management and advisory services for indigenous Many of the Canadian firms that have peoples, governments and the private sector. RBA domestic experience in this area do provides specialized business consulting services including business planning, business plan not have direct international assessments, operational reviews and analysis, experience. Firms such as Romanow human resource planning, training needs assessments, community development planning, Bear & Associates3 appear to have evaluation, project management and partnership expertise and experience that, with building between the aboriginal and non-aboriginal sectors. At this time (Jan 2001) they have not yet modest levels of support and training, began exporting their knowledge and expertise. could be deployed in support ofinternational projects.Another opportunity area in international indigenous development is the development ofproducts and marketing campaigns to commercialize traditional foods. A recent IADB/CIDAfunded project in the Peruvian Amazon identified this as a priority opportunity, which couldhave a meaningful impact on the lives of local people and families. However, a critical successfactor was the ability to productize and successfully develop international markets. Canadianindigenous businesses such as Grey Owl Marketing, which has been successful in developingwild rice products and in penetrating international markets in Europe, Asia and North America,seem to have directly applicable skills (and a marketing network and infrastructure) that couldbe used in support of other projects.What these and other firms appear to be lacking however, is the experience of applying theirdevelopment expertise in international settings, where languages, laws, customs and otherfactors may be significantly different. It goes without saying that, while there may be manysimilarities between an indigenous development project in a place like Peru or Nicaragua, thereare also many differences.3.1.2 Institutional Strengthening and Capacity DevelopmentStrong organizations with operational and developmental capacity and culturally appropriategovernance systems are fundamental components of the development successes of CanadianIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  18. 18. -9-Indigenous Peoples. Over the past thirty years Indigenous Peoples have worked tirelessly tocreate organizations and, often through sheer willpower, empower these organizations withresources, capacity and governance structures that enabled them to undertake a range ofdevelopment projects. Political, economical, educational and other types of organizations thathave been launched in this manner are thriving today. This experience of creating organizationsaimed at supporting the aims and aspirations of people and communities and supporting theirdevelopment, often against difficult odds, is a skill that maps closely with skill sets required oninternational development projects throughout the Americas and elsewhere.Indigenous Peoples in Canada also have experience in working with other stakeholders oninstitutional strengthening and capacity development. Examples abound whereby private andpublic sector organizations (e.g., resource companies, banks, government departments, etc.)have been assisted to develop the capacity to work more effectively with Indigenous Peoples.3.1.3 Community DevelopmentOur research shows that Indigenous Peoples in Canada have extensive experience in the area ofcommunity development and that they also have a strong cultural sense of community.Throughout Canada indigenous communities have gained control of their destinies throughculturally appropriate grassroots community organization and development. This has providedthe foundation from which special developmental efforts (e.g., economic, health, education,justice, etc.) have been launched. This experience, gained over many years, has served to createan abundance of expertise in organizing and developing grassroots community organizations.One example of an organization that has strong capacity and exportable expertise in the area ofcommunity development (as well as business, economic development, education and otherareas) is the Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers (CANDO).Through its partnerships with economic development officers (EDO), aboriginal leaders,academics, government departments and corporations, CANDO has extensive developmentexpertise. As well, the organization has developed particular expertise in providing training andprofessional development support to indigenous economic development officers. Anotherorganization, CESO Aboriginal Services combines successful indigenous communitydevelopment experience in Canada with extensive international project experience.3 Romanow Bear & Associates and other firms are used simply as examples of the type of Canadian Indigenous firmsIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  19. 19. - 10 -3.1.4 Women in DevelopmentCanadian Indigenous Women have created many thriving organizations dedicated to theirpolitical, social and economic advancement. Ranging from individual community basedorganizations to national organizations such as Pauktutuit (the National Inuit Women’sOrganization), they have served to advance the interests of Indigenous women throughout thecountry. There is abundant expertise and experience in the establishment, development andoperation of organizations to maximize the involvement of women in developmental activities.3.1.5 Environmental ManagementIndigenous Peoples worldwide are noted for their environmentally sound managementpractices. Canadian Indigenous Peoples have created numerous public and privateorganizations dedicated to effective environmental management, integration of traditional andscientific environmental management practices, the enhancement of indigenous environmentalmanagement capacity and other environmentally related areas. In the forefront of theseorganizations is the First Nations Environmental Network. This is a Canadian nationalorganization of individuals, non-profit groups and Indigenous Nations who are actively workingon environmental issues. The network is an affiliate network of the Canadian EnvironmentalNetwork.3.1.6 Health Care Box 3-2: Example of Indigenous Health Care ExpertiseHealth has become an increasingly important focus Nechi Institute-is an aboriginalof Canadian First Nation’s development efforts. organization committed to holistic healing and healthy addictions-freeThere are indigenous organizations at the lifestyles. Nechi provides aboriginalcommunity, regional, provincial and national level culture based in-house training courses in Addictions Counseling;that focus strictly on health care. These Program Management; Nativeorganizations have developed expertise in many Trainers Development; Family Violence and Adult Children ofareas related to health care and the promotion of Alcoholics. The institute also provideshealthy lifestyles. Organizations such as the cross-cultural workshops that are certified through Keyano College in Alberta.that, with minimal support, could be ready to provide services in the fast growing area of development business.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  20. 20. - 11 -Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada, which was formed to promote better physical,mental, social and spiritual well-being for Aboriginal people, and the National Indian andInuit Community Health Representatives Organization, which focuses on improving healthcare for Inuit and First Nations Peoples through the a network of community health workershave skills and experience that appear to have significant export potential. As well, manyindividual First Nations and Tribal Councils have health departments with extensive capacity inthe area of health program design and delivery. The experience of developing and operatingindigenous controlled health service organizations would seem to fit with the expertise needs ofsome internationally funded development projects.3.1.7 Social ServicesMany indigenous controlled organizations have been developed to focus on the provision ofculturally appropriate social services. One example, which exists throughout the country, is thechild and family service organizations, which provide First Nations controlled social service toindigenous children and families. Additionally, many First Nations and Tribal Councils haveSocial Services departments that have developed significant expertise in the design and deliveryof culturally appropriate social services.3.1.8 Education Box 3-3: Example of Indigenous Training ExpertiseEducation has been a development priority for Anokiiwin Training Institute, anCanadian First Nations for many years. First Indigenous owned private business based inNations have developed and are operating their Manitoba offers a full range of training services, including skills assessments,own schools and educational institutions, course and curriculum design and projectranging from kindergartens through high management. As a fully registered private vocational training institute, Anokiiwinschools to the provision of University level offers on going diploma courses foreducation. Some of these, such as the Administrative Assistants, Computerized Accounting and Medical Secretaries, and aSaskatchewan Indian Federated College, have full range of upgrading and trades trainingbeen actively involved in working with ranging from pre-employment programs to apprenticeship training.Indigenous Peoples throughout the Americas,developing Indigenous Universities and educational institutions. The focus on education andthe development of indigenous controlled educational institutions has provided CanadianIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  21. 21. - 12 -Indigenous Peoples with expertise that is particularly relevant to many internationally fundeddevelopment projects.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  22. 22. - 13 - Communications3.1.9 Media and Communications Box 3-4: Example of Indigenous Communications ExpertiseIndigenous Peoples in Canada Aboriginal Peoples Television Networkhave developed a number of The Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, or APTN, is Canada’s newest national television network. Its launch onmedia and communications September 1, 1999 represented a significant milestone forrelated enterprises and Aboriginal Canada -- for the first time in broadcast history, First Nations, Inuit and Metis people have the opportunity toorganizations. Recognizing share their stories with the rest of the world on a nationalthat media and television network dedicated to Aboriginal programming. Through documentaries, news magazines, dramas,communications, especially entertainment specials, children’s’ series, cooking shows andwhen they are developed in education programs, APTN offers all Canadians a window into the remarkably diverse worlds of Indigenous peoples inNative languages, are Canada and throughout the world.important components of Headquartered in Winnipeg, APTN offers an unprecedented opportunity for Aboriginal producers, directors, actors,development, Canadian writers and media professionals to create innovative,Indigenous Peoples have reflective and relevant programming for Canadian viewers. More than 90% of APTN’s programming originates inlaunched dozens of radio Canada, with 60% of the programs broadcast in English, 15%stations, a national television in French and 25% in a variety of Aboriginal languages. Source: APTN Websitenetwork (Aboriginal PeoplesTelevision Network), and a number of private film and media companies. These organizationshave developed expertise in utilizing communications for development and in supporting theretention of Indigenous languages. These are skill areas that are often woven into donor fundeddevelopment initiatives in Latin America and elsewhere.3.1.10 Project Management and ExecutionThere are numerous examples of Canadian Indigenous Peoples demonstrating their skills inproject management and execution. These range from truly mega-projects such as theimplementation of large land claims (e.g., Nunavut, Nisga’a Land Claim, Inuvialuit FinalAgreement, etc.), private sector contracts and projects (e.g., Mudjatik/Thyssen’s $40 millionunderground mining contract with Cameco, Aboriginal Capital Corporations, numerousbusinesses, etc.), service and program delivery (e.g., health, justice, social services, educationand other programs), to international projects (e.g., projects discussed in the following section).The skills developed in managing these complex projects would seem to be quite readilytransferable to the management of development projects such as those financed by CIDA andIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  23. 23. - 14 -other donor country agencies. (However, as discussed in Section 4, there will likely be a needto supplement existing project management capacity with international project managementexpertise).3.1.11 Other Relevant ExpertiseCanadian Indigenous Peoples have additional development expertise that is of interest to otherIndigenous Peoples and the organizations dealing with them. These include:3.1.11.1 GovernanceExpertise has been developed in various aspects of organizational and political governance,including the integration of culturally appropriate mechanisms for governance of moderninstitutions and organizations.3.1.11.2 Cross-Cultural AwarenessGovernments, private businesses and other organizations in Canada often turn to IndigenousPeoples and organizations to assist them to develop mechanisms and procedures to enable themto operate more effectively in cross-cultural settings.3.1.11.3 Land Claim SettlementAlthough Land Claims remain a contentious issue in many areas of Canada and numerousclaims processes are proceeding much slower than stakeholders would like, the fact remains thatCanadian Indigenous Peoples have some of the world’s leading expertise in the negotiation andimplementation of land claim settlements.3.1.11.4 Participating in Natural Resource DevelopmentIndigenous Peoples in Canada have developed hundreds of millions of dollars of businessthrough participation in mining, forestry, oil and gas, and other natural resource developmentprojects. In the process they have developed significant expertise in identifying and developingmutually beneficial relationships with natural resource companies.3.1.11.5 Structuring and Negotiating Joint VentureJoint ventures have represented a strategic approach that has enabled Indigenous Peoples inCanada to take advantage of development opportunities. Kitsaki Development Corporation(Lac La Ronge First Nation) has developed a $40 million/year business operation through jointIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  24. 24. - 15 -ventures. Others, such as the Mudjatik/Thyssen underground mining joint venture, aboundthroughout Canada.The above represents skill sets and strategies that can (and we believe will) be used byIndigenous Peoples elsewhere to support their development priorities if export marketopportunities are identified and developed.The following sub-section presents examples of development projects and donor agencies thatcould present export market opportunities for Canadian Indigenous Peoples.3.2 International Project ExamplesResearch identified numerous examples of international development projects and agencies thatutilized one or more of the skill areas discussed above. As well, a number of projects and donoragencies, which specifically addressed indigenous development and/or noted the developmentalexpertise of Canadian Indigenous Peoples, were identified. Some of these examples arepresented below.3.2.1 Population, Energy and Environment Program (World Bank)The Population, Energy and Environment Program is a response from the eleven countries thatshare the sub-Andean basin to the challenge of developing petroleum resources in a manner thatincorporates sustainable development and effective collaboration with Indigenous Peoples andlocal communities. The program was initiated three years ago and is supported by the LatinAmerican Organization of Energy. A primary focus is to improve the handling of the emergingenvironmental and social impacts of petroleum and gas operations in Indigenous territories.3.2.2 Finland Ministry for Foreign AffairsIndigenous Peoples’ rights are among the main objectives in Finland’s development co-operation efforts in Latin America. The Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs funds a number ofprojects in Latin America, many of which include Indigenous Peoples as an integral part of thefocus. At the moment there are two projects where the situation and human rights of IndigenousPeoples are the main focus.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  25. 25. - 16 - • The first one is a bilingual education project in Nicaragua. The purpose of this project is the strengthening the ethnic and cultural identity of Indigenous Peoples and conservation of diversity by supporting the educational sector (January 2000 - end of 2003). • The second one is an educational project on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. The overall objective of the project is the realization of Indigenous Peoples’ rights within different sectors of society, based on needs and preferences formulated by indigenous peoples themselves (September 2000 - September of 2002).Correspondence with Finnish officials noted that they “are constantly alert to use our minorityexpertise in different projects, especially that of Sami” (which is the case for example in theBolivia, Ecuador, Peru-project mentioned above).3.2.3 Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD)Norwegian aid targeted at indigenous peoples is normally channeled through the NorwegianIndigenous Peoples Program. This program is administrated by NORAD (Norwegian Agencyfor Development Cooperation) and was established in 1983. The 2000 budget is some$2.5 million USD, about the same level as in 1999. The program supports projects in Peru,Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Guatemala. In addition, a number of Norwegian indigenous projectsare carried out through Norwegian NGOs.3.2.4 German Agency for International Development (GTZ)GTZ has traditionally supported the social and economic development of Indigenous Peoples inthe Americas as a focus of its Aid programming for the region. A recent project, which is beingexecuted by the Carl Duisberg Foundation, a German NGO, is aimed at facilitating improvedparticipation of Indigenous Peoples in social, economic and environmental activities related tothe development of oil, gas and mineral resources in the Amazon region (Bolivia, Colombia,Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, etc.). Discussions with coordinators of this project confirmed theirinterest in utilizing best practices of Canadian Indigenous Peoples and their interest in theIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  26. 26. - 17 -potential of engaging Canadian Indigenous organizations for the provision of developmentexpertise. Inter-3.2.5 Inter-American Development BankThe Inter-American Development Bank has a special unit for Indigenous Peoples andCommunity Development and has facilitated the creation of an Indigenous Peoples Fund (IPF).The IPF was created in 1992 as a mechanism to support indigenous development initiatives andto facilitate the dialogue between the indigenous peoples and the governments of the region.The objectives of the IPF (taken from their website) are: • To help indigenous peoples in preparing projects and programs that serve their own development objectives, while ensuring self-determined management, protection of their territorial and cultural resources, and respect for their rights as peoples. • To support the identification and negotiation of technical and financial resources to carry out projects and programs proposed by indigenous peoples and communities. • To offer opportunities for organizations, governments, multilateral and bilateral technical and financial assistance agencies and nongovernmental organizations to work together to commit themselves to the objectives of indigenous development, to expedite procedures for accessing national and international resources, and help create the appropriate legal and institutional preconditions for indigenous peoples sustainable development. • To seek out and offer pre-investment funds, both to prepare projects and to improve the technical and organizational expertise of indigenous peoples, so that they may eventually manage their own development. • To cooperate with governments and with technical and financial assistance institutions to identify indigenous peoples needs, facilitate a direct relationship with such entities, and develop conditions so that their resources can be placed efficiently.As well, the IADB finances and supports numerous projects which have components dealingwith Indigenous Peoples and their development. A 1999 review identified over 50 IADBfunded projects that had components related to Indigenous development.3.2.6 CIDACIDA is in the process of developing an Aboriginal Canada Cooperation Fund that will providefinancial support to facilitate Canadian indigenous organizations to undertake feasibility studiesand capacity development projects with Indigenous Peoples elsewhere in the hemisphere. AsIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  27. 27. - 18 -well, CIDA provides funds to the World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank and mostother international financial institutions to allow them to engage Canadian consulting expertisefor specific short-term assignments. This tied-aid4 is often referred to as Trust Funds. “OnJanuary 19, 2001, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the WorldBank (the Bank) signed a Canadian Consultant Trust Fund Administration Arrangement(CCTF), providing C$15.5 million over a four-year period for activities associated with plannedBank projects, programs, or Bank economic and sector work, and consistent with the Bankscountry assistance strategies.5” The Trust fund at the IADB (which has now been fully utilizedand is awaiting replenishment) identified the utilization of Canadian Indigenous expertise aspriority and set aside budget for engaging Canadian Indigenous organizations. The terms andconditions for the new IADB Trust Fund specify that $1 million is to be used for Indigenousrelated projects.3.2.7 International Finance CorporationThe International Finance Corporation (IFC) has recognized that relationships with IndigenousPeoples and local communities can be a critical factor in the success of investments in hydrocarbon and mineral development projects. Discussions with IFC officials confirm that theyrecognize the experiences of Canadian Indigenous Peoples in working with these types ofdevelopments as examples of global best practices.IFC has recently contracted for a USD$180,000 Feasibility/Design Study for the Provision ofFinancial Services in Indigenous Communities. This study, which includes a review of theexperiences of Aboriginal Capital Corporations in Canada, is an example of developmentcontracts that fit very well with the development expertise of Canadian Indigenous Peoples.In addition to the above, the donor agencies of Britain, Switzerland, Denmark, Netherlands andthe EC, have all recognized the developmental experience of Canadian Indigenous Peoples andits fit with the developmental requirements of Indigenous Peoples elsewhere in the Americas.4 Tied Aid refers to Aid funding that is tied to a particular purpose or process i.e. in this case the funding is tied to theuse of Canadian consultants. Many countries follow this practice and provide funding to multi-lateral agencies that islimited to specific uses and beneficiaries. Others, such as Britain’s Department for International Development(DFID) have moved away from tied aid and are leaving the utilization of special funding to the discretion of theinstitutions to which the funding has been provided.5 Canadian Consultant Trust Fund (CCTF) GuidelinesIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  28. 28. - 19 -3.3 International Utilization of Canadian Indigenous Developmental Expertise ExpertiseThis recognition of the experience of Canadian Indigenous Peoples and organizations is basedon their demonstrated strong interest in developmental projects that could link them withIndigenous Peoples elsewhere in the Hemisphere and throughout the world. They have beenenthusiastic participants in the conferences and have undertaken feasibility studies anddeveloped and launched a number of capacity building projects with Indigenous Peoples inother countries. Examples include: a) Saskatchewan Indian Federated College (SIFC) is working on 14 different international agreements to share resources and to meet the educational needs of other Indigenous Peoples. One agreement is with the National Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH) in Mexico. This agreement enables both institutions to develop specializations and to expand as academic institutions. Another agreement in Guatemala includes working with TULAN, an Indigenous organization, and San Carlos University, the Guatemalan national state university. This agreement involves the development of a certificate in Indigenous administration that would lead a full-fledged Bachelor of Administration. This program will have a developmental impact in 300 Indigenous communities. b) The Meadow Lake Tribal Council (MLTC) has developed a strong partnership with the Miskito Indians in Nicaragua. Originally initiated in 1995 with support from CIDA Inc. to explore the feasibility of a forestry joint-venture, the relationship has expanded to include social and community development objectives. A new five-year project worth over $3 million is under development that would engage MLTC to facilitate the social and economic development of the Miskitos. c) The Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) already has extensive international development experience working with other Indigenous Peoples. These partnerships include a multi-donor funded effort to work with Indigenous Peoples in Belize (Belize Indigenous Training Institute) and a CIDA funded Institutional Strengthening project inIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  29. 29. - 20 - northern Russia6. Both are multi-year projects with budgets well in excess of $1 million. A unique feature of the ICC Russia project is the involvement of DIAND officials working with their counterparts in the Russian government to help strengthen their capacity to work with Russian Indigenous Peoples. This component, which occurs concurrently with ICC’s institutional strengthening of Russian Indigenous organizations, has been quite successful and significantly adds to the sustainability of the project’s impact. d) Four Directions International is a Canadian owned and operated Aboriginal company with more than thirty years of experience in people-centered development work in North and South America, Central and West Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the former Soviet Union. Four Directions International is the economic arm of the Four Worlds International Institute for Human and Community Development. The primary focus of Four Worlds7 and Four Directions work is capacity building of people and organizations for social and economic development at the community level. Four Worlds currently has ongoing projects with the Otomi First Nation, Estado de Mexico, Mexico and the Kalinago Peoples (represented by the Carib Council of Dominica). e) Kahnawake – Argentina Community Oriented Primary Care Project – This project engages the First Nations community of Kahnawake, Québec to introduce principles of community primary health care in five Aboriginal communities in Argentina. This is a three-year project worth about $460,000, which is financed by CIDA. f) Nisga’a – CONAP education project. The Nisga’a Peoples of northern BC, through WILP WILXOOSKWHL NISGAA, are working with the Confederación de Nacionalidades Amazónicas del Perú (CONAP), an Indigenous Peoples organization in the Amazon region of Peru, to define an educational partnership project.6 See ICC Website for information on these projects.Belize -www.inusiaat.com/Activities/international_dev__summary/Belize_indigenous_training_ins/belize_indigenous_training_ins.htmlNorthern Russia - http://www.inusiaat.com/Activities/international_dev__-summary/Northern_Russian_Indigenous_pe/northern_russian_indigenous_pe.html7 See Four Worlds Website - http://home.uleth.ca/~4worlds/Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  30. 30. - 21 -Numerous other efforts are underway to initiate and develop inter-indigenous partnershipprojects that utilize the development capacity of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. One example isthe Council for the Advancement of Native Development Officers (CANDO), a professionalassociation of Indigenous Economic Development Officers, which has established aninternational committee and is seeking to internationalize its expertise in training and supportingIndigenous economic development officers.3.3.1 SummaryThe above examples are either wholly or predominantly financed by CIDA and are targetedspecifically at providing capacity development support for other Indigenous Peoples. Theserepresent only a fraction of the opportunities available through projects financed by otherinstitutions and through project management (Central Execution Agency) contracts. However,these opportunities require additional skill sets (e.g., international project management, specificoperational expertise, etc.) and, generally, that the firm have prior similar experience.One of the challenges faced by Canadian indigenous organizations has been that it is often amix of several areas of development expertise that is required to win contracts and projects andthat it is especially important to mix the developmental skill sets with project management,communications and international development. Often the development organizations (e.g.,health, education, etc.) do not have a marketing/business focus and aren’t equipped to do theproject development work.In addition to the above skill areas, there are often programs and initiatives that provide capacitydevelopment and institutional strengthening support to government institutions that deal withIndigenous Peoples. For example, the Government of Chile has approached CIDA and otherCanadian government departments to explore the opportunity to create a capacity developmentproject that would have two institutional capacity building components: • Develop the capacity of the government of Chile to work more effectively with Chilean Indigenous Peoples; and, • Provide institutional strengthening and development support to Chilean Indigenous Peoples and their organizations.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  31. 31. - 22 -Furthermore, there are several other considerations and issues that should be addressed in orderto fully understand the opportunity and challenges for the export of Indigenous developmentexpertise.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  32. 32. - 23 - Issues4 Other Considerations and IssuesThis section outlines a preliminary set of screening criteria for identifying Indigenousorganizations that may be ready to begin exporting development expertise. The section goes onto review various supply and capacity issues, and other considerations relating to thedevelopment of indigenous knowledge transfer opportunities.4.1 Preliminary Screening CriteriaA preliminary analysis suggests that indigenous organizations seeking to export theirdevelopment skills and expertise should demonstrate a number of characteristics. A number ofthem are discussed below.Strong skills and expertise in at least one of the areas noted and discussed earlier, plus accessto (either internally, or through association with other organizations) project managementexpertise. International development projects require, in addition to the particular developmentskills and expertise, good project management capabilities.Marketing expertise – Acquiring international development project contracts requires a solidcommitment and strong marketing. Organizations that will be successful in this area shouldhave internal marketing and project development capacity, or a partner that has demonstrated orproven strengths in this area.Interest and willingness – To pursue international development work, organizations willrequire Membership and/or Board of Directors that are willing to invest time and resources indeveloping international markets/projects.Resource availability – Organizations need financial and human resources that can bededicated to the identification and development of international project opportunities.Structure – Organizations need to be structured in such a way as to be able to undertake fee forservice work.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  33. 33. - 24 -Communication skills – international development work requires strong communication andwriting skills. Organizations that are seeking to develop international markets for their skillsand expertise will need to have strong communication and writing skills.4.2 Supply and Capacity IssuesIn order to effectively support the export development of Canadian indigenous developmentexpertise a number of supply and capacity issues will have to be addressed in more detail.These include issues such as:Project management – International projects are often much more complex to manage thansimilar domestic projects. In addition to geographic distance and cultural differences, there areissues of familiarity with the host environment (e.g., local laws, languages, infrastructure,educational system and capacity, support services, etc.)Commitment – International development projects require long-term commitment to operatingin complex and sometimes frustrating environments. Proponents of successful projects such asthe MLTC and ICC stress the need for long-term personal and financial commitment to aninitiative. Invariably, initial estimates of the time and financial resources required for projectdevelopment prove to be optimistic.Cross-cultural – Even when working with other indigenous people and organizations inCanada there are cultural and historical differences that development practitioners must becognizant of. At the international level this is even more pronounced as the cultural differencesare overlaid with geographic and nation state peculiarities.Collaboration and competition – The international development marketplace has becomeextremely competitive. Despite some competitive advantages, by virtue of their owndevelopmental experiences (as discussed earlier), Canadian indigenous organizations mustcompete against other suppliers of similar skills. Many of these will already have internationalexpertise and/or experience in particular countries. As well, many competitors will have theadvantage of possessing a broader range of development skills (as outlined earlier). It appearsthat many Canadian indigenous organizations, especially those with narrowly focused areas ofIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  34. 34. - 25 -development expertise (e.g., health, education, etc.) may be well advised to collaborate withother organizations (indigenous and/or non-indigenous) in order to achieve critical mass andeconomies of scale and be able to compete effectively.Project identification and marketing – International development projects generally have alengthy incubation period and structured process, moving through a project pipeline in anorderly manner. Indigenous organizations wishing to provide development services to theseprojects must become familiar with this process and understand how to identify projectopportunities and successfully market their skills in order to get shortlisted and have theopportunity to prepare project proposals. Canada already provides support in this area throughoffices such as the Office for Liaison with International Financial Institutions (OLIFI) at theCanadian Embassy in Washington.Project bidding – International development projects, particularly those financed by multi-lateral institutions and nation state development agencies, have highly structured developmentand procurement processes. Bidding can be complex and exacting. Often bids can bedisqualified for failure to meet what seem to be arcane requirements. Preliminary analysissuggests that many organizations will require support and training in the area of project bidding.Even when proposal-scoring guidelines provide a competitive advantage for IndigenousPeoples, competitive contracts are difficult to secure (e.g., Despite providing a 5% preferencefor Indigenous component on all of its competitive contracts, we were unable to find oneexample of an Indigenous bidder winning an open competitive CIDA contract.).4.3 Other ConsiderationsWhile it is not a specific requirement of the Terms of Reference, we feel that it is useful tosummarize other considerations, issues and constraints that arose through the research andanalysis discussed above.Spanish – English communications – Existing inter-indigenous partnerships have had littletrouble utilizing translators and interpreters to overcome the fact that few Latin AmericanIndigenous Peoples speak English and few Canadian Indigenous Peoples speak Spanish. Aswell, both groups are starting to utilize more professional and support personnel that are fluentin both Spanish and English. Additionally, as Spanish-English inter-indigenous partnershipsIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  35. 35. - 26 -have developed, they have encouraged more extensive language training amongst theparticipants.In-Canada partnerships and collaboration – Indigenous Peoples can provide a strategicadvantage to other businesses seeking to provide services to private and public sector projects.For example, Canada has abundant expertise in supplying goods and services to large resourceprojects and Canadian firms regularly compete for the supply of goods and services to projectsin Latin America (e.g., Camisea, a multi-billion dollar natural gas project in the PeruvianAmazon). Projects like Camisea, which are located in environmentally sensitive lands that arethe traditional home of Indigenous Peoples, must work effectively with local IndigenousPeoples if they are to be successful. By working with Canadian Indigenous Peoples, traditionalsuppliers of goods and services would be able to identify more effective ways to integrate localIndigenous Peoples into their proposals and supply added value to the project developers.Similar strategies could be applied to Canadian firms bidding on projects that seek to addressthe development priorities of other Indigenous Peoples.Nature of Activities (development, pre-trade and trade) – This report has focused on theprovision of export of the development expertise of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. As we haveseen, this expertise has applicability across a wide range of activities, from early stagecommunity development and capacity building through to organizational development, pre-trade, trade and business development. As it is a cross-cutting issue, we have not madedistinctions between development, pre-trade, trade, consulting and other types of projects, otherthan in discussion of specific opportunities and skill sets.Private vs. Non-Profit – Historically CIDA and other donor agencies were more prone tocontract non-profit organizations for development projects. However, in recent years there isseldom a distinction/preference made between private sector firms and non-profit agencieswhen evaluating contract proposals. The focus is on relevant expertise and experience and theability to undertake the project successfully.Partnerships and Joint-Ventures to Bridge Capacity Issues – The nature of many WorldBank, CIDA and other development business types of contracts often requires even the mostexperienced firms to joint-venture or partner with other firms in order to field a competitiveproject team. For example, a World Bank Trade Gateway project in the Gambia recentlyIndigenous Knowledge Transfer
  36. 36. - 27 -requested four firms (two of them were Canadian), to submit proposals to undertake a trainingneeds analysis of the Ports, Airports and Customs Departments of the Government of theGambia. The request for proposals indicated that the consulting team required personnel with aminimum of ten years of expertise in Port operations, in Airport operations and in Customsoperations, along with a team leader with fifteen years of experience in training and humanresource development. One Canadian firm (Wayne Dunn & Associates Ltd.) bridged thiscapacity issue by identifying other firms and individuals that could meet the operationsexperience and including them in the project as sub-contractors. This not only made the firmmuch more competitive for the training needs analysis, but also positioned the firm well (interms of overall capacity and skills) for other assignments related to this project. At the time ofwriting the proposals are being evaluated and it is not known if the proposal will be chosen.Project Development Time – Development business (i.e., World Bank, CIDA, etc.) typicallyhas a very long development cycle. It is not unusual for projects to take years to develop to thepoint where they may represent a valid opportunity (the OLIFI resources referred to below canprovide an excellent overview of the project development cycle and where, when and howbusiness opportunities occur). For instance, we (Wayne Dunn & Associates Ltd.) have beenfollowing a World Bank institutional strengthening project in Papua New Guinea that we feltwe could be competitive on. Our network in Washington first alerted us to the project in late1999. A General Procurement Notice8 was published in February 2000 and we submitted ageneral expression of interest in the project to officials in Papua New Guinea. In December2000 as Specific Procurement Notice was published in Development Business and we preparedand submitted a more detailed Expression of Interest in the hope that we would be selected asone of the firms invited to submit proposals for the project. (We have since discovered that over100 other firms submitted expressions of interest for this project – of these, only 5-6 will beinvited to submit proposals) If we are successful, sometime in the next year we could be invited(along with several other firms) to submit a detailed technical and financial proposal (This is anonerous task that can easily consume 20 plus days of time and require travel to the area; oftencosting well in excess of $15,000 to prepare). After the proposals are submitted they areevaluated (both technical and financial) and the firm with the highest score is invited tonegotiate a contract. The contract negotiations can also take a long time and be costly – a recent8 For information on specific milestones such as General Procurement Notice, Specific Procurement Notice, etc. Thereader should refer to the OLIFI website at http://www.canadianembassy.org/olifi/index.html.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  37. 37. - 28 -World Bank project in Russia required several months and at least two trips to Russia just tonegotiate the contract.NOTE: This report is not intended to be a primer in IFI business. The OLIFI Officewebsite (http://www.canadianembassy.org/olifi/index.html) is a recommended first stopfor firms wishing to learn more about IFI procurement and business opportunities. Thewebsite provides access to a number of excellent documents and information sources.The OLIFI Officers have been instrumental in assisting many Canadian firms (includingours) to develop business in the IFI marketplace.The preceding sections have reviewed supply, demand, ‘fit’ and other issues pertaining to theexport of the development expertise of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. The following sectionoutlines several specific steps that can be taken to support further development of this potential.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  38. 38. - 29 -5 Next Steps/Additional InitiativesThe foregoing discussion has confirmed that there is a real opportunity for Canadian IndigenousPeoples to begin exporting development consultancy services. However, in order to fullycapitalize on this opportunity and maximize its potential, additional research and support isrequired. This was anticipated by INAC and the consultant has been requested to provide draftTerms of Reference for: a) Creating a database of exportable Canadian indigenous development expertise. b) Assessing the export readiness of Canadian indigenous development expertise; identifying firms and organizations that have the potential to be export ready; and developing a strategy for supporting firms and organizations wishing to upgrade their export readiness. c) Developing a corresponding budget for developing a marketing strategy for Canadian indigenous development expertise.5.1 Export Readiness of Indigenous Developmental ExpertiseIn order to effectively support the development and growth of Indigenous developmentalexpertise as an export product, it is important to develop a more thorough understanding of thesector and the capacity and export readiness of organizations that have the requisite skill setsdiscussed above. We believe this approach requires a two-step process; (a) developing a set ofcriteria that will assist in identifying firms that have the potential to become exporters ofdevelopmental services; and (b) undertaking a formative export readiness assessment that wouldenable firms to evaluate their export readiness, identify their strengths and areas requiringfurther enhancement/support. We suggest the following process/Terms of Reference forcompleting this: 1. Develop a set of screening/identification criteria that can be used to identify organizations that are, or have the potential to become, exporters of development consultancy services; 2. Using the above screening criteria, develop a preliminary list of 15-30 organizations that are currently, or have the potential to become exporters of development consultancy services (some of these organizations can be used as a focus group for the review (and if necessary design) of export readiness assessments and also for the design and testing of the database);Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  39. 39. - 30 - 3. Identify and review existing export readiness assessments processes to determine if an existing process (or processes) can be utilized for assessing the export readiness of this sector; 4. Identify, review and assess rollout plans for export readiness assessments in other sectors to identify best practices; 5. If an existing export readiness assessment (or assessments) can be used ‘off the shelf’, initiate discussions with the copyright holders (if any) regarding utilization of the assessment(s); 6. If no existing assessments are appropriate, prepare a draft export readiness assessment toolkit in consultation with sector stakeholders (we suggest that this toolkit not only assess the export readiness, but also assist organizations to identify areas where they require further development); 7. Test the draft toolkit with the focus group; 8. Refine/revise as appropriate; 9. Develop and implement a ‘rollout plan’ to make the toolkit available to all potential exporters of indigenous development consultancy services.5.1.1 Support for FirmsIf the opportunity to expand the export of Canadian Indigenous development expertise is simplyleft for various organizations and firms to explore and develop on an ad hoc basis it may takeyears to fully realize the potential and many firms may miss out on lucrative export andbusiness development opportunities. INAC has the opportunity to play a catalytic role by:working with First Nations and other stakeholders to support further exploration of theopportunity; continuing to gather and disseminate information; providing strategic support andmarketing assistance to those firms ready to begin developing the market; identifying firms thatare nearly ready to enter the market; and providing them with assistance, etc.At present we can suggest two general ways that INAC can contribute to the development ofthis sector.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  40. 40. - 31 - • Support for the development of the sector itself (the steps outlined in this report – e.g., determining identification criteria, export readiness assessment, development of an online database, development of a marketing strategy, etc., - are all part to this process); and, • Support for individual firms that are ready, or nearly ready to begin exporting.While the development of a specific marketing strategy for this sector will identify morespecific opportunities for supporting firms and the industry, we can still, at this point, identifytwo specific actions that could be undertaken immediately. These include:• Information sessions/workshops on Development business for Indigenous firms and Departmental employees. As discussed in earlier sections, development business is a competitive and complex field. In order to compete effectively, organizations should have a general understanding of the sector including how projects develop, how to identify opportunities, how to get invited to bid (shortlisted) for competitive contracts, how to prepare proposals, how to identify and secure appropriate expertise to round out teams, etc. Contracting agencies often have published guides outlining their projects development, proposal evaluation and contracting processes. As well, they will often provide speakers for workshops and information sessions (CIDA and the Canadian Executive Director’s Office at both The World Bank and the IADB will often make personnel available to explain the procedures from their respective institutions). Additionally, there are private consultants who specialize in assisting firms with marketing and business development in the development business sector. We suggest that INAC organize and host a series of information sessions/workshops on development business at various locations across the country.• Development Business subscriptions – Development Business is a publication of the United Nations with John Hopkins University Press acting as the subscription agent. The publication lists procurement notices and bid invitations from prominent Development Banks around the world (e.g., World Bank, IDB, Asia Development Bank, United Nations system, etc.). It identifies consulting, contracting and supply opportunities as soon as projects are proposed and also publishes articles on transacting business and securing projects in developing countries. The publication is available in both print and online/electronic formats (www.press.jhu.edu/press/journals/db/db.html). We suggest that,Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  41. 41. - 32 - at a minimum, INAC take out a subscription in order to allow appropriate officials to familiarize themselves with this publication and, explore the applicability of a group subscription to the online version that would allow export ready indigenous organizations to peruse the opportunities directly.Other specific actions will be identified through the process of undertaking the various sectordevelopment activities suggested in this section.5.2 Database of Indigenous Developmental ExpertiseA primary objective for developing a database of Canadian Indigenous Development expertiseis to enable potential clients (e.g., donor agencies, multi-lateral agencies, private sector firms,etc.) and partners (e.g., other firms/organizations interested in partnering with Indigenous firmson development projects) to easily identify and undertake preliminary evaluation of potentialcontractors/partners. A secondary objective is to enable INAC and other stakeholders to bettersupport the development of this sector.If INAC is to contract for the design, development and operation of an online, interactivedatabase of indigenous development expertise, we recommend that the following process beutilized as a starting point: 1. Meet with potential users of the database (e.g., clients, partners, stakeholders and indigenous organizations themselves) to review their requirements and constraints and to identify a beta test group; 2. Develop a preliminary set of design criteria that would enable the database to provide maximum value for the user community; 3. Review design criteria with representatives of the user community and make appropriate adjustments; 4. Develop a prototype model of the database for beta testing by the previously identified test group; 5. Host a focus group session (possibly online?) with the beta test group to get feedback on database design and functionality;Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  42. 42. - 33 - 6. Revise/debug database and put it online (Note: as part of the marketing strategy below, a communication program should be developed to ensure that potential users are aware of the database and its value). The database should allow for user feedback which will assist with future updates and refinement; 7. Continue to monitor for bugs and functionality; and, 8. After 3-6 months, query users of the database to identify design issues, bugs, functionality improvement opportunities, etc., and, if appropriate, update and debug the database design. Note: We recommend that the initial contract be for at least a two-year period and that all design documents, notes, program code, etc., be the property of INAC.5.3 International Marketing Strategy for Indigenous Developmental for ExpertiseIt is our opinion that the development consultancy export market for Indigenous Peoples andorganizations can best be realized through a focused and systematic development effort. Earliersubsections have set forth some of the steps in this process. These, and other strategicinterventions would be best set forth in a comprehensive marketing strategy and implementationplan for the sector. We suggest the following steps for the development of a marketing strategy.1. Review the development consultancy markets identified earlier in this report (e.g., CIDA, other nation state donor agencies, multi-lateral agencies such as the World Bank, IDB, United Nations, mining and oil/gas firms, other Canadian firms providing development business services in the international marketplace) to better determine the market size, scope, barriers to entry, etc.2. Review the development capacity of specific indigenous organizations.3. Prioritize the three most attractive markets (as identified in step 1) and develop specific market development strategies and plans for each.4. Identify specific skill and capacity gaps, and collaboration issues that need to be addressed to enable indigenous organizations to penetrate the three most lucrative markets.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer
  43. 43. - 34 - Preliminary research suggests that these could include; international project marketing and bidding skills, international project management experience, etc.5. Work with stakeholders to develop specific plans for bridging the skill and capacity gaps.6. Develop a comprehensive marketing strategy and implementation plan for the sector.The budget for the above work should not exceed $75,000 including the cost of fees, expenses,travel to meet with target markets and the costs of a stakeholder consultation workshop.Indigenous Knowledge Transfer

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