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Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua

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This assessment of economic development opportunities available to Afro-Latin and Indigenous communities on the Miskito Coast of Nicaragua was commissioned in 2002 by the Inter-American Development …

This assessment of economic development opportunities available to Afro-Latin and Indigenous communities on the Miskito Coast of Nicaragua was commissioned in 2002 by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The report includes a detailed socio-economic, political and capacity assessment of the region and the six targeted communities. The report outlines 20 specific project opportunities, 13 of which were deemed viable.

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  • 1. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC D EVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FORA FRO-LATIN AND I NDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE ATLANTIC COAST OF N ICARAGUA - FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED TO : CLAIRE NELSON INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT B ANK DECEMBER 2002 SUBMITTED B Y: WAYNE D UNN & ASSOCIATES , L TD. 2457 B AKERVIEW ROAD M ILL BAY, BC CANADA V0P 2R0 WAYNE D UNN ANDREW GRANTThis report was developed with the support of the CANTAP Assistance Fund and administered by the Inter-American Development Bank.
  • 2. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC D EVELOPMENTOPPORTUNITIES FOR A FRO-LATIN COMMUNITIES IN THE ATLANTIC COAST OF N ICARAGUA - FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED TO : CLAIRE NELSON INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT B ANK DECEMBER 2002 SUBMITTED B Y: WAYNE D UNN & ASSOCIATES , L TD. 2457 B AKERVIEW ROAD M ILL BAY, BC CANADA V0P 2R0 WAYNE D UNN ANDREW GRANT This report was developed with the support of the CANTAP Assistance Fund and administered by the Inter-American Development Bank.
  • 3. - i-FOREWORD TO READERSDuring the course of conducting this assessment and preparing this document, it became clear to theconsulting team that there was no single place where one could find detailed information on the pilotcommunities, on community- and regional- level organizations and on other key developmentstakeholders along the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua.In order to properly fulfill the requirements of this assignment, the authors made every effort todevelop and consolidate this information, making it available to the Inter-American DevelopmentBank in order that they could properly assess the project prototypes that are presented. A decision wasmade to include much of this information within this report so that it would be available to otherreaders and could, hopefully, provide background information and detail that will direct and encourageadditional development in the communities and region. Where the authors deemed it practical (e.g.,organizational assessments) information has been presented as an appendix. Information presentedwithin the body of the document is directly pertinent to the assessments undertaken, and can serve toinform further analysis of the prototypes as well as finalization of implementation plans.The Introduction to this report outlines in detail what is contained within each Section as well as theAppendices. Readers wishing less comprehensive information are encouraged to go directly to thosesections/communities/projects that are relevant for their purposes. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 4. - ii -EXECUTIVE S UMMARYThis assessment of economic development opportunities was commissioned in 2002, withfinancing from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), by theInteramerican Development Bank (IDB) through the Social Development Division of itsSustainable Development Department. The mandate of the cons ulting team was theelaboration of project models or prototypes of viable income- generating activities for selectAfro-Latin and Indigenous Communities along the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua in directconsultation with producers and leaders within the communities.Using a systematic community selection process, six communities along Nicaragua’s Atlantic(Miskito) coast were identified to be the focus of pilot initiatives. Of these six, four (PearlLagoon, Marshall Point, Orinoco and Corn Island) are princ ipally Afro-Latin communities,displaying a relatively large population of Creole and/or Garifuna inhabitants. Anothercommunity (Francia Sirpi) is Miskito, while the sixth (Wasakin) has a predominantly Sumopopulation.The project prototypes are based on community priorities, take into account the variouschallenges inherent in development initiatives along the Atlantic Coast, and attempt to buildupon pre-existing community infrastructure and organizations. The communities selected toparticipate in this assessment reflect micro-regional cultural and development hubs, whereinproductive support can have the greatest impact with an initial emphasis on capacity building,diagnostics, market recognition and productive development activities, rather than thepolemic issues of physical infrastructure development and the establishment of commercial orcommunity-based credit systems.The prototypes presented in this assessment have been validated by the communitiesthemselves as well as the Regional Governments of the Southern and Northern AutonomousRegions, the regional offices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAG-FOR),participating Municipalities of Rosita, Pearl Lagoon, Corn Island and Waspan, and bothregional Universities: BICU and URACCAN.To ensure that lessons learned were incorporated in the recommendations of this assessment,the methodology included an analysis of past and present economic developmentinterventions in the region which have been supported by a variety of institutions inc luding,World Bank, UNDP, IDB, ASDI, CIDA, USAid, Interamerican Foundation, DANIDA, civilsociety and NGOs, and others.Efforts were made to assess these initiatives, and to develop a comprehensive perspective ofthe development landscape along the coast, in order to avoid the potential for duplication ofactivity, and to inform the IDB of opportunities for collaboration. To that end, the consultantshave held discussions with the following organizations and projects, all of which haveexpressed their commitment to support the prototypes presented herein with parallelinitiatives in accordance with their own development priorities, within the context of anintegrated development strategy: o Emergency Social Investment Fund (FISE); o World Bank Rural Electrification Initiative; o United Nations Development Programme; o DANIDA Transport; o Inter-American Foundation; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 5. - iii - o Government of the Southern Atlantic Autonomous Region (GRAAS); o Government of the Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region (GRAAN); o Municipalities; o POSAF; o Corredor Biológico del Atlántico; o Meadow Lake Tribal Council Proinzapolka Forestry Initiative (Funding from CIDA);A principal focus of this assessment was the identification of prototypes whose objectives fitwithin the Bank’s Productive Agricultural Reactiva tion initiative (NI-0159) in collaborationwith Nicaragua’s Instituto de Desarrollo Rural (IDR). Given the IDR’s current lack ofpresence along the Atlantic coast, and the parameters provided to the consulting team by theBank’s representatives in Managua, the consulting team has developed implementationstrategies, partnerships, and potential institutional collaboration to increase the visibility andpotential impact of the IDR’s efforts in the region.Findings suggest that in all communities assessed, community- led agricultural reactivationpresents a viable and sustainable means of economic development. Preliminary analyses andcurrent production levels suggest that much of the land which is currently producing atsubsistence levels or laying fallow has the capacity to produce a variety of products whichhave a proven market regionally, nationally and internationally. An added benefit is that themajority if not all agricultural production from the communities along the coast could becertified as organic by national and international bodies. This presents a tremendousopportunity for communities to derive even greater value from agricultural exports.The principal technical challenges to agricultural reactivation are in the lack of awareness ofmarkets amongst producers, lack of access to markets due to the lack of transportationoptions, and the lack of technical skills in the areas of seeding, crop rotation, irrigation,harvesting, handling and packaging of product. The technical challenges are compounded byorganizational issues – the majority of community based organizations that could supportagricultural initiatives require focused and sustained institutional strengthening in order toeffectively support their membership and be sustainable contributing partners to the process.Project prototypes in the area of agricultural reactivation for all six communities are designedto support these groups to meet the organizational challenges they face. Groups andindividuals have been identified in each c ommunity to assume a leadership role in theseinitiatives.In the interest of diversifying economic activity and creating value-added to the productiveagricultural opportunities, the consultants are also recommending prototypes focused on theprocessing of agricultural and agro-forestry products in selected communities. In this regard,the Bank- funded POSAF II sustainable agro- forestry initiative represents an opportunity forco-financing and institutional collaboration. The initial stage of POSAF did not includecommunities along the Atlantic Coast, but program representatives expressed to theconsultants the sincere interest in leveraging the Bank’s findings through this assessment intotheir own community selection process. The consultants strongly suggest that the Bankconsider three communities – Pearl Lagoon, Wasakin and Francia Sirpi – as pilotcommunities for POSAF II in the region.A critical finding of this assessment is the need to provide direct and ongoing support to thesix pilot communities involved in the agricultural rehabilitation, agro- forestry developmentand agricultural processing initiatives, as well as in the development and dissemination of ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 6. - iv -agricultural information, provision of training and technical assistance, and inter-projectcoordination for a three to four year pilot initiative. To facilitate these goals, one prototypefocuses on region-wide agricultural extension services to provide ongoing support tocommunities and to serve as a conduit for information and transfer of knowledge.In the four Afro- Latin communities considered in this assessment – Pearl Lagoon, MarshallPoint, Orinoco and Corn Island – small-scale craft or ‘artesanal’ fishing is the principalincome generator for the vast majority of residents, alongside cash remittances from familyand friends living and working abroad. In recent years, artisanal fisheries have been on thedecline due to decreasing stocks of lobster, shrimp and some finfish, highly-efficient andenvironmentally degrading fishing practices, lack of resources to maintain and upgrade boatsand equipment, and increasing competition with foreign-owned industrial boats. Throughoutthe assessment, it was the consensus opinion of industrial fishermen and individual craftfishermen alike that small-scale fishing operations are more productive and efficient, whilebeing less environmentally damaging than industrial fishing. Prototypes developed for theCreole and Garifuna communities of Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point and Orinoco, as well as theCreole/Miskitu communities of Greater and Lesser Corn Island, reflect opportunities tostrengthen the abilities of craft fishermen working in common to improve their infrastructureand protect the resources of the sea and lagoon.Beyond the 13 prototypes considered as viable for this assessment, seven additionalprototypes were also developed in the areas of aquaculture, support to home-based tourism,and cattle production. In the opinion of the consultants, these prototypes lack strong supportin the community, and require further study to determine implementation feasibility andenvironmental impact. They are listed in the appendices of this assessment as prototypes forfurther consideration.Throughout the assessment, community leaders, agricultural producers, fishermen and womenin the various communities frequently expressed their frustration concerning nature andprocess of previous development efforts. Another finding is that many of the communities aresuffering from “development fatigue” resulting from the large numbers of ‘studies’ (whichrequire community time and energy and seem to seldom produce any tangible communitybenefits). To combat the skepticism stemming from this situation, the consultants recommendthe establishment and/or reinforcement of strong and enduring lines of communicationbetween the development agencies and the communities themselves. This is an initiative thatcould be spearheaded by the Inter-Institutional Forum for the Atlantic Coast (FIICA), andmay mitigate some of the negative sentiment around development initiatives pervasive in theregion today.Thoughtful support of community-based development along the Atlantic coast must recognizethe increasing political, cultural and economic isolation felt by the residents of thesecommunities, and must take into account efforts undertaken in past interventions, drawingexperience from the lessons learned from both successful and unsuccessful initiatives. TheBank has an opportunity to support incipient and established development groups in thecommunities outlined in this report, and to foster pilot initiatives to provide a catalyst for theintegration of the efforts of development agencies, civil society groups, national and regionalgovernments in the region. The prototypes presented in this assessment represent viablemeans of supporting disadvantaged peoples and communities. It is expecated that many ofthe prototypes will produce information and lessons that can be applied throughout the regionand can serve to inform IDB projects in other countries in the hemisphere. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 7. -v-AcronymsACDI / CIDA Agencia Canadiense de Desarrollo Internacional / Canadian International Development AgencyACNUR Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para RefugiadosADEPHCA Asociación de Desarrollo y Promoción Humana de la Costa AtlánticaADESCA Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Costa AtlánticaADPESCA Administración Nacional de Pesca y AcuiculturaADRA Adventist Development And Relief AgencyAECI Spanish International Cooperation AgencyAMICA Asociación de Mujeres Indígenas de la Costa AtlánticaAMIR Asociación de Mujeres Indígenas RamaAMURACAN Asociación de Municipios de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Atlántica de NicaraguaAPAM Asociación de los Pescadores Buzos Artesanales MiskitosAPENN Asociación Nicaraguense de Productores y Exportadores de Productos no TradicionalesASDI / SIDA Swedish International Development CooperationBICU Bluefields Indian and Caribbean UniversityBID/IDB Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo / Inter-American Development BankBM/WB Banco Mundial / World BankCARUNA Cooperativa de Ahorro y Crédito "Caja Rural Nacional" R.LCDE Centro de Desarrollo EmpresarialCDM Comités de Desarrollo MunicipalCEDECHA Centro de Derechos Civiles, Humanos y AutónomosCentro CONADES Conservación de la Naturaleza y el DesarrolloCIDA Canadian International Development AgencyCONADES Consejo Nacional de DesarrolloCONPES Consejo Nacional de Planificación EconómicaDANIDA Danish Agency for Development AssistanceEA Entidades AdministrativasERCERP Estrategia Reforzada de Crecimiento Económico y Reducción de PobrezaFADCANIC Fundación para la Autonomía y el Desarrollo de la Costa Atlántica de NicaraguaFIICA Foro Inter-Institucional de la Costa AtlánticaFISE Fondo Social de Inversión y EmergenciaFUNDE Fundación para el Desarrollo EconómicoFUNDECA Foundation for the Education and Development of the Atlantic CoastFURCA Fundación por la Unidad y Reconstrucción de la Costa AtlánticaGRAAN Gobierno Regional de la Región Autónoma Atlántico NorteGRAAS Gobierno Regional de la Región Autónoma Atlántico SurGTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische ZusammenarbeitIDR Instituto de Desarrollo Rural ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 8. - vi -IDSIM Instituto de Desarrollo de la Iglesia de MoraviaINATEC Instituto Nacional TecnológicoINDEL Iniciativas para el Desarrollo LocalINEC Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y CensosINFOR Instituto Nacional ForestalINIFOM Instituto Nicaragüense de Fomento MunicipalINPRU Instituto de Promoción HumanaINTA Instituto Nicaragüense de Tecnología AgropecuariaIPADE Instituto para el Desarrollo de la DemocraciaJICA Japan International Cooperation AgencyKEPA The Service Centre for Development Cooperation (Finland)MAGFOR Ministerio Agropecuario y ForestalMARENA Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos NaturalesMECD Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y DeportesMEDA Mennonite Economic Development AssociatesMIFIC Ministerio de Fomento, Industria y ComercioMINSA Ministerio de Salud de NicaraguaMTI Ministerio de Transporte e InfraestructuraNGO/ONG Non-Governmental Organization / Organización No-GubernamentalNOVIB Netherlands Organization for International Development CooperationOAGANIC Nicaraguan Afro-Garifuna OrganizationPAC Proyecto de Apoyo a la Competitividad AgroalimentariaPANA PANA Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Costa AtlánticaPNDR Programa Nacional del Desarrollo RuralPOSAF Programa Socioambiental y de Desarrollo ForestalPROFOR Proyecto Forestal de NicaraguaPRORAAS Proyecto de Apoyo al Desarrollo Humano Sostenible de las Comunidades Indígenas y Campesinas de la Zona Norte de la Región Autónoma del Atlántico SurPROTIERRA Proyecto Reforzamiento de Políticas de Recursos NaturalesPRPA Programa de Reactivación Productiva AgroalimentariaPRSP Nicaraguan Poverty Reduction Strategy PaperRAAN Región Autónomos Atlántico NorteRAAS Región Autónomos Atlántico SurSETEC Secretaria Técnica de la PresidenciaSIBURAAN Sindicato de Busos de la RAANSISPADRU Sistema de Procedimientos Ambientales de Desarrollo RuralSUKAWALA National Association of Sumu Communitie sUE / EU Unión Europea / European UnionUNAG Unión Nacional de Productores y GanaderosURACCAN University of the Autonomous Regions of the Caribbean Coast of NicaraguaUSAID United States Agency for International Development ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 9. - vii -TABLE OF CONTENTS1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 12 M ETHODOLOGICAL APPROACH ............................................................................................ 3 2.1 Major Activities 5 2.2 Data Gathering and Research 5 2.3 Use of Analytical Frameworks 6 2.3.1 Multi-Lateral and Bi-Lateral Program Review Framework.....................................................6 2.3.2 Summary of Key Bi-Lateral Development Agencies...................................................................6 2.3.3 Community Selection.........................................................................................................................7 2.3.4 Community Assessment Framework ............................................................................................14 2.3.5 Organizational Assessment Framework ......................................................................................14 2.3.6 Dev-SCOT Analysis..........................................................................................................................14 2.3.7 Project Prototype Assessment Framework ..................................................................................143 OVERVIEW OF SOCIO -ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES ON THE ATLANTIC COAST............................................................................................................... 15 3.1 Historical and Socio-Economic Overview of Atlantic Coast 15 3.2 General Comments on Atlantic Coast Development Challenges 184 SELECTED COMMUNITIES ................................................................................................... 19 4.1 Introduction 19 4.2 Pearl Lagoon Basin (Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point and Orinoco) 20 4.2.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................20 4.2.2 Community-Based Organizations .................................................................................................25 4.2.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Pearl Lagoon Basin.............................................................................32 4.3 Corn Island 33 4.3.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................33 4.3.2 Community-Based Organizations .................................................................................................38 4.3.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Corn Island ............................................................................................46 4.4 Wasakin 47 4.4.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................47 4.4.2 Wasakin Community Organizations.............................................................................................51 4.4.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Wasakin..................................................................................................56 4.5 Francia Sirpi 57 4.5.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................57 4.5.2 Community-Based Organizations .................................................................................................62 4.5.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Francia Sirpi .........................................................................................645 COMMUNITY ACTION PLANS .............................................................................................. 65 5.1 Introduction 65 5.2 General Considerations 67 5.3 Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities 68 5.3.1 Pearl Lagoon.....................................................................................................................................68 5.3.2 Marshall Point...................................................................................................................................69 5.3.3 Orinoco ...............................................................................................................................................69 5.3.4 Project Outlines – Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities..............................................................70 5.3.5 Implementation Plan for Pearl Lagoon.......................................................................................72 5.3.6 Implementation Plan for Orinoco.................................................................................................73 5.3.7 Implementation Plan for Marshall Point ....................................................................................73 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 10. - viii - 5.4 Corn Island 74 5.4.1 Community Summary ......................................................................................................................74 5.4.2 Project Outlines - Corn Island .......................................................................................................74 5.4.3 Implementation Plan.......................................................................................................................76 5.5 Wasakin 77 5.5.1 Community Summary ......................................................................................................................77 5.5.2 Project Outlines - Wasakin.............................................................................................................78 5.5.3 Implementation Plan.......................................................................................................................80 5.6 Francia Sirpi 81 5.6.1 Community Summary ......................................................................................................................81 5.6.2 Project Outlines - Francia Sirpi ....................................................................................................82 5.6.3 Implementation Plan.......................................................................................................................84 5.7 Project Integration Framework 85 5.7.1 Pearl Lagoon Basin Agricultural Initiatives Inter-Project Coordination Framework .....866 PROJECT PROTOTYPES ....................................................................................................... 88 6.1 Introduction 88 6.2 Atlantic Coast Region 91 6.2.1 Agricultural Extension Services for Atlantic Coast..................................................................91 6.3 Pearl Lagoon Basin 94 6.3.1 Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities Agricultural Reactivation Project..................................94 6.3.2 Development of Value-Added Agricultural Processing Industry in the Pearl Lagoon Basin ..................................................................................................................................................99 6.3.3 Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing Fleet in Pearl Lagoon Basin.................................... 102 6.4 Corn Island 106 6.4.1 Agriculture Rehabilitation Program for Corn Island............................................................ 106 6.4.2 Capacity Development of Asociación de Pescadores Miskitos de Corn Island................ 110 6.4.3 Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing Fleet Through the Corn Island Artisanal Fishermen’s Union................................................................................................................................... 113 6.5 Wasakin 116 6.5.1 Wasakin Agricultural Support Project...................................................................................... 116 6.5.2 Wasakin Agro Forestry Development ....................................................................................... 120 6.5.3 Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-Forestry Products in Wasakin........................................................................................................ 124 6.6 Francia Sirpi (Tasba Raya) 128 6.6.1 Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agricultural Support Project...................................................... 128 6.6.2 Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agro Forestry Development........................................................ 131 6.6.3 Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-Forestry Products in Francia Sirpi................................................................................................ 135 6.7 Summary of Recommended Project Prototypes 139 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 11. - ix -7 SUCCESS FACTORS AND ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................145 7.1 Institutional Collaboration 145 7.2 Project Implementation 145 7.3 IDR Project Coordinator for Atlantic Coast Initiatives 146 7.4 Community Relations 147 7.5 Institutional Strengthening of Regional Universities 148 7.6 Launching of POSAF on Atlantic Coast 148 7.7 Support to Donor Collaboration 149 7.8 Collaboration with Centros de Desarrollo Empresarial 149 7.9 Access to Credit 149 7.10 Focus on Community Organizations 1498 CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................................................150LIST OF FIGURES AND M APSFigure 2-1 Graphical Representation of Methodological Approach................................................................................. 4Figure 2-2: Community Selection Analytical Framework................................................................................................ 8Figure 4-1: Map of Selected Communities ........................................................................................................................ 19Figure 4-2: Location of Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities ............................................................................................ 20Figure 4-3: Location of Corn Island.................................................................................................................................... 33Figure 4-4: Location of Wasakin ......................................................................................................................................... 47Figure 4-5: Location of Francia Sirpi................................................................................................................................. 57APPENDICESAppendix I – List of Information Sources ......................................................................................................................... A1Appendix II – Community Consultations.......................................................................................................................... A4Appendix III – List of Meetings and Consultations ....................................................................................................... A14Appendix IV – Prototypes Requiring Further Development ........................................................................................ A27Appendix V - Organizations and Institutions .................................................................................................................. A51Appendix VI - Past and Current IDB and other Multi-Lateral Interventions on the Atlantic Coast...................... A85Appendix VII – Key Bilateral and Other Prominent Development Agencies ........................................................... A98Appendix VII – Detailed Methodological Approach...................................................................................................A107Appendix IX – Suggested Actions to Improve Success and Sustainability of Project Prototypes.......................A116 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 12. PAGE 11 INTRODUCTIONEarly in 2002, The Social Development Division of the Sustainable Development Departmentof the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) contracted Wayne Dunn and Associates, Ltd.(WDA) under Technical Cooperation Number ATN-CT 7634-NI to assess economicdevelopment opportunities for Afro- Latin and Indigenous Communities located in theAtlantic Coast Region of Nicaragua. The contract was won under a competitive bid, withfunding provided by the Canadian Technical Assistance Program at the IDB (CANTAP).The objective of this assessment is:To develop project models of viable income-generating activities for specific Atlantic coast communities of Nicaragua in consultation with these communities.This (Draft) Final Assessment Report and Community Action Plans builds upon the InterimReport submitted in June of 2002, which outlined the six communities selected to be part ofthe final assessment. The Interim Report also outlined the detailed methodological approachutilized by the consultants on this assignment.This study is not an exhaustive review of projects or communities, nor a definitive socio-economic analysis of the region. It builds upon the myriad of studies and assessmentsundertaken in recent years, and provides concrete steps to be taken to focus integratedproductive development support in the communities in question.The assessment includes the identification of pilot communities and elaboration of productionproject prototypes to be recommended to the IDB. The thirteen project prototypes provided inthis report illustrate viable income-generating enterprises for the selected communities andtarget populations. They were decided upon consultation with the productive and politicalleaders within the communities – men and women, municipal, regional and national publicsector organizations, civil society and private investors, as well as other stakeholders from theDonor and Development community. Extensive collaboration was established with andbetween these groups, providing the consultants with an understanding of lessons learnedfrom past initiatives, as well as a perspective on current and future interventions.Following this Introduction, the report is organized into seven (7) sections, supported byseveral appendices: o Section 2 provides a brief explanation of the methodological approach utilized to gather and analyze the information supporting the project prototypes; o Section 3 provides a basic socio-economic overview of the Atlantic Coastal region of Nicaragua; o Section 4 introduces the six communities around which the project prototypes are based. It includes an assessment of each community, an introduction to the various community-based organizations, and a Dev-SCOT (Development Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis for each community; o Section 5 presents the community action plans and o Section 6 details thirteen specific project prototypes; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 13. PAGE 2 o Section 7 presents a brief set of general comments and suggestions specific to the rollout of the Bank’s NI-0159 Rural Agricultural Rehabilitation initiative on the coast; o The Conclusion is presented in Section 8.Attached to the report are various appendices as follows: o Appendix I provides a listing of all information sources, including reports, proposals, documents, websites and other media; o Appendix II details the community consultation process for this assessment o Appendix III provides a partial list of individuals and organizations consulted during the initial project mission in April and May of 2002 and during the follow-up and feedback mission in June and the community debriefing mission in July of 2002; o Appendix IV outlines project prototypes requiring further development ; o Appendix V contains organizational assessments for key national and regional civil society, public sector and universities; o Appendix VI provides an summary analysis of selected past and current development interventions along the coast; o Appendix VII details the focus areas, projects and budgets of key bilateral agencies active on the Atlantic coast. o Appendix VIII outlines the detailed methodological approach utilized within this assessment; o Appendix IX presents an interesting paper on community development in the Atlantic Coast that we feel could help to inform development stakeholders in the region. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 14. PAGE 32 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHIn order to achieve the primary objective of this Consultancy - “To develop project models ofviable income-generating activities for specific Atlantic coast communities of Nicaragua” -the consulting team utilized a variety of tools and methods to gather, analyze and presentinformation in a logical, value-added way.Building upon the experience of local and Canadian project team members in developmentinitiatives along the coast, a methodology was developed to enable a systematic, thorough andparticipative approach to the preparation of Community Action Plans and Project Prototypes.The activities of this technical cooperation were undertaken under the following principles: o Participative People Centered Process; o Knowledge Exists In The People; o Respect for Traditional Community Structures and Organizations; o Open and Honest Communications; o Frequent Consultation with and Feedback to Clients, Communities and Stakeholders;A detailed description of the methodological approach was provided in the Interim Report,and is reproduced in Appendix VIII at the end of this report. The following section willsummarize the key aspects of the methodology, highlighting the use of analytical frameworksand the major activities undertaken in the development of the community action plans andproject prototypes.Figure 2-1 below illustrates the overall methodological and analytical approach utilized by theconsultants. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 15. PAGE 4Figure 2-1 Graphical Representation of Methodological Approach External Analysis Prior Programs - Program Sponsor COMMUNITY ACTION PLANS - Timeframe/Status Integrated Development Opportunities Analysis - Budget - Implementing Agency Bi-Lateral Agencies - Other Stakeholders - Name - Geographic Focus - Focus/Priorities Development of Project Prototypes - Major Objectives - Current Projects - Major Accomplishments - Annual Budget - Major Challenges (for area) (efforts to overcome) - Afro-Latin/Indigenous Impact - Lessons Learned - Other Community Data Organizational Data - Population & Demographics - Name Project Data - Local Government - Contact Information - Proponent Community Analysis - Community Description - Objective & Mandate - Sector - Community Infrastructure - Membership - Objectives - Educational Infrastructure - Leadership - Narrative Description - Major Industries & Resources - Background & History - Background/History - Other Business/Economic info - Finance - Partners & Collaboration - Development Constraints - Governance - Metrics - Interaction with Nat. Govt. Programs - Project Experience - Budget/Financing - Community Organizations - Current Projects - Market Information - NGO & other International Activity - Infrastructure - Production Information - Productive Opportunities - Partners - Geograpic/Infrastructure Issues - Other Information - Potential Projects Project Analysis Organizational Analysis - Previous Experience - Major Strengths of Proponents - Critical Challenges - Capacity Analysis (proponent) - Project Opportunities - Main Threats - Major Strengths - Major Risks & Mitigation plans - Training and Development Needs - Technical Assistance Needs - Next Steps ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 16. PAGE 52.1 Major ActivitiesFollowing is a brief description of the principal missions and activities involved in thepreparation of this assessment: 1. Two missions to IDB headquarters in Washington for meetings with key IDB personnel o Mr. Wayne Dunn in April 2002; o Mr. Wayne Dunn and Mr. Andrew Grant in May 2002 2. Initial Mission to Nicaragua, including visits to several Creole, Garifuna, Rama and Miskito communities in the Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and the Southern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS). o Mr. Wayne Dunn, Mr. Andrew Grant and Mr. Samuel Mercado in April & May 2002 3. Follow- up mission to each of the six selected communities for further data gathering, clarification and initial community feedback of project prototypes o Mr. Samuel Mercado and Mr. Jorge Quintana in June 2002 4. Community debriefing mission with seminars held in each of the six communities to review project prototypes and discussions around implementation and organization of community groups. o Mr. Andrew Grant, Mr. David Kattenburg and Mr. Samuel Mercado in July 2002 5. Regular consultation wit h non-traveling members of project team Dr. Joseph Palacio, Dr. Bernard Dasah and Ms. Gifty Serbeh-Dunn.2.2 Data Gathering and ResearchData gathering and research included the following activities: o Desktop research; o Review of relevant and available IDB and other documents; o Meeting with key IDB personnel in Washington, Managua and Bluefields; o Meeting with other donors, multi- lateral and bi- lateral stakeholders in Nicaragua, Washington and Canada; o Meetings and consultations with key Atlantic Coast development stakeholders including regional civil society organizations, private sector, municipalities and regional governments; o Meetings and consultations with community leaders, community organizations and community members in focus communities o Meetings with key personnel from the Rural Development Institute (IDR), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAG-FOR), Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (MARENA) and other national and regional Departments and Ministries o Review of other multi- lateral and bi- lateral projects focused on Atlantic Coast ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 17. PAGE 6 o Review of project documents o Where possible, interviews with 2 or more project stakeholders o Sustained community and stakeholder feedback through meetings, telephone/fax communications and email;In total the Consulting team met with well over 500 individuals plus interacted with anotherseveral hundred local residents at community and village meetings. Many individuals weremet with several times. Additionally information was gathered from a variety of sources,including published documents, draft reports, and interviews undertaken from April to August2002. All information sources are listed in Appendix I, while a comprehensive list ofinterviewees is included in Appendix III.2.3 Use of Analytical FrameworksIn order to ensure systematic gathering and management of information in support of theidentification and development of project opportunities for Afro-Latin and IndigenousCommunities, the Consultants developed a series of analytical frameworks. Following arebrief descriptions of each of these frameworks. Examples of each are included in the InterimReport submitted in June 2002.2.3.1 Multi-Lateral and Bi-Lateral Program Review FrameworkIn order to better advise on methodologies and approaches for enhancing the inclusion ofAfro-Latin and Indigenous Peoples in activities financed by IDB Loan NI-0159 and otherinitiatives, the Consultants undertook a summary review of several other Multi-Lateral andBi-Lateral Development projects on the Atlantic Coast. Some of these projects wereidentified by the IDB and others were identified during the initial data gathering stage of theproject. The intent was not to undertake an exhaustive or comprehensive review of previousprojects but to simply develop a basic understanding of the extent of previous developmentefforts and the lessons learned. The framework was developed to ensure consistency in thereview of various programs. It should be noted that, as the intent of the current assignment isnot to undertake a full project assessment, the Consultants limited themselves to readilyavailable data and information. Efforts were made to reference at least two data sources foreach project.2.3.2 Summary of Key Bi-Lateral Development AgenciesIn order to better understand the overall development landscape and easily identify potentialco-financiers or collaborative opportunities for projects, the Consultants prepared a summaryof key Bi- Lateral Development Agencies operating in the Atlantic Region of Nicaragua. Theinformation gathered included priority focus areas for each bi- lateral agency, a listing of theircurrent projects, approximate annual budgets and other pertinent information such as contactinformation. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 18. PAGE 72.3.3 Community SelectionWhile the primary objective of this assignment was to elaborate specific project prototypes,we recognized that the projects themselves would emanate from a community base. Wetherefore initiated our investigation at the community level, visiting seventeen communities intotal. Our intention was not to compile an exhaustive ranking of potential communities but tosimply ensure that we selected communities that met the stated criteria (Afro-Latin orIndigenous populations and potential productive projects).In both the RAAN and the RAAS the Consulting team made a preliminary list of potentialcommunities based upon our experiences in the area and supplemented by consultations withkey IDB and other stakeholders. The team then made initial visits to the selectedcommunities in order to gain first hand information and meet with community stakeholders.In cases where initial visits were not possible or practical we made a thorough review ofavailable material and gathered supplemental information through interviews. In all cases, atleast one project team member had made a prior visit to the community.The information gained from these community visits was supplemented through desktopresearch and, where possible, with further interviews with external stakeholders. Informationon the selected communities was reviewed and analyzed using the Community SelectionAnalytical Framework outlined in Figure 2.2 below. This provided an overview of thestrengths, weaknesses and potential projects from each community. A review of thisframework enabled us to identify 6 communities that will become the focus of projectprototypes and community action plans. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 19. PAGE 8 Figure 2-2: Community Selection Analytical FrameworkCOMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTSAuhya Pinhi § Predominantly Miskitu population § Weak community level organization § Wood processing & furniture making § Small project infrastructure established § Agricultural development requires 20km of § Agricultural production § Good access road travel and river crossing to access land § Sand for glass making § Health Center § Rocks for construction § Access to construction materials to market locally § Nature reserve / ecotourism or regionally § Technical craftsman in wood working availabilityBluefields § Presence of government, private sector and NGOs § No road access to Managua – only aerial and § Co-op group (UPGRAAS) processing, § Commercial hub for dozens of surrounding maritime access storage and commercialization of communities § 65% Mestizo population agricultural commodities for export § Electricity & communications § High probability of duplication with BICU § Tourism and eco-tourism opportunities § Port with access to Caribbean research efforts for IDR / NI-0159 § Offshore fishery for scale, shrimps and lobsters § Two universities and other technical schools § Agriculture and sea food processing § Capital of the RAAS region § Easy access to agricultural landBrown Bank § Predominantly Creole population § Agricultural potential § Fishery potential § Forestry potentialCorn Island § Creole / Miskitu / Mestizo population § Isolated § Tourism Development § Good support from municipality § Massive population growth § Artisanal Fisheries support § Good community level organization § Abandoned subsistence and commercial § Agricultural reactivation § Excellent tourism potential agriculture since Hurricane Joan § Availability of professionals for development project capacity. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 20. PAGE 9COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTS § Availability of infrastructure to promote tourism and eco-tourismKukra Hill § Predominantly Creole population § Reticence on the part of private sector to § Sugarcane factory § Road in development to Pearl Lagoon contribute to effective maintenance of § African palm (oil) production community resources § Presence of private sectorKum § Predominantly Miskitu population § Agricultural projects tend to get washed out § Agricultural renewal § Existing rice thresher, dryer and silo in floods § Threshing and storage infrastructure § Access to Wangki § Access road to Waspam is very poor § Cattle raising § Central to several communities § Extremely dependent upon downriver communities § Periodic flooding & devastation of crops § Very isolated during flood times § No electricity § Lack of education § Community has no concept of value of previously donated infrastructureKururia § Predominantly Miskitu population § Weak community level organization § Agricultural development § Access road to highway is good § Very little infrastructure § Forestry management § Previous infrastructure – community meeting area. § Poor access to water § Availability of and access to agriculture land § No electricity § Pine forest for commercial use § Forestry development is limited because of neighboring communities’ efforts § Small land base ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 21. PAGE 10COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTSMarshall Point § Predominantly Garifuna population § Power plant doesn’t work in Marshall Point § Pineapple development/ Orinoco § Has power plant (currently inoperable) § Population base very small to manage large § Dashin plantation § FADCANIC training center nearby; projects and maintain infrastructure § Eco-tourism development § Previous project infrastructure – basketball and § Community-level organization is relatively community house weak § Studies recently done on pineapple production § Good inter-community relationsMuelle de los § Strong local organization through § Predominantly Mestizo population (does notBueyes ACOMODEBUEY meet afro/latin or indigenous criterion) § Experience with USAID § Agriculture potential § Cattle raising potential § Project proposals already developedPearl Lagoon § Creole / Garifuna / Mestizo / Miskitu population § Municipality has not maintained roads well § Bluefields Municipality § Many projects already underway § Strengthening needed at level of municipality (Creole/Garifuna) § Hub for all communities in the basin § Agricultural potential § Recent infrastructure projects undertaken and more § Pineapple processing plant planned (wharf & road to Kukra Hill) § Electricity § Water access to Bluefields by large boats § FADCANIC agro-forestry project § Christian community org in PL – managing funds from wharf use (Not Municipality) § Abundance of community-based groupsPuerto § Predominantly Miskitu population (74%) § Fishing in region is exhausted § Support to Artisanal Divers UnionCabezas § Home of two universities and other technical § Lack of constructive engagement between § Support to revolving cash and in-kind(Bilwi) schools. municipality and regional government micro -credit initiatives to local businesses ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 22. PAGE 11COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTS § Capital of the RAAN § Hub for several community-based organizations § RAAN Regional Government § Municipality of Bilwi § Large population – center for commercial activityRama Cay § Predominantly Rama population § Limited physical space for development of § Coconut production § Small history of projects/intervention infrastructure on island § Cattle raising (women’s organization) § Electricity § Subsistence attitude § Rice production § Experience of working with NGOs and the local § Reticence to leave Rama Cay (island) which § Wood processing municipal government limits potential for development § Artisan fishery § Limited capacity to maintain infrastructure § Major transportation challenges § Lack of food to feed workersTasba § Predominantly Miskitu population § No electricity § Agricultural reactivationRaya/Francia § WB interested in doing electrical energy § Relatively little community infrastructure § Rice, mucácias, beans, root cropsSirpi infrastructure and productive activities (cassava) pineapple, vegetables § Large land base with forests § Cattle raising § Year-round road access to Puerto Cabezas § Forestry 5,000 hectare land base of ex- § Production potential in various products combatants– POSAF II § Good number of educated individuals in § Wood processing and commercialization community § Area to grow cacao for exportation § Easy support access from either Waspam or PC § Possible Eco-Tourism project in the area § No flooding threat of BOSAWAS. § Presence of NGOs § Small medical center § Close to BOSAWAS reserve § 7 communities within 50 km perimeter for any sustainable agriculture project for export ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 23. PAGE 12COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTSTortuguero § Excellent agricultural potential § Predominantly Mestizo population (does not meet afro/latin or indigenous criterion)Wasakin § Predominantly Sumo (Mayangna) population § Traditional isolation from government § Cattle raising § Close to city of Rosita interventions – has been a low priority § Agriculture – upper part of river is § Close to main road linking PC to Managua – easy § River occasionally floods excellent for bean production access to move goods § Lack of electrical capacity § Forestry Management – POSAF § 12 km of gravel road from Rosita with no major § Weak communication infrastructure Growing collaboration bridges – only ‘cajas’ which are easily maintained problem with alcoholism in community § Eco-tourism – living near a river where § IDB interest as focus community amongst youth downriver is the biggest wetland (delta of Prinzapolka and Banbana river – § Center (capital) for Mayangna/Sumo culture 200,000 hectares of land) in Nicaragua § Save the Children (Canada) has expressed interest where there is a variety of pristine flora in water and sanitation and fauna. § Contigo International has targeted community for § Can be a pilot for future investment in crop storage building construction government/municipality/community through CIDA relations § FISE may be doing infrastructure in future if there is a partner § RAAN Governor very interested in supporting § 36,000 hectares of land – lots of opportunities for forestry and agriculture § INTA working on processing bean seeds “semilla mejorada” in nearby Siuna § MEDA – Mennonite business group wants to exploit potential market for black beans to CR, Mexico, Canada § People are open and willing to participate in community efforts. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 24. PAGE 13Waspam § Predominantly Miskitu population § History of failed projects on large scale § Thresher & dryer reactivation § Good infrastructure & linkages to markets § Several organizations fighting for dollars and § Infrastructure for commercialization & § Presence of public sector, private sector and NGOs support production hub § Good base of technical professionals § Limited productive capacities – more in line § Micro-credit support with processing and commercialization § Integration of POSAF § Focus for development activities § Transportation hub for more than 40 communities to other parts of the RAAN and NicaraguaWawa § Predominantly Miskitu population § Lack of independence because of proximity § Eco-tourism development § Project history with AMICA to Puerto Cabezas § Artisanal Fisheries § Close to Puerto Cabezas – good transport by boat § Maritime access only – no road § Good eco-tourism potential § Fisheries have been over-exploited and are exhausted § Attractive community § Limited development opportunities § Strong Miskitu cultural center ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 25. PAGE 142.3.4 Community Assessment FrameworkThe Consultants prepared comprehensive community assessments to provide a snapshot ofeach community to inform and illuminate project prototypes. The following information wasgathered for each community: o General Description Of Micro-Region/Community o Population and Demographics o Community Infrastructure o Educational Infrastructure o Role of Municipal Government o Economic Activity o Development Constraints o Key Locally-Based Organizations and Institutions o NGO and other International Activity o Community-Based Organizations2.3.5 Organizational Assessment FrameworkTo enhance the community level information collected, the consultants identified keydevelopment organizations and institutions for further review. The organizational assessmentframework developed for civil sector, public sector, universities and community levelorganizations enabled a systematic review of each organization’s capacity and projectpriorities. It must be noted that many organizations – especially community-based - are at anincipient level and some of the information was not available.2.3.6 Dev-SCOT AnalysisThe consultants have prepared a comprehensive DEVSCOT™ Analytical Framework for eachAfro-Latin and Indigenous community considered in this assessment. The framework enablesa methodical approach to identifying and assessing project opportunities, especially thoseproposed by socially and economically marginalized groups.2.3.7 Project Prototype Assessment FrameworkPotential projects identified through the assessment are presented using the ProjectAssessment Framework. It was designed to provide a consistent method of providing anoverview of each prototype and to assist the IDB and other development stakeholders todetermine how (or if) to best support individual initiatives. Where applicable, projectinformation should be considered in conjunction with the information prepared on theorganization(s) promoting the project and the community profiles. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 26. PAGE 153 O VERVIEW OF SOCIO-E CONOMIC C ONDITIONS AND P RODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES ON THE ATLANTIC C OASTSix communities that contain significant populations of Afro-Latin and Indigenous Peopleswere selected as the target communities for this study. With the exception of Corn Island,each community represents a micro-regional hub around which project prototypes can be builtfor the benefit of surrounding smaller communities. The following section will provide asnapshot of the region and the specific communities, with a focus on data that supports aneffective socio-economic and productive analysis of the communities in question.3.1 Historical and Socio-Economic Overview of Atlantic CoastThe Atlantic coast has a rich multi-ethnic history, punctuated with occasional violent conflictand a history of challenging relations and political incongruence with Managua. Despite thevast natural resources of the region, Afro-Latin and Indigenous communities along the coastare mired in extreme poverty and facing major social and economic challenges.According to a recent UNDP evaluation report, the region is vulnerable environmentally,socially, economically and institutionally. This vulnerability is fostered by several factors,including the fragility of the region’s eco-systems, the advance of the agricultural frontierfrom the West, the impact of cyclical natural disasters (droughts, forest fires, hurricanes andfloods), the growing influence of drug-trafficking, the fragile nature of human security, thedisconnect between Mestizo and indigenous cultures in the region, the stagnant socio-economic nature of the region, institutional paralysis, and the lack of ‘de- facto’ autonomy asmanifested by the obstruction in the management of community, municipal and regionalauthorities at the hands of the central government. 1Statistical information for the region is generally inconsistent and unreliable. The most recentnational census was taken in 2000, though the data has not yet been analyzed anddisseminated to the general public. The region has experienced high levels of immigration inrecent years, reflecting the increasing pressures on agricultural land from Mestizo cattlemenexpanding their operations eastward, and threatening the already heavily burdened andinadequate social infrastructure.HistoryAtlantic coast communities – historically populated by Miskito Indians and Creoledescendents of former slaves from other areas of the Caribbean - fell under the protection ofthe British crown until the late 19th Century, when the region was officially re- incorporatedinto Nicaragua. The distinct history of governance structures, languages and ethnicities lies atthe root of many of the present day differences between the coast and the rest of Nicaragua,and is reflected in the cultural and political mosaic we see today.The economic foundations of the region reflect a history of resource extraction by outsiders –both foreign companies and Nicaraguan organizations from the Pacific coast. Prevailingactivities included large-scale mining, logging, agriculture and fishing - producing gold,chicle, rubber, and lobster for the export market. Anecdotal history suggests that these1 Informe de Evaluación Final, ProRAAS II. Bluefields, RAAS, June 2001, page 3 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 27. PAGE 16activities were largely unsustainable, environmentally devastating, and gave littleconsideration for local communities. This paradigm continues to this day with logging andfishery activities, often dominated by foreign companies operating in a weak legislativeenvironment, whose activities are not subject to adequate monitoring. Much of the localeconomies and infrastructure in the region were severely jeopardized or destroyed outrightthrough the tumultuous revolution years in the 1980s, and have not yet returned to theirformer state.PoliticalPolitically, the Nicaraguan Atlantic Coast is divided into two regions: The Northern AtlanticAutonomous Region (RAAN) with its headquarters in Puerto Cabezas, and the SouthernAtlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) based in Bluefields. These regions arose out of theAutonomy Law of 1987, which recognized the distinct cultural and economic makeup of theAtlantic Coast, and which ceded much administrative authority from the Central Governmentto the two regional councils. Each Region is divided into municipalities – 12 in the RAASand 6 in the RAAN. In general terms, these municipalities are severely under-resourced andhave limited capacity to support and manage development. The two regional governments arecurrently in the process of institutional strengthening with the support of the United NationsDevelopment Programme, the IDB and the Swedish Development Agency (ASDI).Municipalities are also being supported by two major institutional strengthening initiatives:RAAN/ASDI/RAAS, promoted by the BID/ASDI partnership, and DANIDA’s ProdemuDecentralization program.Demographics and Ethnic DiversityThe RAAN’s 7 municipalities have an estimated total population of over 185,000 people,whose roots are multi-ethnic in nature. Estimates suggest that Miskito families make up 44%of the population, Mestizos 38%, Creoles 14% and Mayangna/Sumo 4%. The SouthernAutonomous Region is divided into 12 municipalities, with a total population ofapproximately 322,844. 2 . The population density of the RAAS is estimated to be 11.72individuals/km². The rural population is dispersed throughout over 250 communities, with anestimated population density of 1.65 individuals/km². The Ministry of Agriculture andForestry (MAG-FOR) estimates suggest that over 72% of the population of the RAAS isMestizo, while 18% is Miskito and 7% are Creole/Garifuna.InfrastructureMost communities are situated far from regional centers and are difficult to reach, manyaccessible only by water or by air. The region has few roads, and the existing ones tend to bepoorly maintained, with many becoming impassable during the rainy season. This presents amajor challenge to developing productive economic initiatives. There is also a lack ofinfrastructure to preserve and store crops, resulting in many farmers and fishermen having tosell most if not all of their production at very low prices during peak harvest season, and oftenthe remains are lost to rot or infestation by pests.Social and economic infrastructure within most coastal communities is deficient, and manylack basic services such as potable water, electricity, sewage system, solid waste disposaldumpsites and treatment facilities. Most communities have little access to communication2 Plan Estratégico del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal para la RAAS. MAGFOR, Bluefields, November 2002 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 28. PAGE 17infrastructure such as CB radio, telephone, or even local radio stations. While a fewcommunities have a clinic for medical attention, most lack permanent staff, and all suffermajor shortages of medicine. Almost all communities have a partial or complete elementaryschool, though most have no secondary school. With the exception of Corn Island, none ofthe pilot communities selected as part of this assessment have access to a technical school toprovide extension programs to farmers or fishermen. The few students that have theopportunity to continue their studies are forced to go to urban centers far from theircommunities. The cost to maintain a student outside the community is usually out of reach formost of the local families.Economic ActivityEstimates for regional unemployment vary, but it “The Atlantic Coast has its ownis generally accepted that over 90% of the agricultural production logic”region’s residents lack formal employment.Outside of urban centers formal employment is Albert Sinclair, URACCANscarce, and the princ ipal employers in the regionare government (particularly in the educationsector), private fishing companies, and the services sector. The principal productive activitiesin the region, in order of importance, are: fisheries, agriculture and forestry. In most cases,production is maintained at the craft level and products are sold, mostly as raw material, toprivate industries owned by individuals outside the communities.Indications suggest that Creole, Rama and Miskito residents are the most active in thefisheries. Craft or ‘Artisanal” fishermen compete with several industrial boats for diminishingstocks of lobster, shrimp and a variety of finfish. Lack of regulation and enforcement in theindustry is fostering increasing exploitation, degradation of fishing grounds, and ethnictensions in the communities as more and more fishermen chase smaller and smaller catches.Seafood processing plants exist in Bluefields, Bluff and Corn Island, though at the time thisassessment was published only the two plants in Corn Island were in operation.Agricultural activity consists mainly of production of basic grains, cattle, milk products,vegetables and fruit. MAG-FOR estimates that agricultural cultivation comprises only 8.28%of the total area available in the RAAS. Farmers and producers in the region have little or noaccess to improved seed, market information, and technical assistance in crop management,seeding, harvesting, and post-harvest management of crops. There is little or no value-addedprocessing in the region, and most production is exported raw.Agro- forestry activity along the coast is principally landowners clearing land to make roomfor the planting of crops. There is some secondary industry in the form of wood processingplants in Bluefields, and a lumber market in Puerto Cabezas.While private industry in wood manufacturing, fishing and mining does exist, the economicand development benefits to the region of this activity in recent years have been minimal. Anarea of growth in the region is seen in tertiary economic activity, as restaurant/bars, eateries,restaurants and small stores or “pulperías” are opening up, though mostly the urban areas ofBluefields, Puerto Cabezas, Waspam and Corn Island.A reflection of the current economic reality of the region is that family members living andworking abroad support family incomes to a large degree. The Diaspora population ofNicaragua plays a strong role in the socio-economic well-being of coast communities, andaccording to Miguel Gonzá lez Perez’ March 2001 Socio-Economic and Political Analysis of ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 29. PAGE 18the Autonomous Regions, a full 20% of households along the Atlantic Coast receiveremittances from family and friends. It has been suggested to the authors that the actualnumbers in some areas along the coast range from 40-70% and MAG-FOR estimates that inthe RAAS alone, more than 5,000 families benefit directly from over US$3,200,000 inremittances annually.The region faces serious socio-economic and political challenges as it strives to develop in aninclusive and sustainable manner. The Community Action Plans and Project Prototypesoutlined in Sections 5 and 6 can become part of an integrated solution as stakeholders strive tosupport the region’s development.3.2 General Comments on Atlantic Coast Development Challenges o Services – The lack of basic services (potable water, electricity, sewage disposal), as well as the deficiencies in social services such as health and education is an increasing threat to the health and viability of many communities on the coast; o Communication Challenges. Communications between Atlantic Coast communities, especially those outside of the Regional Capitals is generally difficult and can often take several days; o Community Capacity – All of the communities we visited had extremely limited capacity to effectively manage projects themselves, highlighting the need for community-level organizational strengthening and capacity building; o Community Consultation – Development initiatives along the coast must reinforce community values with productive structures that build upon and strengthen traditional community organizations; o Cost Sharing – Successful regional organizations counsel for the need to break the cycle of dependence and paternalism in the region by establishing mechanisms wherein communities and individuals repay in-kind for goods and services provided, while reinforcing the value of donated infrastructure; o Isolation – Many communities lack basic road access or have roads that are in such a state of disrepair that they are impassable much of the year. In many communities radio is the only means of direct communication. There are no postal or telephone services; o Lack of Resources – Municipalities and local government structures are severely under- financed and often cannot even pay basic staff or other costs; o Land Demarcation – In each of the communities we visited along the coast, land demarcation was a prevalent issue which is being discussed at the community, regional and national level; o Lessons Learned – Many community leaders explained that past development interventions reflected a lack of true ‘partnership’ with the communities, with activities and results being largely transitory, and means for sustainability largely ignored; o Lack of Value -Added Processing – At present, there exists little or no value-added to agricultural, seafood or agro-forestry products in the region (outside of facilities in Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas; o Social Capital – In general terms, racial groups (Mestizo, Miskitu, Creole, Garifuna, Rama, etc.) have a reasonable level of economic and social interaction in the region. In specific terms on Corn Island, however, the consulting team noticed a level of racial tensions arising between the Creole and Miskitu fishermen specifically as a result of decreasing fishing stocks and land pressures on the islands. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 30. PAGE 194 SELECTED COMMUNITIES4.1 IntroductionThis section provides profiles of the six communities selected as pilot communities for pilotprototypes of economic development in the region. Four of the communities are located in theSouthern Region (RAAS) and two in the North (RAAN). The RAAS communities includethree predominantly Garifuna and Creole communities (Pearl Lagoon, Orinoco and MarshallPoint) located in the Pearl Lagoon basin, as well as Corn Island off the coast near Bluefields.Two of the communities selected are located in the RAAN: Wasakin, a Sumo indigenouscommunity on the shores of the Bambana River, 12 km from the city of Rosita, and FranciaSirpi, a predominantly Miskito community in the Tasba Raya region, 70 km southwest of thecity of Waspam. The locations of these communities are represented by green dots in Figure4.1 below.The following sub-sections provide detailed assessments of each of the selected communities. Figure 4-1: Map of Selected Communities ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 31. PAGE 204.2 Pearl Lagoon Basin (Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point and Orinoco)4.2.1 Community AssessmentGeneral DescriptionThe Pearl Lagoon basin is an area rich in natural resources and ethnic diversity but burdenedwith challenging socio-economic conditions. The Basin, which is the center of Garifunaculture in Nicaragua, contains 18 communities that share common traits and characteristics.After reviewing the situation in the Basin on three missions and numerous meetings withcommunity and regional leaders, it was evident that an integrated approach focusing on thethree major centers in the Basin(Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point Orinocoand Orinoco) would prove to bethe most sustainable andpractical way of supporting Marshall Pointdevelopment. For the purposesof this assessment, these three Pearl Lagoonprincipal communities will beaddressed in an integratedmanner. Their social andeconomic fabric is interwoventhrough generations of workingand living together. Figure 4-2: Location of Pearl Lagoon Basin CommunitiesThroughout this section, there are various references to Pearl Lagoon. It is important for thereader to be able to distinguish between the Pearl La goon Basin, which is a geographical area,the Municipality of Pearl Lagoon, which is a political region encompassing severalcommunities in the area, and the actual community of Pearl Lagoon alon the southeasternshores of the basin.The community of Pearl Lagoon is the largest and most influential within the Basin. As thehub of economic activity in the region, it maintains social and commercial links withsurrounding communities. It also reflects the ethnic diversity of the whole region, whichconsists principally of Creole residents, as well as Garifuna, Miskito, and Mestizo. As the largest community in the area, with the most developed physical infrastructure, any economic development infrastructure created in the community of Pearl Lagoon could provide direct benefit to the other communities in the basin, such as Brown Bank, Haulover, Kakabila, Kukra Hill, La Fé, Laguna Grande, Marshall Point, Orinoco, Set Net, Tasbapauni, Tierra Dorada, Wawasang. Communities of the Pearl Lagoon Basin are dependent Talking with Marshall Point Residents principally on the fishing industry – both in the lagoon and in the open ocean. Recent years have seen stocksdrop drastically, while boats and gear have been deteriorating for lack of resources to upgrade ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 32. PAGE 21and maintain them. The community has expressed a desire to rehabilitate the agriculturalpotential of the region, while fostering value-added processing to agricultural production.There is also a small but growing tourism industry in the community, with a handful of smallhotels and restaurants currently catering to an increasing flow of tourists, governmentrepresentatives and businesspeople.Orinoco and Marshall Point are Garifuna communities located along the northern rim of thelagoon, and they represent the de facto capital of the Garifuna populations along theNicaraguan Atlantic coast. As such, their economic reactivation is key to the continuingeconomic and cultural survival of the Garifuna people in the Lagoon and indeed in the entireregion. These two communities fall under the political jurisdiction of the Municipality ofPearl Lagoon, yet remain economically and politically isolated by the lack of consistenttransportation infrastructure and development support. The majority of the population relieson gillnet fishing and subsistence agriculture.Marshall Point and Orinoco are only 1.5 milesapart (a 20 minute walk or 5 minutes by water)and share excellent community relations withone another, the result of intermarriages andlong-standing socio-cultural, familial andeconomic linkages. Local residents inMarshall Point and Orinoco expressed a needfor support to develop the local fishing fleet,and to increase production levels of locallyadapted crops, including pineapple, cassava,rice, cashew, tropical fruits and others. The Meeting with Communitycommunities share a desire to develop a Leaders in Orinocosustainable agro forestry- farming system, andto foster eco-tourism with a focus on nature-based tourism and sport fishing in the basin.Population and DemographicsConsistent statistical information on the area is not available. According to the InstitutoNacional de Estadísticas y Censos (INEC), the communities that fall under the jurisdiction ofthe Municipality of Pearl Lagoon comprise 6,253 individuals, however current estimatessuggest that as many as 14,000 actually live in the basin. The population of the community ofPearl Lagoon is estimated to be around 2,500 individuals, while the population of MarshallPoint is 400 and Orinoco is 1,900.The communities of the basin are principally Garifuna, Miskito, and Creole. The Miskito arethe most established families in the area. Since the 1980s, Mestizo settlers have been movinginto the region, and Orinoco is currently suffering from invasions to the northwest byindividuals looking to exploit the standing timber and clear land for pastures and agriculturaldevelopment. In 1985, the first Mestizo community was established in El Pedregal with only2 families, and in only 17 years, has become one of the largest communities in the area due tothe aggressive migration into the region.The communities’ power structures are largely male dominated, and women in thecommunities continue to fight for recognition, political presence and economic developmentopportunities.Community Infrastructure ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 33. PAGE 22Pearl Lagoon was established by the British in 1821 and is one of the oldest communities inthe Southern Region. Residents are dependent upon marine transportation for the movementof goods and people. The community is the critical link between the outlying communities ofthe basin and the largest market on the coast – Bluefields. The community of Pearl Lagoonhas the most developed physical and social infrastructure in the area, with a Municipal office,electricity, elementary and high school, health clinic, telephone service, a radio station, asmall fish processing plant, and several small docks. The community has a handful ofcommercial establishments, including general stores, small eateries and bars, and small hotels.Currently, the majority of the bridges in the area and require replacement or major repairs.The major road into the area, which connects the community of Kukra Hill to the South withthe city of Rama and on to Managua, is only passable in dry season with heavy equipment,horses and on foot. The Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) hasdemonstrated a strong commitment to the development of roads and wharves in the region,and has recently completed construction of a new wharf in the community, under themanagement of a local community group. DANIDA has expressed interest in working withlocal farmers to develop the ‘trocha ganadera’ (trail) between Pearl Lagoon and Kukra Hill,along which the majority of agricultural lands are situated. In rainy season, the road isextremely bad which makes the movement of people and goods nearly impossible. In theopinion of the MAG-FOR office in Bluefields, the road between Pearl Lagoon and Kukra Hillis passable for vehicular traffic only in dry season, and during the rainy season only on foot oron horseback. One local resident suggested that she wouldn’t even take the trail in rainyseason with a large animal for fear that the animal might get stuck in the mud and break aleg. DANIDA has concerns about the capacity of the community and region toprovide/manage ongoing maintenance. During the initial visit to the community, the vicemayor admitted to the consultants that the Municipality had not formally approached theMinistry of Transport and Infrastructure for support in this area.While there are no banking services in the area there is a Western Union station in thecommunity of Pearl Lagoon to handle remittances to basin residents from family and friends living abroad. Three times a week there is scheduled commercial “panga” (small, open boat) service to the other communities of the Basin. Cargo service to Bluefields costs 10 córdobas (70 cents) per 100 pound sack of goods. There is regular boat service between Pearl Lagoon and Bluefields with several runs on most days. There are a fixed number (30) of telephone lines into the community, with usage at full Discussions in capacity, though there are three public Marshall Point telephones at the Enitel office near the docks. (Enitel is the recently privatized telecommunications service.) Electricity isavailable in the community of Pearl L agoon 17 hours a day. Water service is somewhatunreliable in the community. Water is provided mostly through individually owned wells,while some residents have set up individual water systems in their own homes through pumps,while others collect rainwater and chlorinate it. The Japanese Government has offered tosupport repairs to the water system, but a feasibility study is required. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 34. PAGE 23The infrastructure of the outlying communities of Marshall Point and Orinoco is considerablyless developed. Marshall Point has a very small (20m) landing dock which was constructedby DANIDA in 1999, but which is in very bad condition and in need of upgrading. Orinocohas a dock that is superior to that of Marshall Point, with larger space for loading andunloading of passengers and cargo. Orinoco has a small health center, as well as an areaconstructed for fish gathering.Marshall Point has no running water, electricity or phone lines (an electrical plant has beenout of commission for several months as there are no resources to repair and maintain theplant). A generator is run from 1 – 2 hours per day, but there are few resources to pay forfuel. There is a health clinic constructed by the Fondo Social de Inversión y Emergencia(FISE) and staffed by a nurse, but no medicines are stocked. There are reasonably goodsources of water in each community, managed through a loose system of wells - though inOrinoco it is estimated that 50% of a major creek in the community is polluted due to over-harvesting of trees.There are no formal stores in Marshall Point and Orinoco, but several families buy and sellgoods out of their homes on an ad-hoc basis. Orinoco has no running water, electricity orphone service, though there is a community radio connected to the Pearl LagoonMunicipality. There is a Community Development Committee or Community Control Team,a women’s fishing co-operative committee, a women movement and a health committee.Orinoco also has a recently constructed ‘community house’ which could serve as a focal pointfor training and project implementation activities.Both communities have a handful of small boats with underpowered motors. This representsperhaps the greatest infrastructural challenges faced in terms of access to markets, and thecapacity to expand artisanal fishing activities and eco-tourism efforts.Educational InfrastructureWithin the Pearl Lagoon Municipality, there are 21 schools. The community of Pearl Lagoonhas four community schools – 2 kindergartens, 1 primary, and 1 secondary – with a total of 27teachers. There is also a night school teacher, who is paid by the Municipality. Night schoolis for adults in the community looking to complete their high school diploma. TheMunicipality is trying to coordinate with the two regional Universities to develop additionaleducation programs. The Bluefields Indian and Caribbean University (BICU) has a largerpresence in the region, though the University of the Autonomous Regions of the Caribbean Coastof Nicaragua (URACCAN) has worked closely with groups in several of the communities,most prominently the women’s cooperative in Orinoco and the Fishermen’s Cooperative inPearl Lagoon. There are 13 students from Pearl Lagoon who are studying under scholarshipin Bluefields, and many more who are paying their own way. BICU works with theMinisterio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes (MEDC) to pay for 2 or three teachers inmunicipality.Orinoco has a pre-school and a complete elementary school, as well as a complete highschool, while Marshall Point has a pre-school and a complete elementary school. Teachers areall local, and attempt to provide a bilingual curriculum.Role of Pearl Lagoon Municipal GovernmentThe Municipality of Pearl Lagoon is relatively small, and is dependent financially upon civilsociety and the Central Government agencies FISE, Instituto Nicaragüense de FomentoMunicipal (INIFOM) and the Ministry of Housing to support initiatives for the whole basin. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 35. PAGE 24FISE support has focused on the construction of schools and health centers, while INIFOMsupports capacity building of the Municipality with support from the Taiwanese government.The aid provided by INIFOM is not tied to any particular initiative - INIFOM advises as tothe budget available, and the Municipality submits prio rity projects. The Ministry of Housingprovides yearly transfers to support housing projects, aswell as the construction of the new municipal offices,which was inaugurated in 2001.The Municipality has only been in existence for 8 years,and has limited capacity and experience. In recent years,it has received institutional strengthening support fromthe Swedish International Development Agency (ASDI). Municipal O ffices atLand demarcation is a priority for the Municipality. Pearl LagoonMunicipal and Regional Governments have nopermanent presence in Marshall Point and Orinoco, but community leader Rodolfo Chanprovides political representation before the RAAS Government in Bluefields. Mayor GilbertDowns expressed the full support of the Municipality to partner in pilot initiatives in thebasin.Economic ActivityFishing provides the principal source of income for the Pearl Lagoon basin. Fishing in thelagoon is often better than ocean fishing, with several species of finfish available: Snook,Jack, Mackerel, Tarpon and Swordfish, amongst others. Freshwater shrimp is also a staplecatch in the basin. Inside the Lagoon, Creole, Garifuna, Mestizo and some Miskitu fishermenwork in small open boats, while larger industrial boats tend to fish in the open ocean. Themajority of craft fishermen are independent, since to date there have been relatively few tangible benefits to becoming involved in an association or cooperative (i.e. access to credit). However, in Orinoco, there is a history of artisanal fishing cooperatives, which ha ve benefited from training workshops in fisheries management, productive techniques, icing, etc. Sometimes, Daily Freshwater Shrimp private fishing companies provide credit for boat Catch Drying in Sun in repairs in exchange for commitments to sell their Marshall Point catch back to the company. Fishing activities have shifted over the last several years from handlinesand harpoons, which allowed sustainable levels of catch for consumption in the communitiesand sale, to fine- mesh gillnets, which catch indiscriminantly and cause considerabledegradation to the lagoon beds. Recent research (Christie & Hostetler) suggests that basinresidents feel that there is less fish available for local consumption now than historically,which affects consumption patterns at the family level.There are two major fishing companies operating in the Lagoon: Mar Caribe, which is ownedby Corn Island resident Mr. George Morgan, employs 200 people from the Pearl Lagoon areaon a regular basis. During high season, employment rises to over 400. Locally-ownedBluewater has a processing plant in Pearl Lagoon employing 70 people. Production tends tobe higher during rainy season (May to December), when there is an abundance of temporarywork. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 36. PAGE 25While estimates vary, it was suggested that almost 70% of families in the basin receiveremittances from relatives in foreign countries and elsewhere in Nicaragua. Some membersof the communities have been employed on cruise ships before and thus have someexperience in dealing with foreign tourists. Most members of the community speak bothEnglish and Spanish, though English is predominant.The vast majority of agricultural activity in Basin communities is at subsistence levels. Themain crops are roots and tubers, basic grains, bananas and other fruit trees, and assorted herbs.Recently immigrated Mestizo residents in outlying communities are growing beans withproficiency– some are reportedly harvesting 45 quintales (100 lb. Sacks) per acre in thenorthwest of the Municipality. Women perform most of the agricultural work.With declining fish and shrimp populations, and the availability of large tracts of forest andagricultural land, the communities are interested in developing commercial agricultureactivities. Potential products include cashew, almond, pineapple and rice, as well as otherlocally produced and easily adaptable agricultural products such as fruits (avocado, mangoes,oranges, etc), root crops (cassava, yam, etc.) and forest products (logs, wood, medicinal andaromatic plants, vines, flowers, etc.).NGO and other International ActivityA number of NGOs and outside organizations are currently active in the region. They include:Acción Médica Cristiana –small community-based projects focused on water, vaccinations, etc.ASDI – Training to municipality, and construction of sports venues;CAMP-LAB – Organizational strengthening and training around natural resource use.CIDCA (Atlantic Coast Research and Development Center) supports social projects with fishermen and housewives with a focus on environmental preservation, and is working in collaboration with ProRAAS II. At present, CIDCA is undertaking a feasibility study on shrimp farming. It has a radial program in the local radio station.DANIDA – Transport program builds wharves and roads.FADCANIC (Foundation for the Autono my and Development of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua) is managing a NOVIB- funded agro- forestry initiative in various communities in the area, and has a regional office in Pearl Lagoon.FISE and the Inter-American Bank have been active in Marshall Point, promoting the construction and management of a community health center, while SIDA, URACCAN and NOVIB have all had a developmental presence. OAGANIC has Garifuna education and cultural initiatives underway in these communities as well.URACCAN runs community radio station. They also have part ownership in storage area with fisherman’s co-operative.4.2.2 Community-Based OrganizationsThe following subsection presents organizational profiles of some of the key community basedorganizations in the Pearl Lagoon area. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 37. PAGE 26Pearl Lagoon Women’s Agricultural Group (Incipient)Objective and Several Creole women who own and cultivate land, and are interested inMandate coming together to receive support and technical assistance in their production, processing and commercialization efforts.Membership Currently, there are seven individuals at the forefront of the movement: 1. Arlette Campbell 2. Marissa Patterson 3. Imogene Howard 4. Dittmer Benard 5. Audrey Hansack 6. Juana Howard 7. Lonsey ChowBackground and The group has formed r ecently under the anticipation of potential supportHistory from the IDB and the IDR. They are in communications with similar groups in Orinoco and Marshall Point, and are prepared to take a leadership role in organizing producers in the Pearl Lagoon area.Contact Juana Howard - hofamsa@hotmail.comInformationCamp-LABObjective and The objective of CAMP-LAB is to contribute to the development of theMandate municipality of Pearl Lagoon through building of knowledge of environmental issues. The mandate is to work with communities to develop a natural resource management plan, the focus of which is how to use the resources in a sustainable way to prevent environmental degradation, and to develop standards around fishing (minimum size restrictions, etc.)Membership Working in ten communities, CampLAB organizes groups of volunteers to assist in their research efforts. CampLAB currently works in the following Creole and Garifuna communities: Tasba Pauni, Orinoco, Marshall Point, La Fe, Brown Bank, Kakabila, Raitypura, Awas, Pearl Lagoon and Haulover.Background and Camp-LAB was launched in 1993 as a branch of the Central AmericanHistory University (UCA) and the Atlantic Coast Research and Development Center (CIDCA).Finance The organization currently receives financing from IDRC Canada, with an annual budget is of $10,000 per year over three years.Governance Produces monthly, quarterly and annual reports for IDRC and CIDCA/UCA. Inter-communal committees direct the organization.Project o Natural resources management plans for the Pearl Lagoon region.Experience o Worked with all of the communities around historical and current land title, demarcation and mapping with the support of the Central American Research Project – CARP. This project is still ongoing.Infrastructure Office in Haulover. Electricity, no telephone, 1 computer. The organization has a boat, but the outboard motor was recently stolen. CampLAB currently has 4 permanent staff: Motorboat driver, Coordinator (Social Worker), Community Investigator, and an Accountant/Administrator. The organization’s staff was larger (marine biologist, forester and ecologist) but was cut back due to reduced funding. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 38. PAGE 27Partners o IDRC Canada o CIDCA/UCA o FADCANIC Agro-forestry project (works in coordination)Organizational o Local knowledge and expertise.strengths o Confidence derived from project successesOrganizational o Motorboat engine recently stolen.challenges o Limited personnel; o Limited resources; o No telephone or internet accessOpportunities Agricultural development support for the following products: o Guava, Cashew, Pineapple, Tubers (cassava, dashin, quequisque), Citric Fruits, Cultural Fruit (supa, breadfruit, etc.)Threats Funding is running out in May of 2003Training and o Commercialization of goodsDevelopment o Market development / marketingNeeds o Project implementation o ProcessingContact Oswaldo Morales SambolaInformation Communal Investigator HauloverPearl Lagoon Seafood Fishermen’s’ CooperativeObjective and The objective of the Co-operative is to provide a means for Pearl LagoonMandate Fishermen to come together collectively to resolve the numerous challenges plaguing the fisheries in the area. The mandate of the organization is to improve the quality of life of the fishermen and their families by making the fishing industry a stable source of income and work, decreasing the incidence of poverty in the area, increasing the productive capacity of the zone, and establishing and guaranteeing a market for value-added seafood products.Membership The organization has 155 members of mostly Creole descent, and the aim is to eventually involve the majority of fishermen in the Pearl Lagoon basin, including Marshall Point and Orinoco fishermen. To be a member, one has to be at least 18 years of age, receive no less than 40 hours of training on understanding, accepting and respecting the statutes, rules and legislation around cooperatives, not acting in contradiction to those in the cooperative nor be a member in another of the same activity. Each is required to present a written, formal request for entry to the coop to be presented to the Board of Directors or the Administrative Council.Background and The Cooperative is an incipient organization, and was registered in theHistory National Cooperative Registry in June of 2002. Although the organization is nascent, all members are longtime lagoon fishermen, several combining fishing with small-scale subsistence agricultural activity. A meeting of Basin fishermen in September 2001 saught solutions to the challenges of market access, fair pricing, fair costs for fishing equipment, financing and credit, lack of control over fishing methods utilized and over foreign industrial boats, and finally, lack of a fisheries law. A cooperative was formed to address these challenges collectively. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 39. PAGE 28Finance Coop members are required to pay an entry fee to the Co-op as outlined in the statutes. Beyond this, at present the Co-op receives no other financial support.Governance The following is the Board of Directors of the Cooperative: o President - George Howard o Vice-President - Jeremiah Pritton o Secretary - Gerda Beenis o Treasurer - Gilbert Downs o Vocal - Orton Taylor Elections to the Board and work teams will be undertaken annually as established in the statutes. Quarterly and annual financial reporting will be obligatory, and sanctions will be levied for lack of complicity.Project Individual members of the cooperative were involved recently in a fisheriesExperience project sponsored by the Dutch Government and known locally as DIPAL. The project, which was completed in 2001, aimed to provide support to Basin fishermen in the areas of fisheries management, organization, and fishing technologies. While the tangible results of the project are unclear, the process provided numerous members of the cooperative with some experience dealing with international development agencies and project implementation.Infrastructure The organization currently has no office or equipment.Partners As an incipient organization, they currently have no partners.Organizational The membership itself is the main strength of the co-operative. As well it hasstrengths use of the building constructed by APN originally to facilitate storage for basin fishermen. The building was in operation for a short while, but for lack of means to transport their catch to the processing plants in Bluefields or Corn Island, the operation did not succeed. The building does not have the capacity for production, but definitely has potential for ice-making, which is required to maintain the quality of seafood products.Organizational The Cooperative is in the process of getting organized, and lacks financing.challenges Once the organization has received all initial membership fees, it will consolidate its membership policy. Though the organization is legally constituted, it does not yet have visibility in the community.Opportunities They are trying to interest the IDB in organizational strengthening support, transfer of technology in administration, quality control and market, so that later investments can be sought to improve productive capacity, diversify fishing activities, and ultimately process all stored catch with the goal of opening up national and international markets. The Co-operative is also interested in researching the possibility of aquaculture, growing freshwater shrimp, finfish and lobster to guarantee permanent and growing incomes for members and non-members and providing stability to the fishing industry. The Co-operative is considering at a two-phase initiative contemplating the following aspects: 1. Organizational strengthening 2. Investment in productive capacityThreats As an incipient organization it faces many threats, including the risk that membership interest will wane unless they are able to generate a significant project or produce meaningful results for their membership. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 40. PAGE 29Training and o Organizational strengtheningDevelopment o Fundraising to improve productive capacityNeeds o Improve knowledge of quality control o Capacity to store catch o Consolidate national and international marketsContact George HowardInformation PresidentMarshall Point Community Development GroupObjective and The small Garifuna community of Marshall Point has recognized the need toMandate organize themselves at the community level. As a result of the interventions of the consulting team and the potential for support from the IDB and others, leaders have convened several meetings and organized the community i to n groups of agricultural producers and fishermen who would be willing to participate in an economic development initiative. The purpose of identifying these members of the community and dividing them up into areas of interest and expertise is to prepareMembership At present, there are roughly 30 Garifuna individuals interested in undertaking an agricultural development initiative in conjunction with similar groups in Pearl Lagoon and Orinoco. It is unclear the total number of individuals organized to participate in a craft fishing initiative.Background and Individuals in Marshall Point approached the consulting team to express theirHistory interest in receiving support in the development of the craft fishing industry, agricultural rehabilitation, and low-impact tourism initiatives. As a result of repeated visits and ongoing communications, community leaders recognize that the greatest potential for support at present rests in agriculture and fisheries, and efforts have been made to coordinate and mobilize the community around these initiatives.Finance There are currently no finances available to the group.Governance The governance structures of the organization have yet to be determined.Project None.ExperienceInfrastructure The organization currently has no office or equipment.Partners As an incipient organization, they currently have no partners.Organizational o Strong leadership through Marcelino Chanstrengths o Volition to work closely with neighbor communities of Orinoco and Pearl LagoonOrganizational o Lack of financial resources;challenges o Lack of support from regional and local governments; o No access to electricity o Weak communications with Pearl Lagoon and Bluefields ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 41. PAGE 30Opportunities o The community group recognizes the inherent potential in working with other communities in the basin towards developing integrated agricultural rehabilitation and craft fishing initiatives.Threats o Lack of supportTraining and o Organizational strengthening;Development o Fundraising to improve productive capacity;Needs o Improve knowledge of quality control; o Capacity to store catch; o Consolidate national and international markets;Contact Marcelino ChanInformation Marshall PointOrinoco Women’s Fishing CooperativeObjective and The Women’s Fishing Cooperative in the community of Orinoco has theMandate objective of organizing and coordinating local women, and being a focal point for support and technical assistance for the women of the community in their economic and social development efforts.Members hip At its peak, the Cooperative counted upon the participation of 38 local Garifuna women.Background and The Cooperative was begun in the early 1990s. It has received support from aHistory Dutch cooperation group, as well as the URACCAN. Individual women purchased fish from local fishermen, then turned around and sold the fish to the bars and restaurants in Pearl Lagoon. At one point, the group had its own boat and outboard motor to facilitate these activities. Members have received workshops in managing money, production and icing of fish. There were plans to attempt to build a small tourist hotel in the community. At present, the co-operative receives little financial support, and is not particularly active, though individuals expressed interest in receiving support from the IDB to continue their activities.Finance The organization has received funds from a Dutch cooperative to finance its activities. It is unclear what the current level of funding is and from where the funding emanates, but representatives explained to the consultants that the current arrangement involves a repayment of any unspent monies provided to the group.Governance It is unclear what the governance structure of the group is.Project As mentioned previously, the Cooperative has experience working withExperience regional and international partners on projects supporting the resale of locally caught fish.Infrastructure The Cooperative has a small building in the community.Partners o URACCAN o Dutch Cooperation ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 42. PAGE 31Organizational o Project experience;strengths o Training & financial management skills; o Experience with donors and international groups;Organizational o Patriarchal community leadership presents ongoing challenges forchallenges recognition and support of Cooperative; o Lack of sustainability of project initiativesOpportunities o Point of mobilization for Orinoco women to participate in agricultural rehabilitation, processing and fishingThreats o Lack of support from men in community;Training and o Agricultural development;Development o Organizational strengthening.NeedsContact Vernandine Lopez StephenInformation Delia Sambola Colindres Rebecca Arana Llarisa Crisisanto Sambola Meeting with Women Leaders in Marshall Point and Orinoco ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 43. PAGE 324.2.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Pearl Lagoon Basin STRENGTHS CHALLENGESAccess to large tracts of agricultural land; Intra-community transportation infrastructure is very weak;Volition on the part of community to reinvigorate agricultural production and consider non- Lack of access to power, water and telephone traditional economic development measures; (with the exception of Pearl Lagoon);GRAAS planning to support electrification in Lack of permanent presence of NGOs; Orinoco/Marshall Point as early as 2003; Lack of experienced community basedExtensive fishing experience and some organizations; and agricultural experience; Limited collaboration and communicationRecently established fishermen’s cooperative for between the Central Government and RAAS and basin fishermen; Municipalities.Recently established development group in Marshall Point;Growing support for women’s agricultural development group in Pearl Lagoon; OPPORTUNITIES THREATSPast studies suggest that soils in Pearl Lagoon Lack of integrated fisheries management plan for basin are ideal for a variety of agricultural the area; products including pineapple and citrus fruits; Pollution of water sources in Orinoco;There may be strong potential for aquacultural Lack of clarity around land demarcation and land development activities in the small inlets that ownership in Marshall Point and Orinoco. ring the basin; Residents of nearby Tasbapauni claim traditional ownership of all lands in and around the two communities. Encroachment of Mestizo farmers onto traditional lands – settlers from Rama and Muelle de los Bueyes are encroaching on Garifuna and Miskito communities of the Lagoon are self- determining their lands. Currently, most communities do not have legal demarcation. Most have been mapped but lack legal documentation ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 44. PAGE 334.3 Corn Island4.3.1 Community AssessmentGeneral Description of CommunityThe Corn Islands (Islas del Maíz) are located roughly 83 km from the city of Bluefields alongthe south Atlantic coast, and are noted for their isolated serene beauty and tropicalatmosphere. The two islands comprise a total land base of less than 13 km2 ; yet displayrichness in physical geography and cultural diversity with strong potential for economicdevelopment in several areas. CORN ISLANDS Figure 4-3: Location of Corn IslandThe larger of the two islands, known as “Great Corn Island” is volcanically formed with twoprincipal geographical attributes: lowland plains and hills. The plains are located in thenorthern, western and southwestern areas of the island, and comprise nearly 70% of the landbase. The i land is rich in natural resources – diverse vegetation, forested areas, consistent saccess to water and a rich coastline.Population and DemographicsCorn Island has experienced rapid population growth in recent years. The demographics ofthe island’s inhabitants reflect a growing diversity. The current population – estimated to beat around 9,500 people for both islands – is diverse in its makeup: 43% Miskito 35% Creoleand 15% Mestizo. A recent study by the Center for Atlantic Coast Research andDocumentation suggests that the islands only have sustainable capacity for 5,000 to 6,000inhabitants.On Corn Island, 100% of the land is privately owned. There are roughly 1,200 houses on theisland, and the population is divided into six distinct districts/communities, as follows: o Queen Hill – Creole o Brig Bay 1 – Creole/Mestizo o South End – Creole o Brig Bay 2 – Miskito o North End – Mestizo/Creole o Sally Peachie – Mestizo/Creole ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 45. PAGE 34One of the priorities of the community is stemming the heavy migration from the rest of thecountry that is taxing the social infrastructure of the island. There is a decree currently beforethe National Assembly, supported by the Swedish International Development Agency(ASDI), to create a system of resident cards for islanders to attempt to stem migration to theisland. This system is based upon a successful model from the Colombian island of SanAndres. The consultants were informed that those who have lived on the island for 7 years orwere born on the island would receive a card. This effort has been well-received andencouraged by the Creole residents of the island, while many Miskito residents see it as beinga direct threat to their presence and livelihoods.Landowners on the island are mostly Creole and Mestizo. Most Miskito residents either rentland and houses, or squat illegally on private land. Many Miskito residents on the island areconcerned that the Resident Card initiative is an effort by the Municipality to restrict theirrights, and ultimately remove them from the island. The rapid population growth thatprecipitated the initiative, along with growing frustrations due to the decreasing lobstercatches, is fostering growing ethnic divisions in the community. Notwithstanding thesetensions, it is the general sentiment of leaders on the island that the community has thevolition and capacity to organize across cultures toward a vision of community economicdevelopment.Community InfrastructureCorn Island has a level of community infrastructure that reflects its traditional dependency onthe fisheries, and the future vision of tourism development as an income generator for islandresidents.There are two private companies on the island (Central American Fisheries and PacificSeafoods of Nicaragua) that purchases lobster, shrimp and finfish from both industrial andcraft fishermen. The two processing plants run by these companies have the capacity to store,process, package and export the catch. Greater Corn Island has 10 hotels and 4 or 5 restaurants and eateries, while there are 4 hotels on the little island. Ownership of hotels on both islands is a mixture of local and foreign. There is presently no means of measuring tourism incomes or numbers of visitors to the island, though recently the Municipality has opened an immigration office at the airport to conduct tourist surveys. Many islanders suggest that in a short amount of time, tourism may be the Corn Island Shoreline principal source of income on the island. Two national airlines offer daily scheduled flights to Bluefields andManagua.Publicly owned electricity concern EMECI was recently sold to private interests (CIPALSA).According to local residents, power outages were a regular occurrence in the morning and inthe afternoon, but the situation is much improved, and outages are infrequent, occurring attimes that do not inconvenience most individuals. Voltage capacity remains very low on theisland.The Municipality through EMACI provides water service. There is continuous control overwater quality, and most people on the island have access to potable water. Those who are not ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 46. PAGE 35covered by the EMACI system often have their own wells, which are supported by EMACIengineers when required. Some island residents report that the water is occasionally brackish.The Municipality also manages a land registry for the island, and the Vice-Mayor informedthe authors that the municipality endeavors to convincelocal landowners not to sell their land to foreign interests,as they foresee an increase in value with future tourismdevelopment. Most landowners are making efforts to mapout and update their land registration on this advice.Solid waste management on the island is a major concern asthe island’s landfill has functionally reached full capacity, Community Meetingand no plans are in place yet for the future. Recycling doesnot exist on the island, but the Municipality is planningcultural events and education programs to encourage it.There is a hospital and a private medical clinic on the island. The Ministry of Health sendsmedication and pays for 2 doctors and 5 nurses in the hospital, however the 13 beds currentlyavailable are insufficient for the island’s population. The roads on the island are principallydirt roads which are often washed out and potholed in rainy season. The Municipality hasconfirmed a 10km road upgrade with support of the World Bank and Ministry of Transport.The island has a small police presence, and fortunately remains relatively free of major crime.Violence is sporadic, though drug-related incidents are on the rise.There is one bank on the island - Caley Dagnall - that serves principally as a depository forthe fishing companies and money transfer companies on the island (both Western Union andMoneygram have outlets on the island). The bank does not offer credit services to islandfishermen or owners of tourism establishments. According to island fishermen andbusinesspeople, notwithstanding the presence of a commercial bank on the island, there is noaccess to credit available to island residents.There is very limited Central Government presence on the island. Neither the Ministry of theEnvironment and Natural Resources (MARENA) nor the National Tourism Institute (INTUR)has a presence on Corn Island, while MAG-FOR has a very small office with three staffdedicated to a specific program aimed at eradicating a worm detrimental to indigenous plants.Until recently, there has been no ADPESCA (Administración de Pesca y Acuicultura)representative on the island, though in 2002 the Municipality opened a small office with onestaff to manage relationships with fishermen and to serve as intra-governmental liaison forfishing issues.Educational InfrastructureThere are two schools on the big island: primary andsecondary. The Bluefields Indian and CaribbeanUniversity (BICU) has a building on the island inconjunction with the Municipality, and has expresseda great deal of interest in augmenting its presence.The BICU offers the following three programs: o Business Administration; Bluefields Indian & Caribbean o Tourism; University (BICU) o Education. Corn Is land Campus ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 47. PAGE 36There is apparently no lack of space in island schools to accommodate students, but there is alack of trained teachers, and funding to maintain the schools and expand curriculum.Role of Corn Island Municipal GovernmentOn Corn Island, the role of the Municipality includes being a promoter of economicdevelopment, planning, and provider of social infrastructure. The Municipality works closelywith the community to develop priority initiatives. Mayor Robert Ow and Vice-Mayor Dr.David Somarriba are keen to play an active role in the development and implementation ofproductive activity initiatives. The Municipality recently lost their environmental inspector,who left the island to pursue work in the United States. The lack of trained staff, and thechallenge of attracting educated staff is a perpetualchallenge for the Municipality. Construction is about tobegin on a new building to house the Municipality’sofficesIn recent years, the Municipality has worked closely withMARENA with the support of the RAAN-ASDI-RAASto undertake a comprehensive CommunityEnvironmental Action Plans for both islands. Theseaction plans include short, medium and long termplanning strategies, and includes the first ever land-useplan for the islands that comprehensively outline areaswhich require protection, and which areas have potentialfor tourism and commercial development. Within the Discussing Land Use Planning with Corn IslandAction Plans is an application strategy of plans for Vice-Mayorimmediate rollout that can be implemented within 2 Dr. David Somarribayears with great effect. This includes sustainable tourismdevelopment.Economic ActivityPrior to the devastation of Hurricane Joan in 1988, the island exported millions of coconutsper year, providing the principal source of income to the island at the time. Since thehurricane, however, the island’s inhabitants have turned to lobster fishing as the driver of theisland’s economy. Most agricultural products on the island are imported from the mainland,Managua and San Andres Island. Some islanders are currently exporting Noni (Agape) - atype of apple. San Andres buyers have stated that they will buy all available supply to makejuice. Agape is recognized as having strong potential to be a means of invigoratingagricultural rehabilitation on the islandLobster and shrimp fishing is by far the principal economic driver on the island. The twoprivate fishing companies on the island contract with the 32 industrial boats and the severalhundred fishermen in the artisanal fleet to purchase their catch. Some craft fishermen areindependent – but only those who do not owe one of the companies for credit or equipmentprovided. These independent fishermen benefit from higher prices for their catch. Most crewon the industrial boats are not from the island, but rather come from Honduras (the home portsof the boats), or from Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas. There is massive tide of workerscoming and going to take advantage of the opportunities on the boats.The owners / managers of the fishing companies stressed during interviews with our team thatthe future of fishing in the area has to reflect a diminishment of industrial activity, and a ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 48. PAGE 37resurgence of artisanal fishing, but that the perennial challenge to this goal is the lack oforganization of the fishermen. According to PASENIC president Jorge (George) Morgan,artisanal fishing is now more productive and efficient than industrial efforts, and in socio-economic terms, “Commercial fishermen can find other investments, while artisanalfishermen cannot.”Many women on the island work in the twoprocessing plants. Community leaders informedthe consultants that many women suffer from theeffects of working in the very cold conditions of theprocessing areas. Workers get paid a percentage ofthe total catch processed, rather than a guaranteedhourly salary. Women processing lobsterSome Miskito fishermen dive for lobster, which is adangerous and environmentally damaging means of fishing. Due to the rampant over- fishing,divers must go deeper and deeper in search of lobster – often as deep as 140 feet - exposingthemselves to the deadly effects of decompression sickness. Anecdotal information suggeststhat 10-15 people/year become paralyzed in the area from this. Until August 2002, there hadbeen no decompression chamber on the island. The presence of the chamber will alleviatesome of the debilitating effects of current fishing practices, and potentially provide amodicum of insurance for any tourist divers.Tourism is a small but growing aspect of the island’s economy. Presently, tourists – mostlybackpackers or ‘mochileros’ - come to the island to take advantage of surfing, scuba divingand some sport fishing activities.Tourism has been recognized by the local, regional and central governments as an industrywith strong potential to diversify the economic base of the island. While tourism is recognizedas having great potential in the area, it is also understood that the current lack of capacity(infrastructure, waste management, customer service training, etc.) is a major hindrance todeveloping the islands’ tourism industries. The focus on small-scale, lower-impact naturebased tourism is essential until infrastructure and capacity to manage larger volumes ofvisitors is in place.Some of the potential low- impact tourism activities on the island include: o Scuba diving to a variety of sunken ships and airplanes in the area; o Hiking trails to Mount Pleasant to see pirate tombs and a volcanic crater which apparently has connection right down to the ocean; o Caves and canoe trips in the Lagoon on south of island; o Lookout at Queen Hill, with potential for tourism services - food, souvenirs, etc. o Ancient cemetery with nearly 500-year old burial stones in English - there is interest in making this a national historic site and protect it with a fence and entranceway; o Mountain bike excursions around the island;Estimates suggest that there are roughly 150 rooms available on the islands, and severalhomeowners on have expressed interest in receiving support to convert parts of their homesinto tourist accommodations. This ‘bed & breakfast’ format would involve upgrading ofsleeping facilities, eating spaces and plumbing services, purchase of linens and otheraccoutrements. While local residents are known for their hospitality, there is a general lack of ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 49. PAGE 38experience and training in home-based tourism services. Training in customer service will bean important aspect of this initiative.4.3.2 Community-Based OrganizationsUnión de Pescadores Artesanales de Corn Island (UPACIN)Objective and The Union has the following objectives:Mandate o Promote the social well-being of its members o Promote and develop social assistance activities o Establish relations with similar organizationsMembership Currently, the Union has 40 members, of which 20 are considered to be active. Members pay 20 cents per pound to the union as dues, and every six months are reimbursed based upon their catch. Non-members who use the services of the store but do not sell to the Union pay a fee of 50 córdobas ($4) per month.Background and The Union was formed in 1989. It is a non-profit organization formed to assistHistory and organize artisanal fishermen in the aftermath of Hurricane Joan, improving their economic situation by securing better prices for their catches. In the early years of the Union’s existence, the Canadian government built a union headquarters along the water in Long Bay through Oxfam Canada. In its initial years, the Union boasted a membership of over 200 predominantly Creole fishermen. The services provided by the Union were: o Materials (spare parts, traps etc.) o Revolving credit o Storage and commercialization of lobster In recent years, the Union has had major challenges getting repaid for the loans and materials provided to members, and currently have outstanding accounts receivable of nearly 2 million córdobas ($140,000).Finance It receives some credit from PASENIC, though the credit terms make it difficult for fishermen to make a profit. The Union received $26,000 in 1999 to finance the purchase of three boats and motors. The interest on the loan was 18%, and it was handled through a co-op in Managua. While the Union has few resources at its disposal, it currently has no debts, and is financially solvent.Governance The Union has a Board of Directors, which normally comprises seven individuals, but currently is made up of only three.Project The Union runs a store out of its building in Long Bay. Most supplies areExperience purchased in Guatemala and Managua. The Union charges only a 20% markup on goods, and members receive a 15% discount. The Union has worked with international development agencies and NGOs in the past in support of revolving credit, construction of Union headquarters, and training. The Union recognizes that there are many lessons learned from these experiences, which are all being incorporated into their new strategy for the future.Infrastructure The Union has a large store and storage area in Long Bay. There is currently $3,000 in inventory and $2,000 in cash, with accounts receivable from members of 1.7 million córdobas (over $100,000) ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 50. PAGE 39Partners The Union has worked with Oxfam Canada and NORAD.Organizational The Union provides a well-needed service (reasonably priced parts for repairsstrengths to fishing boats). The store seems to be well managed, and will have no shortage of market for its services if it can maintain sufficient levels of inventory and can attract non-member business. The Union also receives a tax break on the goods that they purchase, allowing them to sell at a very attractive price to both members and non-members.Organizational o One of the major challenges is the legal status of the land upon whichchallenges their building sits. Mr. Norman Downs is the owner of the land, and is claiming the building to be his as well. The land was granted to the Union in the late 1980s by the Sandinista government. The Union has offered to give the previous owner a large stake in the building, but he continues to demand $75,000 for the property, which the Union feels is far more than it is currently worth; o Another major challenge is repayment of loans and material by members. Fishermen consider that the goods & services provided by the Union were a post-hurricane donation. This has left the Union with a serious shortfall in resources, and has badly hurt the Union’s credibility in the eyes of many fishermen, as they are reticent to chase down those who were in default. o The Union does not have the capacity to store or process lobsters nor make ice for its members, which caused many Union members to sell directly to the private companies, undermining the Union’s ability to recoup its expenses; o Ongoing relationship problems with APAM. UPACIN, which is predominantly made up of Afro-Latin fishermen and APAM, which is predominantly composed of Miskito fishermen, do not have an effective working relationship. This makes creates challenges for any organization wishing to support artisanal fishers on Corn Island.Opportunities The Union is currently developing new policies under which any and all loans to member fishermen will have to be guaranteed, and 100% of members’ catch must come directly to the Union. In its recently created strategy paper, the Union recognizes its potential to serve as a uniting force amongst all craft fishermen on the island, and envisions a future within 10 years in which all fishermen have their own boats and equipment, and access to credit for repair and upgrading of same. The Union also envisions the undertaking of a socioeconomic analysis of the island, as well as a diagnostic of the fishing industry in the context of Central America, which would serve to highlight the issues currently being faced by craft fishermen, while providing a basis around which to garner support to lobby the Central government in policy development in the fisheries to favor smaller local fishermen, rather than foreign industrial boats.Training and o Facilities for ice making;Development o Policy development around credit management; o Business training o Strategic planning support ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 51. PAGE 40NeedsContact Eugenio DixonInformation President UPACIN Retail StoreCoconut Growers of Corn IslandObjective and The objective of the Association is to contribute to the development of theMandate agro industrial sector on Corn Island by reforesting the former coconut plantations on the island, and reinvigorating agricultural production as a viable economic alternative to lobster fishing.Membership 26 members have been identified to take part in the initial stage of the group’s development. They each own land parcels ranging in size from one to 30 acres. The lands that these members own are dispersed throughout the island, and total 241 acres. All of the members of the organization are Creoles.Background and The Association is a recently-formed group of landowners whose intention isHistory to formalize the group into an agricultural association. Six to seven million coconuts a year were produced on the island in the 1960s and 1970s, and coconut oil (copra) was exported San Andres island for processing into coco butter. There were three coconut presses active 8 hours a day, producing 350 barrels of copra per week. Production soon slowed, however, as the land’s productivity decreased under monoculture. Coconut production was halted altogether after the devastation of Hurricane Joan in 1988. The 26 members are currently not working their lands at all. The Municipality held an information session on July 7th , 2002 to initiate the dialogue for supporting the creation of the Association, and a project proposal has been produced. In essence, the group wants to support social agro- forestry by using native species and plants to rehabilitate the former coconut plantations on the island, which are currently lying fallow. They want to ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 52. PAGE 41 enrich the parcels of land where there are currently some coconuts and fruit trees being grown. In terms of the market, the plan is to set up a small coconut oil (Copra) processing infrastructure on the island (micro industry). The oil would be sold in Granada in the soap factories, and there are also potential markets in the Dominican Republic and Jamaica. The group wants to receive a mixture of local seed from the best existing plants, as well as introduction of ‘yellow dwarf’ and hybrid plants which could be bought locally and in Costa Rica. There is a nursery and plantation in Kukra Hill that is producing coconut seeds and hybrids. It is expected to be certified soon by MAGFOR as quality seeds. The coconuts can be sold fresh in Managua, processed into grated coconut, or pressed into oil for sale in Granada. The group is also thinking about growing avocadoes for the national and international markets, as well as plantains and agape.Infrastructure The organization is incipient, and has no formal infrastructure. At present, it is setting up provisionally in the home of one of the members.Partners The municipality has expressed interest in the project, and is providing assistance in terms of logistics and airfare for organizers. The group has also recognized the potential of formalizing a relationship with the association of coconut growers in Bluefields. Steven Hayes of MAG-FOR is in the process of seeking approval to transfer the press into the hands of the Association, and finding support for the rehabilitation of it. Mr. Hayes wholeheartedly supports the concept of developing the industry on Corn Island and linking the two Associations. The Bluefields Association has committed to sustaining a dialogue around partnership with the Corn Island group.Training and o Market identification and analysis;Development o Institutional strengthening;Needs o Improved seed; o Seeding and cultivation techniques;Contact Ing. Ronald Chensam - Local AgronomistInformation 505-082-22-478 Francisco Montalvan G.Asociación de Pescadores Miskitos de Corn Island (APAM)Objective and The Association of Miskito Fishermen was formed to organize and mobilizeMandate Miskito indigenous fishermen on Corn Island. The Association sees itself as an economic development vehicle for its members. The general objectives of the Association are to: o Contribute to the sustainable socio-economic development of the Miskito indigenous lobster fishing community; o Shift lobster divers into the more dignified, less dangerous and environmentally damaging practice of fishing with lobster pots; o Facilitate the creation permanent and stable employment; o Alleviate the high level of poverty amongst Miskito fishermen and their families; and o Contribute to an increased level of lobster exports; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 53. PAGE 42 The specific objectives of the Association are to: o Guarantee the physical security of its member fishermen; o Create an opportunity to diversify its product; o Raise the level of self esteem of fishermen and their families; o Support social, cultural and training activities in the indigenous community; and o Involve fishermen in the co-management of natural resources to ensure the sustainability of marine life.Membership There are currently 120 members registered with APAM boat captains, divers, and deckhands.Background and APAM was formed in 2001, and is legally registered before the NicaraguanHistory National Assembly. Miskito fishermen feel marginalized by the municipal and regional governments, and are frustrated by the lack of leverage with the private fishing companies that buy the catch and by their limited involvement in the lucrative lobster fishery. Currently, all boats and gear are leased from private companies, making the fishermen beholden to the companies, which offer a price considerably below market value for the catch. The Association has prepared a project proposal entitled “Replacement of Lobster Diving with Lobster Pot Fishing Project” which has received the support of the Corn Island Municipality, The Regional Government, and CAF.Finance At present, the Association only receives support from the private fishing company CAF (Central American Fisheries) in the form of leased boats and equipment.Governance APAM has a board of directors, comprised of a President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, two standing members and a Fiscal. The Association also receives technical support and direction from Mr. Denis Watts Jackson, Executive Director of the Association, who is also a Regional Councilor for the Southern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) headquartered in Bluefields.Infrastructure APAM has a very small office building and storage area located on the beach alongside the CAF processing plant in the community of South West Bay on Corn Island. APAM has a secretary who has use of a computer, but they have no telephone or internet service in their offic e, though they have access to office infrastructure in the CAF offices, which includes internet, phone and fax.Organizational o The Association enjoys strong support from Miskito fishermen andStrengths their families;Organizational o Ongoing relationship problems with Municipality. UPACIN, whichChallenges is predominantly made up of Afro-Latin fishermen and APAM, which is predominantly composed of Miskito fishermen, do not have an effective working relationship. This makes creates challenges for any organization wishing to support artisanal fishers on Corn Island; o Lack of resources and experience in project management; o Physical infrastructure of the Association is weak; boats are in a poor ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 54. PAGE 43 state of repair, and the Association’s building was severely damaged in July 2002 by high winds and waves. It is currently under reconstruction;Training and o Organizational strengthening;Development o Training in environmentally sound lobster fishing techniques;Needs o Funds to improve and upgrade boats and equipment;Contact Denis Watts JacksonInformation Executive Director, APAM APAM Representatives Diving for Lobster ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 55. PAGE 44Movimiento por la Defensa y la Dignidad de Corn IslandObjective and This Corn Island community group is dedicated to working for issues directlyMandate affecting the health and well-being of island residents. The consulting team met briefly with Coordinator Norma Dixon, who agreed to forward more complete information about the group’s mandate and activities. At the time of publication of this document, the information had not yet been received.Contact Norma DixonInformationMovimiento Comunal de Corn Island (MCCI)Objective and General Objective: Contribute to the improvement of material and humanMandate conditions on Corn Island through the organization and participation of its population. Specific Objectives: o Work toward the integrated development of the community in collaboration with government and NGOs; o Promote the participation and organization of residents regardless of their economic, political or religious status, gender, race or age; o Contribute to the strengthening of the representative democratic process to ensure the rights of island citizens; o Capacity strengthening through access to technical knowledge and development methodologies; o Promote relations with Government, multilateral & bilateral organizations, cooperation agencies, international and national NGOs in programs and projects to benefit the community; o Promote solidarity between the organizations or social entities which constantly defend citizens’ rights in the community and in specific sectors; o Make integral rights a priority from childhood and adolescence, and ensure that they be a priority in all programs and projects; o Promote civil awareness through knowledge, promotion and defense of Constitutional Law, rights and responsibilities of citizenship; o Promote the defense of health, housing and education in an organized and integrated fashion; o Promote equality of opportunities and relations between men and women in the family and in the community; o Promote local and institutional self-sustainability; and o Promote the defense and protection of natural resources. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 56. PAGE 45Background and MCCI inaugurated the MCCI building in September 2000, in the former healthHistory center building. The building is used for community meetings, as a research center for students, and as a shelter for the general population – especially women with problems of domestic violence and rape, The Movement also organizes a Citizen Security Group to help local authorities during Christmas and Easter. The group acquired funding to pay and feed six police volunteers. They also organized local businesses to fight a recently-imposed municipal tax. One of their principal current activities is mobilization of the community around rejecting rate increases of 75% for electricity. MCCI has been producing a monthly newsletter, but for the past year has been unable to continue publishing it. There appears to be more than sufficient demand for this community information dissemination tool. The Movement has also been giving art classes to girls from ages 3 to 6. They feel it is very important to recapture the essence of youth in the community. They have also offered story time for boys and girls.Finance Currently, MCCI receives no funding. It currently owes no debt to any individual or organization.Governance MCCI works under the legal statutes of the Movimiento Comunal Nicaraguense, who has granted local authority for the activities of MCCI to Lorraine Bodden Downs.Infrastructure MCCI manages the MCCI building in North End. They have four computers that are obsolete and not in working order. The computers were used to teach children and adults basic computing, but were not maintained. Within the building, MCCI has benches, chairs and tables, as well as bookshelves holding a small library, a chalkboard, and a sewing machine. The building itself has a communal room with sufficient space for 30 individuals, a small computer room, two offices, and a kitchen. MCCI currently has one Coordinator, who is a Social Worker.Threats According to an MCCI representative, there are numerous threats and challenges faced by island residents: In her opinion: o Residents of Corn Island lack training and sensibility in the potential benefits of working communally – there is a highly individualistic attitude o There is a lack of leaders in which the community can place its faith; o The community is facing numerous challenges: domestic violence, prostitution, lack of self esteem, theft, unemployment, over- exploitation of marine resources, low fishing production, lack of support to small business, lack of coordinated economic development strategy, low levels of education, weak moral principals, loss of family values, abuse of power and corruption, human rights, property rights, invasion of private properties, over-population and the high costs of water, power and transportation.Contact Lorraine Bodden DownsInformation Social Promoter ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 57. PAGE 464.3.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Corn Island STRENGTHS CHALLENGESStrong support for development from the Lack of institutional capacity amongst Municipality (Municipality has some experience community organizations; working with Central Govt. and international Lack of NGO presence on the island; agencies); Community is currently repairing roads withRecognition on the part of policy makers of the beach sand, which has the double effect of need to implement recent MARENA / eroding the beaches, and does not provide Municipality land use planning strategy; sufficient maintenance for the road.Basic tourism infrastructure (airport, daily flights, Environmental impact studies are not being water taxi service, etc.) is in place to support demanded of new developments, in part because growth in that industry; MARENA has no presence on the island;Natural facilities for nature-based tourism; Island environment suggests limited growthHistory of agricultural development, and optimal capacity; growing conditions on island; Lack of cooperation amongst Miskito and CreoleRecognition of the need for environmental artisanal fishermen; stewardship of terrestrial and maritime Lack of qualified teachers on the island; resources; Lack of information sharing between various levels of government; OPPORTUNITIES THREATSEconomic diversification potential is strong and Unchecked population growth is upsetting the viable through agricultural development and environmental balance on the island, including nature-based tourism. Un-exploited nature- major deforestation for firewood use; based and cultural tourism opportunities abound Encroachment of recent arrivals to the island onto on the island; traditional agricultural lands is endangering theIncipient Creole landowner organization to potential for agricultural rehabilitation; provide leadership around agricultural Landfills for solid waste are at full capacity, and rehabilitation initiative; there are no plans in place for alternatives;Island residents recognize desperate need for Lack of sanitation infrastructure is causing economic diversification away from lobster exacerbating health problems; fishing; Along the north end of the island, coastal erosion is eating into the road, and it will eventually have to be shored up or moved inland. Increasing ethnic tensions between Creoles, Miskito and Mestizos; Drug use and delinquency amongst island’s youth is on the rise; Land values are increasing exponentially, along with foreign land ownership; Risk of severe weather undermining agricultural initiatives. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 58. PAGE 474.4 Wasakin4.4.1 Community AssessmentGeneral Description Of CommunityWasakin (alternately known as Wasaquin or Wasa King) is generally recognized as the defacto capital of Sumo culture in the region. It is located along the shore of the Banbana River,12 km from the city of Mina Rosita in the center of the former mining heartland ofNortheastern Nicaragua. Rosita is located 125 kmto the Southwest of Puerto Cabezas by road, and435 km east of Managua, which makes it a potentialhub for regional trade, though current highwayconditions are very poor. The Banbana River isnavigable all the way to the Atlantic coast, joiningwith the Prinzapolka River and outletting to theocean at the community of Prinzapolka. Currently,there is no bridge over the river, and residents mustferry back and forth in small dugout canoes to move Wasakin and Rio Banbanaproducts back and forth.The community of Wasakin was founded in the 1890s by Mayangna settlers, and shortlythereafter gold was discovered in the area, attracting many foreigners and Miskito migrants tothe region. Many Miskito men subsequently settled in Wasakin. Traditionally, when Miskitomove into Sumo territory, the Miskito influence and culture dominates. This has not been thecase in Wasakin, where Sumo language and culture prevails.In the 1970s, the national government claimed ownership over community pine trees, andcommunity leaders were forced to "seek their rights" in Managua for the first time. Thisstruggle over resource sovereignty came to a close when the revolution extended Wasakins communal lands to its current level of 36,800 hectares. Community and private land ownership has not been codified by the Central Government, although title has been held on the mixed pine and rain forest since 1905. The community has evolved communal and ancestral systems of land allocation based on Wasakin historical use patterns. To this day, land is held communally, and family or individual parcels are nearly unheard of. Figure 4-4: Location of WasakinThe biophysical environment of Wasakin is rich yet foreboding. The topography of the area isgenerally flat with maximum elevations less than 50 meters above sea level. Annual rainfallranges from 2,500 to 4,000mm, falling mostly between May and November. The resultanthumidity ranges between 75% and 90%. Wasakin is located in two bioclimatic zones, i) theSubtropic Humid Forest in which most of the Caribbean pine is situated and the ii) Humid ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 59. PAGE 48Tropical Forest in which most of the hardwood forests are situated dominate the area. Thepine forest is generally associated with the fluvial plains or savanna flats on sandy, loworganic entisole soils in the areas of Wasakin, Alamikamban, Likbaikan, and Makantakan.Along the Bambana River, the soil is deep with a high sand content, good humus percentageand moderately acidic; these soils are very fertile and productive for both agriculture andhardwood forest production.The community is open and willing to participate in community-driven development efforts.There has been a traditional isolation from government interventions – a pattern that manycommunity stakeholders are attempting to break with the support of a variety of institutions.The IDB has identified Wasakin as being a focus community for its development prerogative- an interest that has been shared by a variety of international cooperants and nationalinstitutions. Currently, Save the Children (Canada) is expressing interest in supporting waterand sanitation initiatives, the Canadian Indigenous NGO Contigo International has targetedthe community for investment in bodega construction through CIDA, and FISE has expressedinterest in infrastructure development in the community if appropriate partners can beidentified.The incoming RAAN Governor - Hurtado García Becker - is very interested in supporting andfacilitating projects in the community. INTA is working in the nearby city of Siuna onprocessing bean seeds “semilla mejorada” which could fortify an agricultural reactivationinitiative, and the Mennonite Development Agency MEDA has expressed a great deal ofinterest in exploiting the potential market for black beans to Costa Rica, Mexico and Canada.Notwithstanding the community’s wealth of natural resources, “It is absurd to think thatstrong leadership, and the intentions of support being expressed with machetes alone, wefrom various corners, Wasakin is a community in distress. In can make ourselves rich”its report ‘Desarrollo Humano en la Costa Caribe de Nicaragua,2000’ The National Council for Socio- Economic Planning Elder, Wasakin(CONPES) recognized the Prinzapolka/Banbana region whereWasakin is situated as perhaps the poorest in the country, with an incidence of poverty ofnearly 91% 3 . Residents suffer from a variety of health issues connected with the lack ofpotable water, there is no electricity in the community, and there is a strong sense ofabandonment at the hands of municipal and regional governments which has causedcommunity leaders to develop a sense of cynicism with regard to development support.Population and DemographicsStatistics for this area of the country are not generally reliable, but the residents of thecommunity estimate that the current population is 1,897 individuals, divided among 247families. Mayangna/Sumo residents represent 87% of the population, while the remaining13% are Miskito. Most adults speak both the Sumo and Miskito languages, and ma nyunderstand and speak Spanish as well.Community InfrastructureWasakin is located at the end of 12 km of road from the city of Mina La Rosita. While thisaccess road is not faced with the challenge of major bridges – only ‘cajas’ (boxes) that are3 “Desarrollo Humano en la Costa Caribe de Nicaragua” Consejo Nacional de Planificación Económica Social (CONPES) ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 60. PAGE 49easily maintained – it is still in a state of disrepair during the rainy season. Rodolfo Sandino,Regional DANIDA delegate to the RAAN, explained that DANIDA is in the process ofworking with the community of Wasakin to develop drainage culverts during the rainyseason, and once the rains subside, will be building two pedestrian bridges spanning theBanbana River, effectively connecting the two sides of the community. According tocommunity leaders, an agreement was struck wherein the community would work withDANIDA to maintain the small ‘cajas’ and ditches, while the Municipality of Rosita wouldprovide maintenance for the road. In the opinion of the community and of DANIDATransport Program representatives the Municipality has not met these commitments.The community has no vehicle, so residents are faced with traveling on foot to access marketsand services at Rosita. In order to transport large quantities of product, a truck must be hiredin Rosita and brought out to the community, which is very costly and severely productioneconomics. There is no commercial activity in the community, and no financial services.Access to potable water in Wasakin is very poor. The community has a handful of wells, butall except one goes dry in the summer months. Many residents take their water from theBanbana River, the quality of which has deteriorated greatly since large-scale miningactivities in the 1950s. There is no electrical power to the community, with the exception of asmall gas-powered generator owned by the Moravian church and used for church purposes.There is a small medical clinic built by FISE and staffed by a nurse, however her contractruns out in August 2002, and there are no medical supplies whatsoever in the clinic.Educational InfrastructureThe Ministry of Education has a small presencein the community. MEDC employs 11 teacherswho work out of the school built by theMoravian church. Wasakin offers basicelementary school and junior high schoolservices, though the quality of educationalfacilities in the community is very poor.Educational services reach less than 14% of thepopulation and more than 50% of people olderthan five years of age are illiterate. Wasakin Community LeadersAccording to local residents, nobody in thecommunity has received formal agriculturaltraining, so they plant and harvest according to ‘their own intelligence’.Role of Rosita MunicipalityWasakin residents state that they feel neglected by the Rosita Municipal Government, whichthey see as being responsible for maintaining the road in from the community of Rosita, butwhich in their opinion has not fulfilled its responsibility. Presently, Wasakin has no delegateto the Municipal Government. To illustrate the roots of the fractious relationship, thecommunity previously had a small power plant to provide electricity, and during the lastelection campaign, the mayor apparently committed to make the minor repairs necessary tomake the plant operational. According to Wasakin leaders, the municipality simply removedthe power plant after the election was held. Further fostering this discontent are numerousstories about rice seed being donated to the community, and only a minor percentage beingdelivered through the Municipality as per agreements. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 61. PAGE 50The municipality is responsible for providing tools and support in road maintenance, as wellas basic services to the community.Economic ActivityWasakin residents derive their livelihood from the land, relying primarily on subsistenceagriculture supplemented by low levels of hunting and gathering, fishing, logging and wageemployment as available. Until the 1940s, crops of cassava, yams, and maize were grown onthe banks of the Bambana after winter floods had receded, as well as bananas and plantainsthat were planted back from these banks year-round. Early in the decade, however, cyanidepoisoning from upriver gold mines upset the ecological balance. The effects of mine wastewere felt for years. Local residents tell horrific stories of 40-50 children per year dying ofintestinal diseases from drinking the river water. Over the next 20 years residents learnedhow to plant rice and beans along sloped uplands using slash and burn agriculture, and todaythese crops comprise the staple diet, along with bananas, plantains, corn, guineo, yucca,quequisque, sugar cane and pejivalle.Being in such proximity to the community of Rosita, Wasakin has ready access to theprincipal road linking Puerto Cabezas to Managua, and thus has consistent access to a varietyof markets. Still, one of the current challenges of agricultural development is that themajority of Wasakin’s production is sold either locally or within the Minas region, as localshave little experience or knowledge in market development. According to local leaders,“There is no market for our products.”Roughly 25% of communal land is currently under cultivation, for subsistence purposes, andwith low levels of productivity. Wasakin offers many interesting possibilities to develop asustainable forestry management project but residents are very poor and hence alwayssusceptible to outside manipulation and dependence. Their lands are encroached on a regularbasis from three directions by Mestizo farmers and others.In the late 1990s, the lumber company LaAmistad – which had been granted severalyears worth of timber rights to communallands in the area - closed operations due topoor capitalization and lack ofimplementation and forestry managementplans. Indications are that there was a majordesign flaw in the mill that was constructed aspart of the project, and that biodiversityconcerns were not well considered in the Moravian Church in Wasakincompany’s efforts. There are few if anyremnants of this project, and locals are leftwith the sense that they were being exploited for raw timber, and were not able to extract thefull value of their resources.Key Locally-Based Organizations and InstitutionsWhile the community boasts strong leadership and organizational skills, there are nocommunity-based organizations as such to implement projects. Local women are motivatedand loosely organized, but have not formalized an association. Currently, community leaderNeddy Israel Johnny is in the process of establishing an NGO to service the needs of roughly ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 62. PAGE 5140 communities in the region, and has expressed interest in working with national andinternational partners.Current local organization includes the Elder’s Council, the Síndigo, the CommunityCoordinator, Judge, and local Councilor to the Regional Government in Puerto Cabezas.NGO and other International ActivityIn the past, Danish, Belgian, Austrian and Dutch cooperation has provided support to thecommunity, and DANIDA continues to provide infrastructure support through its Programade Transporte. At present, no NGOs other than Contigo have a presence in the community.The Rosita-based NGO FURCA claims to have a variety of projects in Wasakin, but mostresidents we spoke with question this assertion. They suggest that the only tangible results ofFURCA support to date have been a handful of pigs and a coup le of chickens, as well as ahalf-dozen coconut plants. Friendly Project (Proyecto Amigo) was involved in a forestryproduction project in 500 ha. Several years ago, there was a farmers co-operative thatproduced and sold basic grain crops to ENABAS (National Supply Enterprise). The onlyexisting community organization structure is the traditional Elders Council, which isdescribed in detail below.4.4.2 Wasakin Community OrganizationsWasakin Community Organizational SystemAs in most Miskito and Mayangna/Sumo indigenous communities along the Atlantic coast,Wasakin’s residents are governed by a community organizational structure that ischaracterized by popularly elected, traditional positions. These positions are generallyrecognized by all levels of government, civil and military authorities, and may be held by bothmen and women, although men generally assume them. The following are brief descriptionsof the different positions.Elder’s Council (Consejo de Ancianos)The Elders’ Council came to the forefront of community leadership in the 1980s, andindividuals elected to the Council were tasked with providing advice and leadership toresidents, while seeking to establish a dialogue to contribute to the end of the conflicts thatcharacterized that decade. Community elders are elected to the Council, and are asked toprovide leadership in moral issues and community development. They also play an informalpolitical role in issues such as land use and governance. Mr. Emilio Fendly is therepresentative of the Elder’s Council in Wasakin.SíndigoThe community Síndigo is an ancestral position that is assumed by an elected individual fromthe community. He/she has responsibility for the natural resources of the community(forestry, mining, marine, agricultural). The Síndigo is occasionally elected regionally ifcommunities are very small in size. More often, though, they are elected on a community-by-community basis. The Síndigo is the principal point of contact with municipal and regionalgovernments. If private industry wants to invest in the community, the Síndigo must provideapproval. In some larger communities, the Síndigo has a group of 3-4 members similar to aBoard of Directors. These are all individuals from the community, are elected by the ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 63. PAGE 52community, and must be ratified by the municipality. In Wasakin, the elected Síndigo is Mr.Antonio Blair Penn.Community CoordinatorThe Community Coordinator is responsible for specific projects and initiatives. He has theresponsibility for coordinating the presence of organizations in the community devoted toeducation, health and economic development. The community elects the Coordinator.Community JudgeThe community judge is an ancestral position elected by the community of Wasakin. Theposition of community judge was formerly recognized by the national legal system, but inpractice is less so in the present day. The judge’s role in the community is focused uponconflict resolution, and the resolution of minor community disturbances that need not beforwarded to regional jurisprudence for resolution. Mr. Eduardo Poveda is the CommunityJudge in Wasakin.The aforementioned positions collaborate with and receive support from religious leaders,teachers, and health services providers. Commissions are formed according to the need thatarises, and populated by members of the community based upon the particular mandate of thecommission and the designation of the community. Decisions are generally ratified in ageneral assembly of the community, which is also serve to elect the various leaders.While the system of community governance here described is well-organized and hastraditionally been respected and effective in general terms, its actual functionality in thepresent day, according to many first hand interviews conducted by the authors, is generallyineffective in the face of changing socio-economic and cultural realities of the community.According to some interviewed, this is the result of indifference on the part of municipalitiesand regional governments to recognize the efficacy of the various positions, and a generallack of formal education amongst individuals.Network for the Protection and Management of Natural Forests in the Mining Triangleand Prinzapolka (REPROMAB)Objective and REPROMAB is a recently formed community-based NGO that appears to enjoyMandate wide support from municipal and regional government, NGOs, communities and industry. Its objective is to involve the necessary mechanisms that contribute to the integrated management and conservation of the region’s forestry resources, with collective action involving municipal and local authorities both governmental and non-governmental, as well as forestry-related civil society organizations.Membership Members are representatives from 36 communities in the Prinzapolka and Minas area, as well as municipal & regional governments, institutions, private industry and civil society organizations.Background and REPROMAB is in the process of formalizing itself institutionally. A GeneralHistory Assembly has been held with representation from all 36 member communities, as well as representatives of industry, civil sector and public sector. A work plan has been laid out for the organization, which includes activities promoting the following ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 64. PAGE 53 activities: o Promote the rational management of productive forests, as well as the conservation of the region, with community participation. o Promote the restoration of vocational forestry areas through reforestation, plantation and the management of secondary forests, as well as the promotion of natural regeneration. o Promote training related to the use of and management of forestry resources. o Promote research and dissemination of findings and exchange of information about the forest resources. o Strengthen the technical capacity of members. o Use forestry resources as an important economic driver in the region. o Develop programs and projects related to forestry management to be implemented by members. o Seek financial and logistic resources from national and foreign organizations to bring these programs and projects to reality o Be facilitators in the search for promising national and international markets for processed wood products. o Provide support to the owners of the forests, providing technical advice to individuals and communities.Finance The organization currently has no source of financing. A proposal has been prepared seeking seed funding for office infrastructure as well as startup operating funds, but the goal is to develop self-sufficiency in short order.Governance There are Communal Boards of Directors in each of the 40 communities, as well as a General Assembly, which elects the organization’s Board of Directors. REPROMAB Leadership: Neddy Ismael Johnson Coordinator Wasakin Community Leader Gregorio Downs R. Vice-Coordinator HENCONIC Company, Bonanza Carlos Gómez Secretary Vice-Mayor of Siuna Argelio Johnys 2nd Secretary Prinzapolka Resident Carlos Madrigal Fiscal IPADE Coordinator, RositaProject As an incipient organization they have no direct project experience at this time. TheExperience following are the specific initiatives that the Network is contemplating: 1. Training Programs/Workshops a. Standards and administrative aspects of forestry; b. Indigenous community laws; c. Advance of agricultural frontier; d. Community-based forestry management; e. Financial administration, management and resource management; f. Soil use planning; g. Forestry training center; h. Building of site for indigenous market; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 65. PAGE 54 2. Forest Fire Prevention Programs 3. Grants/Scholarships for StudentsInfrastructure REPROMAB is currently borrowing office space in Rosita, and is soon to establish a permanent office.Partners REPROMAB has approached the following organizations. Each has expressed its commitment to participate actively in REPROMAB’s initiatives: Municipalities: Siuna, Rosita, Bonanza, Prinzapolka 36 Communities within 4 municipalities Private Sector Companies: o Empresa Prada, S.A. o HENCONIC, S.A. (Bonanza) – mining company o Aserradero Hermanos Alemán o Aserradero San Isidro o Aserradero El Carmen Private Businessmen Institutions: INAFOR, INTA, MAGFOR, RAAN Regional Council Organizations: CATIE, Bosawas, CEDEHCA, IPADE, FURCA, FADCANIC, URACCAN, Centro HumboldtOrganizational o Widespread community and regional supportstrengths o Clear focus and objectives o Well-developed work plan o Strong leadership based upon consensus o Focus on balance between sustainable socio-economic development and management/conservation of natural resourcesOrganizational o Lack of financingchallenges o Lack of permanent headquarters o No project experienceOpportunities o 42% of forestry resources in Nicaragua are concentrated in the Prinzapolka region and the Minas region. o Several forestry companies exist in the area. o There are approximately 50 middlemen who promote the commercialization of wood, an important aspect of the forestry chain o 2 universities who promote professional training o Woodworkers, companies, communities are interested in supporting action in forestry management o The new RAAN administration is interested in working with REPROMAB. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 66. PAGE 55Threats o The RAAN is very complicated socially, economically and culturally; o There is no forestry area specifically designated for the generation of technology and forestry research; o Lack of transportation access to the communities and areas where the forest is concentrated; o Limited public sector capacity at the Regional and Municipal levels to operate effectively in the territory, and limited coordination between the work of municipalities and regional authorities; o High incidence of poverty throughout the area;Training and o US$20,000 for startup (purchase of office, equipment, salaries, etc.)Development o Project management trainingNeeds o Institutional strengtheningContact Neddy Ismael JohnsonInformation Coordinator (Rosita & Wasakin) Tel: 273-11-32 or 273-10-07 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 67. PAGE 564.4.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Wasakin STRENGTHS CHALLENGESStrong community-level organization; The community has no access to electricity;De-facto capital of Sumo cultural and economic The relationship between the community and activity in the region; Rosita Municipality is strained;Experience with private-sector investment There is a lack of entrepreneurial vision amongst through failed Amistad forestry initiative; community leaders;Agricultural tradition along Banbana River; Lack of presence of NGOs, Municipality, Regional Government and Central GovernmentRoad and water access for movement of goods; representatives in community;Selected by CBA as focus community; No means to move product to market;Firm commitment for road maintenance support Lack of technical skills and education amongst from DANIDA Transport; producers;DANIDA to build two pedestrian bridges over All land is communally owned, which may make Banbana River in dry season; support from POSAF a challenge, based upon the project’s criterion of private land ownership. OPPORTUNITIES THREATSRecent conformation of community economic Poor community health due to lack of potable development NGO REPROMAB provides water source and inconsistent health services; opportunity for leadership and local participation The only school in the community is owned and in development initiatives; operated by the Moravian church;World Bank interested in supporting rural There are frequent and increasing incursions ofelectrification initiative; settlers into traditional territories;Strong agriculture and agro-forestry development The community nurse is leaving in late 2002, potential; with no plans for replacement;Tremendous untapped forestry resources; The community is in a land demarcation fightCandidate for POSAF II rollout in RAAN; with neighboring community of Kalmata over roughly 700 hectares of land; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 68. PAGE 574.5 Francia Sirpi4.5.1 Community AssessmentGeneral Description Of CommunityFrancia Sirpi is the largest of 15 Miskito communities in the Tasba Raya region of thenorthern-central RAAN. The region bridges the Waspam and Puerto Cabezas Municipalitiesand is known generally as “El Llano”. It is the most prominent community in the region dueto its central location to various satellite communities in the area, its good road access to themarkets of Puerto Cabezas and Waspam, and its relatively large population base.The community was founded in 1969 as part of anagricultural ‘colony’ established by the InstitutoAgrario Nicaragüense (IAN) to the west of thecommunity of Tronquera. The IAN initiative involvedthe relocation of several Miskito communities alongthe Rio Coco, a move that was motivated by habitualflooding in the area, poor growing conditions, and Landscape Outside ofongoing territorial disputes. The first 27 families Francia Sirpiarrived in the region from the communities of Bumand Klampa, and were followed two years later by several more after a devastating hurricanein 1971. The IAN initiative was mandated to provide land titles, technical assistance andcredit to the new inhabitants of the area; however these promises were largely unfulfilled.Many families fled the area between 1983 and 1986 due to heightened intensity of militaryactivity in the region. The vast majority had made their return by the early 1990s.Francia Sirpi, whose name in the Miskito language means “Little France”, is located roughly60km by road to the Southwest of the city of Waspam, and falls under the auspices of theWaspam municipality. The geographical area is widely considered to offer some of the mostfertile soils and ideal climactic conditions for agricultural development along the Atlantic coast. In the early stages of the development of Francia Sirpi and surrounding communities, strong support was provided by the French Embassy, the Adventist Church and Oxfam to cooperative production techniques, and the strengthening of indigenous rights and customs. These efforts provided a starting point for agricultural and Francia Sirpi productive initiatives in the area. Figure 4-5: Location of Francia SirpiIt is estimated that the Tasba Raya region in its totality is comprised of between 38,000 and45,000 hectares of land. According to DANIDA, Tasba Raya comprises 32,139 km2 , which ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 69. PAGE 58represents 27% of the national territory4 . In Francia Sirpi, communal land is divided upamongst 175 families into 50 manzana parcels for each, as authorized by the InstitutoAgropecuario Nicaraguense (IAN). Community leaders are in disagreement over the totalallocation of land in the community, and estimates range widely from 5,740 to 7,750manzanas. Presently, each family is managing roughly 1-3 manzanas, while some familiesare not working the land at all. The community is currently facing land pressures on severalfronts. There are more families than land available as a result of strong population growth,and the younger residents of Francia Sirpi are claiming lands that are also being claimed bythe neighboring community of Awas Tingni.The Corredor Biológico del Atlántico(CBA) has identified Francia Sirpi as oneof its priority communities within Block 17of the Waspam / Rio Coco Municipality.The World Bank’s Rural Energy projecthas selected Francia Sirpi as a Phase Icommunity in its Rural ElectrificationInitiative. MARENA’s POSAF IIinitiative would be well suited to supportregional agro- forestry development, and islooking to this assessment for guidance on Francia Sirpi Community Leaderscommunity selection.Following is a list of eleven satellitecommunities within the Tasba Raya region, which would benefit directly or indirectly frominitiatives in Francia Sirpi: o Auas Tingni, Ipri Tingni, Kururia, Miguel Bikan, Kuiwi Tingni, Polo de Desarrollo, Santa Rita, Tasba Pain, Tikiamp, Tronquera, WisconsinPopulation and DemographicsWithin the community of Francia Sirpi, residents suggest that there are 2,048 individualsdivided amongst 247 Families. Residents of the area are 100% Miskito, and local leadersestimate that between 55-60% of the community’s residents are women. Most adults speakboth Miskito and Spanish, and there are a handful of locals who also speak English.Community InfrastructureOne of the great benefits of developing infrastructure in this community is that it boasts year-round road access from the major communities of Waspam (72km) and Puerto Cabezas(127km). These access routes put the community at a competitive advantage as adevelopment hub within the micro-region, potentially providing technical support, and aconduit for production and commercialization to the above mentioned communities.DANIDA’s Transport program for the RAAN has worked extensively with the localcommunity to improve the road, playing a large role in the reconstruction of three localbridges, as well as the development of a local committee (Procamino) to maintain the road.Rodolfo Sandino of DANIDA Transport informs that the Program is currently building a4 Ibid ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 70. PAGE 59connection between Francia Sirpi and the neighboring communities of Esperanza and MiguelBikan.One of the principle challenges in Francia Sirpi is the lack of community infrastructure.There is currently no consistent supply of electricity. Francia Sirpi has extremely weakcommunications infrastructure – there is no telephone in the area, which makes emergencycommunications very challenging. There is no medical center in the community, though thereis a community house with a room set up as a small clinic and staffed by a local nurse. Theclinic has very few supplies on hand, and what little they do have is provided by the WaspamHospital. For emergency medical issues, there is no way to quickly communicate withWaspam. The community has no vehicle at its disposal. There are 9 very small family-runstores known as ‘pulperías’ selling basic food and household goods. The community hasneither a pharmacy nor a hardware store.The community also has four communal wells and the supply of potable water is inadequate.There are only 39 outhouses in the community, leaving a large number of residents withoutsufficient services. There are currently no vehicles in the community, and the only support isfrom a truck provided by the Tasba Raya project. There are a handful of churches in thecommunity, reflecting the presence of the Adventist, Catholic and Moravian faiths.In terms of support for agricultural development, MAGFOR and INTA have had no presencein the community to date. For technical training, residents must go to Waspam, while foruniversity studies; Puerto Cabezas offers the closest services. Some individua ls from FranciaSirpi are professionals in nursing, agronomy, and other specializations, but for the lack offormal employment in the community, these professionals tend to be working elsewhere.There is a rice mill and dryer in thecommunity that was built by ACNUR (AltaComisionado de las Naciones Unidas paraRefugiados) in 1991. The mill is currentlynot functioning, because it requires thereplacement of most of the motor, alternatorand other critical parts. When operating, therice mill had the capacity to mill 12-20quintales of rice per hour. Currently, rice andbeans for the local market are milled inWaspam. For subsistence, the communitymills the grains by hand in an antiquated Rice Mill built by UN in early 1990sfashion using a large piece of wood.Community leadership appears to be generally strong, though often community leadersthemselves disagree on the path forward. The community has a territorial delegation, whichis charged with maintaining a civil registry of inhabitants, and other community-relatedresponsibilities.Educational InfrastructureThe community has an elementary school that was rehabilitated in 1995 under the Tasba Rayaproject. It is a 6-room school that is in poor condition – the roof is rapidly deteriorating, andthe school lacks desks and furniture, washroom facilities and fence. The school services 356students up to Grade 6, who are attended by 9 teachers, 5 of who are paid by the Ministry ofEducation, and 4 of whom are paid by GRAAN. There is also a secondary school in the ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 71. PAGE 60community for 81 students taught by 3 instructors. The building was constructed by FISE in1999, and is in relatively good condition.Role of Municipal GovernmentFrancia Sirpi and the whole Tasba Raya region fall under the political auspices of WaspamMunicipality. There is an elected community leader in Francia Sirpi who serves as a delegateto the municipality. They are in the process of building a small office as a sub- municipal hub,and have the responsibility for implementing municipal responsibilities, such as the animalregistry, marriages, divorces, etc. Historically, the municipality has not provided agriculturalsupport.Economic ActivityAgricultural activity currently represents the principal economic driver for Francia Sirpi.DANIDA estimates that approximately 90% of area residents are dedicated to subsistencelevels of agricultural production5 . Within the community of Francia Sirpi, there are roughly210 Family Production Units, which in general terms are focused on subsistence productionof rice, beans, cacao, yucca and bananas. Some households also focus on low-scale‘secondary production’ of avocado and limes. The majority of production is of a subsistencelevel, while the relatively little excess production is commercialized.Principal agricultural products are: rice (60-70 quintales per manzana), beans (12-20quintales per manzana) (for consumption and for market), yucca, quequisque, corn, banano,and platano for local consumption. Most products for market are sold either in PuertoCabezas, or to merchants who come to the community to exchange cash or other products forthe community’s grains.Aside from agricultural production, some area residents also harvest wood for sale to buyersfrom Puerto Cabezas, Waspam and beyond.While growing conditions in the region are consideredto be quite good for a variety of agricultural and agro-forestry products, the community has commented thatthe harvest is decreasing year after year. Theprincipal explanation for this phenomenon could bethe lack of technical assistance and training in croprotation and soil management available to areaproducers. These results may also suggest that thesoils are slowly losing nutrients. Access Road into Francia SirpiThe organic material content of the soils in the TasbaRaya region ranges from m oderate to high, and aregenerally acidic (PH=4.2-5.5). The topography of theland is mostly flat with slopes rarely exceeding 10degrees. The majority of the soils are extremely aptfor forestry purposes: the region is blessed with anabundance of flora, reflecting the diversity of thevarious ecosystems that find confluence in the area:pine savannahs, pastures, rain forests, tropical forests5 Ibid ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 72. PAGE 61and bosque de galleria.Agricultural efforts are still relatively migratory in nature, a traditional practice which reflectsthe lack of training in agricultural techniques, and which ultimately endangers forestryresources. The major challenges are the low quality of seed, lack of commercializationinfrastructure, post- harvest losses, low buying prices and the damages that large animalscause to the crops. There is some forestry activity, but it is mostly individual trees being soldin place for loggers to cut. The community does not sell processed wood. The presence ofseven communities in very close proximity suggests potential for large-scale agriculturalproductivity for eventual export considerations. A recent agricultural study undertaken by theGovernment of Nicaragua supports this claim.According to DANIDA in its 1997 socio-economic study, there are large areas of conifers andlarge- leaved flora, and a proliferation of arbustos, hierbas, epífitas and lianas. In terms offorestry resources, the region boasts significant numbers of the following species (inSpanish):6 o Caoba, Cedro Real, Guayabo Negro, Santa María, Guayabín, Pino, Nancitón, Zopilote, Palo de Agua, ComenegroDANIDA clarifies in its study, however, that some of the above- mentioned species are over-harvested due to indiscriminant cutting by locals, and for lack of a forestry management plan.There are a few head of cattle in the community, though it is not clear whether there issufficient pasture to maintain them adequately. Relatively few families have barnyardanimals, and the few that are present display some signs of illness.NGO and other International ActivityADRA (Adventists) has a private medical clinic that opens whenever there is a doctor and/ormedicines available to provide service to the community. It is very inconsistent.DANIDA Transport provides support and materials for road construction and maintenance.In recent years, NGOs such as the Cooperativa de Servicios Múltiples Tasba Raya, FundaciónWangki Luhpia, CIEETS, and CAPRI and were implementing initiatives in the creation ofcooperatives and integrated forestry management, but it is unclear as to whether or not theseefforts have been sustainable.According to the community, at present there is are “no NGOs working in the area”.6 Estudio Socieconómico, Cultural y Ambiental de Tasba Raya, Municipio de Waspam Equipo de EstudiosSocioeconómicos, DANIDA RAAN, August 1997 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 73. PAGE 624.5.2 Community-Based OrganizationsFrancia Sirpi Community Organizational SystemIn Communities of the Tasba Raya region share a common community leadership structurewhich has developed over the years to reflect changing relations with regional and nationalgovernments, and to represent the community’s interests in social and economic development.This structure has been developed to include several elements reflecting the variousleadership needs of the community. The following positions are all recognized bygovernment, civil and military authorities, and may be held by both men and women, thoughare generally assumed by men.Elder’s Council (Consejo de Ancianos)The Elders’ Council is an organization that came to the forefront of community issues duringthe war years in the 1980s, tasked with providing sage advice and leadership in search of adialogue to contribute to the end of the conflict. Community elders are elected to the council,and provide advice and leadership in moral issues and community development. They alsoplay an informal political role in issues such as land use.SíndigoThe Síndigo is an ancestral leadership position, and is an elected individual from thecommunity. He/she has responsibility for the natural resources of the community (forestry,mining, marine, agricultural). Sometimes, the Síndigo is regionally elected if communitiesare very small. More often, they are elected by community. The Síndigo is the principalpoint of contact with municipal and regional governments. If private industry wants to investin the community, the Síndigo must provide approval. In Francia Sirpi, the Síndigo is assistedby a group of several members who act as Secretary, Treasurer and Vocales, much as a Boardof Directors operates. These are all individuals from the community, are elected by thecommunity, and their participation must be ratified by the municipality. The Sindigo in thecommunity is Mr. Amador Francis David, and his assistants include Mr. Alistan ThomasFelipe and others.Community CoordinatorThe position of Community Coordinator of Francia Sirpi is elected by the community. Thisindividual is responsible for specific initiatives, and coordinates the presence of organizationsin the community, such as education, health and development. In Francia Sirpi, theCommunity Coordinator is Mr. Arsenio Vanegas.Community JudgeThe judge is also an ancestral position, which is elected by the community. The judge wasformerly recognized by the national legal system, but is less so in the present day. Their rolein the community is conflict resolution, and the sorting out of minor community disturbancesthat need not be forwarded to regional jurisprudence for resolution. In Francia Sirpi, the ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 74. PAGE 63position of Community Judge is held by Mr. Rene Brian Dino, while Mr. Gaston Conrado isthe Second Judge.The aforementioned positions collaborate with and receive support from religious leaders,teachers, and health services providers. Commissions are formed according to the need thatarises, and populated by members of the community based upon the particular mandate of thecommission and the designation of the community. Decisions are generally ratified in ageneral assembly of the community, which also serve to elect the various leaders.While this system is generally well-organized, the functionality of it in terms of theimplementation of economic development initiatives may be suspect. According to some, thishas been the result of indifference on the part of municipalities and regional governments, aswell as a lack of solid planning and implementation mechanisms, and a general lack of formaleducation and training amongst individuals. There have also been reports of inconsistentbehavior in leadership, duplication and disagreement over functions and jurisdiction, andpersonal abuses and self- enrichment amongst some leaders.Other prominent leaders in the community include Mr. Gaspar Chow Thompson, who isresponsible for establishing the Waspam Municipal Sub-Office in the community; Mr. RamonBrian Dino who is responsible for organizing the community around the PROCAMINO roads& bridges initiative with DANIDA; and Ms. Lorentina Marley, the community nurse. Francia Sirpi Landscape ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 75. PAGE 644.5.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Francia Sirpi STRENGTHS CHALLENGESAfter the first meeting with the consulting team in Lack of community organization and internal late June, and the follow-up and feedback conflict amongst community leaders; discussions in July , the community decided to Uncertainty over total amount of land managed put together a community level organization to by community; have regular meetings around the issue of Lack of land to distribute to younger members of community development. It seems that there has community; been a general sentiment to forget community and political and inter-personal divisions from Lack of technical training in agricultural the past, and put forward a united front to greet management; development initiatives. Lack of community leadership training;All agricultural crops in the region are organic; Need for stronger and more frequent communications with community leaders fromRoad access to the Waspam – Puerto Cabezas other surrounding communities; highway is excellent, and there is a community Need for basic infrastructure; group charged with maintaining the road in collaboration with DANIDA and the Lack of cohesiveness amongst community municipality; leadership; Lack of control over forestry and soil resources;Large tracts of under-utilized land available for agricultural production and agro-forestry Lack of civil society presence; development; Seeding cycles which, which keep people on the land, may coincide with project execution period; Lack of access to potable water; Very limited regional government and municipality presence and support; All land is communally owned, which may make support from POSAF a challenge, based upon the project’s criterion of private land ownership. OPPORTUNITIES THREATSThe CBA has recognized Francia Sirpi as a focus Passivity, indifference, mistrust in community community in its CBA initiative; development processFrancia Sirpi has been selected by the World Fear of change Bank and the Comisión Nacional de Energía as a The community is currently in a fight with the pilot community for Phase I of its Rural community of Awas Tingni, which is a Electrification Initiative; Mayangna community, around land use. Awas Tigni recently won a legal battle in the OAS court against the Nicaraguan government, after which it was ceded a large chuck of property in the region. On July 24th there will be further negotiations and discussions to settle the land use issue. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 76. PAGE 655 COMMUNITY ACTION P LANSThe Community Action Plans reiterate, in an abbreviated manner, some of the communityinformation that was presented in the previous section. This is intentional as they aredesigned to be useable in a stand-alone manner if required.5.1 IntroductionA major deliverable of this Assessment is a series of Community Action Plans and ProjectPrototypes for each of the communities outlined in Section 4. These are presented within acontext of micro-regional development, wherein the selected hub communities of FranciaSirpi, Wasakin and Pearl Lagoon represent development poles around which infrastructureand capacity development initiatives will benefit surrounding satellite communities.The need for sustainable economic development assistance at the community level is largeand varied. Within the prototypes, the consultants outline a number of productive initiativesfor each of the six communities. The proposed projects are considered to be the mostappropriate to make efficient and sustainable use of the resources available in eachcommunity, while taking into account community capacity for project implementation andmanagement, technical skill deficit, lack of national and regional institutional presence, andthe dearth of productive activity support in each community. The majority of the prototypesare designed to reflect, in their initial phases, specific pilot rollout initiatives for IDB NI-0159as executed by the Institute for Rural Development (IDR).The communities selected in the RAAS and RAAN present some fundamental differencesfrom one another, as reflected in the distinct prototypes and implementation strategiesoutlined below. One of the inter-regional distinctions is that the RAAN communities aremainly populated by indigenous groups that speak their own languages and some Spanish,while in the RAAS the predominant ethnic groups are Creole and Garifuna, who speak amixture of mainly English, Spanish and in some cases the Garifuna language. Anotherprincipal issue considered in the development of these prototypes is land demarcation. Ineach of the RAAN communities, land is communally owned and loosely demarcated betweenfamilies for subsistence agriculture and low-scale wood extraction. In the Pearl Lagoon areahowever, there is a combination of communal land ownership in the Garifuna communities ofMarshall Point, while land in Pearl Lagoon is a combination of private/family owned land andcommunal land. Finally, on Corn Island there is no communally held land – Creolelandowners hold all property.Generally speaking, Miskito and Sumo communities in the RAAN have a higher degree oftraditional community organization than Garifuna and Creole communities in the RAAS,whose residents tend to have an orientation towards more formal employment and services,and who are more entrepreneurial in their artisanal fishing and agricultural activities. Anotherdistinction that bears mention is the widely varying levels of physical access to thecommunities. RAAN communities are accessible by road, while RAAS communities arecompletely dependent – especially in the rainy season – upon maritime transportation linksand, in the case of Corn Island, by plane. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 77. PAGE 66Formation and/or consolidation of quasi-private community enterprise is a focus of themajority of the prototypes, as that is the vision of each community and the desire ofcommunity leaders, landowners, producers, municipal and regional governments, andinternational development agencies. Within each community and micro-region, existingtraditional community- level organizational infrastructure is thoughtfully considered. Theconsultants have made every attempt to incorporate existing local, regional and nationalorganizations that have the capacity and experience to play a role within the prototypes.However, there are communities in which certain critical roles cannot be filled locally orregionally, and focused technical assistance from qualified national or international expertsand institutions are called for.As mentioned in the ASDI-IDB- funded “Diagnostic of Financial and Non-Financial Servicesin the Atlantic Coast” recently published by Cyrano Management, access to credit along thecoast is virtually non-existent, and contemplation of micro-credit development at this stage isconsidered premature by the IDB’s Managua office. The numerous lessons learned fromhistorical failures of micro-credit in the region, the lack of volition of commercial lenders tooffer loan portfolios to individuals and community organizations along the coast, and thedearth of institutional capacity to support small-scale incipient credit practices within thesector or community are major inhibitors to sustainable community economic development inthe region.In consideration of these challenges, and upon the needs, suggestions and recommendationsexpressed by the local residents during the various information gathering sessions, communitymeetings, focus groups and follow-up feedback sessions, community action plans have beenprepared. These plans reflect the specific and unique challenges and opportunities of eachcommunity, and introduce the various interventions recommended to stimulate economicdevelopment in the communities, as well as collateral and parallel activities in infrastructuredevelopment and inter- institutional collaboration which the consultants consider to be criticalto the success of the various prototypes.The prototypes take into account the pre-existence of natural attributes in all of thecommunities (locally adapted crops, pastures and forest products, marine life, humanexpertise and experience) and reflect the best economic investment opportunities forgenerating community and family income and economic growth. That stated, they correspondwith what the communities themselves have identified and proposed for productivedevelopment and agricultural rehabilitation initiatives.In the opinion of the consulting team, it is fundamental to recognize that the initiatives willlikely not succeed if other parallel actions (organizational development and strengthening,improvement/provision of basic infrastructure and services, training, research and testing,market development and eventually the establishment of some level of commercial credit) arenot fostered in order to provide adequate conditions for the profitable and sustainableoperation of productive enterprises in the region. Some activities related to these parallelactions are included within each specific prototype. However, it is recommended that specificprograms or entities (national, regional and/or municipal governments, civil society,international development agencies, multilaterals, universities, private business sector, others)foster them. Critical success factors for each sub-region are mentioned in correspondingsections below, and are reflected in the DevSCOT Analyses for each community in theprevious section. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 78. PAGE 67In addition to the action plans and project prototypes, consultant Samuel Mercado hasoutlined a variety of suggested actions to move towards sustainability in productive initiativesin Afro-Latin and Indigenous communities along the Atlantic coast. These are captured inAppendix IX, and reflect a framework for sustainable, privately owned, community-runeconomic development enterprises based upon an indigenous community development model.It is anticipated that the prototypes detailed below can represent in some instances the initialstages of development of the framework.Building upon the Community Assessments outlined in Section 4, a small description of eachcommunity as well as a list of productive project prototypes is presented in the followingsubsections. Detailed project prototypes are presented in Section 6.5.2 General ConsiderationsStrong organization and productive leadership at the community level are critical successfactors in the promotion of economic development along the Atlantic coast. Communitiesshould be afforded the opportunity, resources and training to create private enterprises atvarious levels (inter-community, community, family, associations, etc.). Traditionalorganizational structures of the Miskito, Sumo and Garifuna communities should bestrengthened rather than abandoned. Credit programs and funds should be managed by localorganizations that allow for profit to be distributed locally and re- invested in other economicdevelopment and/or social infrastructure within the community or elsewhere. According tocommunity leaders, it is necessary to organize community and inter-community private for-profit enterprises, while assisting small groups (families, share associations, committees) toestablish small-scale private enterprises. Formation of sectorial committees (fishermen,farmers, tourism, others) should also be encouraged. Resolution of legal status and landdemarcation is important in encouraging outside investment and providing potential investorswith a sense of security.Appropriate infrastructure should also be in place to increase the margin of success ofeconomic development opportunities in each of the communities: o Improved marine transportation services are critical to support increased production and commercialization of agricultural, seafood and agro-forestry products. o Basic means of communication (radio, telephone should be available to establish and maintain communication links with current and potential clients and suppliers in national and foreign markets. o Marketing services, which currently do not exist in any form on the coast, could be provided by one or more regional entities or through the Universities. o The installation and operation of basic processing facilities depends upon the existence of reliable potable water and supply of energy. These services could be managed by a community organization or a local enterprise. o Adequate storage facilities for raw and processed commodities are critical to take advantage of price point fluctuations during the year. o Support the process of resolving legal status and land demarcation for all communities; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 79. PAGE 68It is essential to train and update productive leaders in each community through the variousinitiatives contemplated in the prototypes (research, production, processing, equipmentmaintenance, marketing, administration, etc). All recommended actions should be precededand accompanied by intense training of local residents. This should involve regionaluniversities and technical schools, as well as sector-specific, regionally appropriate technicaltraining programs implemented or supported by MAG-FOR, INTA, INATEC, MARENA, etc.Research, testing and development of production/processing technologies and marketing arefundamental aspects of the development strategy. To provide as much regional value-added aspossible, and to further build capacity at the regional level, project activities should beperformed with the collaboration and assistance of related educational and public sectorinstitutions such as BICU, URACCAN, MAG-FOR, INTA, MARENA, Ministry of ExteriorCommerce, Ministry of Industry, INTUR, ADPESCA, etc.5.3 Pearl Lagoon Basin CommunitiesMicro-Regional SummaryThe Pearl Lagoon basin comprises 18 Garifuna, Creole and Miskito communities within anecologically diverse area with challenging socio-economic conditions. The Basin representsthe center of Garifuna culture in Nicaragua, and basin communities are economically andsocially linked and inter-dependent. This unique environment suggests the opportunity for anintegrated approach to supporting economic development initiatives through key groups andorganizations with a focus on the three major centers - Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point andOrinoco. This approach will provide a more sustainable and efficient way of ensuring thatimplementation and support for initiatives will have a broader impact. With the exception ofthe rural electrification initiative in Orinoco, these three principal communities will beaddressed in an integrated manner.These three communities are principally dependent on the fishing industry – both within thelagoon and in the open ocean. Recent years have seen stocks drop drastically, while boats andgear have been deteriorating for lack of resources to upgrade and maintain them. Leaderswithin each community are interested in partnership and support in the rehabilitation of theagricultural potential of the area, supporting the organization of craft fishermen’s groups, andfostering small-scale value-added processing to agricultural production.5.3.1 Pearl LagoonCommunity SummaryAs the largest community in the basin, and the only one with sufficient infrastructure tosupport small- to medium- scale processing, transport and commercialization activities in theshort- to medium-term, Pearl Lagoon is critical to a development strategy for the Creole andGarifuna communities of the basin. As the hub of the Pearl Lagoon Municipal Government,the community maintains social, commercial and gubernatorial links with all othercommunities in the area. Any economic development activities implemented here will likelyprovide direct and indirect benefit to the other 17 communities in the area.The community is economically dependent upon fishing, and stocks have been droppingconsistently in recent years while boats and gear have deteriorated, for lack of resources forupgrading and maintenance. The community recognizes the strong potential for agricultural ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 80. PAGE 69rehabilitation in the area, given the community’s ideal climactic and soil conditions, andagricultural history. There is also considerable interest in reinvigorating the artisanal fishingfleet by fostering capacity development of a community fisherman’s co-operative, as well asidentifying the potential for sustainable aquaculture activities to insulate the communitiesfrom the lack of resource management strategy for the fishing industry.A principal focus of project prototypes for this community is the integration and leadership ofwomen in productive activities, administration and management, as local landowning womenhave taken a leading role in the development of prototypes and have provided leadership inthe mobilization of the productive community around this assessment. Pearl Lagoon will bethe hub of the Pearl Lagoon Basin prototypes outlined below, in conjunction with participantsfrom Marshall Point and Orinoco.5.3.2 Marshall PointCommunity SummaryMarshall Point is a Garifuna community located along the northern rim of the Lagoon. Thecommunity enjoys a close social and economic relationship with its neighbor communityOrinoco. Marshall Point plays an important role in the survival of Garifuna culture on theAtlantic Coast, and it is a generally held view amongst leaders there that it is key to thecontinuing economic and cultural survival of the Garifuna people in the entire region.Marshall Point faces a variety of development challenges, principally in the provision ofsocial services, weak infrastructure, and poor community organization. The communityremains economically and politically isolated by the lack of transportation options anddevelopment support. This isolation has created a strong sense of independence in thecommunity, and has limited the community to subsistence agricultural practices and verysmall-scale artisanal fishing for the community’s survival. The power structures of thecommunity are largely male dominated, and women continue to fight for recognition, politicalpresence and economic development support. The prototypes identified for Marshall Pointreflect fundamental economic and social integration with Pearl Lagoon, offering women inthe community an opportunity to take ownership over their economic future, and receivementorship and support from women in neighboring communities.Community priorities in Marshall Point are focused on support to develop and improve theartisan fishing fleet, as well as increasing production of locally adapted crops with a focus onpineapple, ginger, achiote, hot peppers, cashews and rice. Marshall Point farmers andfishermen are concerned over the lack of storage and transportation facilities in thecommunity to support the marketing and promotion of local crops. Marshall Point residentshave expressed their interest in participating directly in the Pearl Lagoon Basin projectsoutlined below.5.3.3 OrinocoCommunity SummaryConsiderably larger than its neighbor Marshall Point, the community of Orinoco is the truecapital of Garifuna culture on the coast. While Orinoco has been the focus of somedevelopmental support in the past, and is considered a hub for social and cultural activities inthe area, the community faces a variety of threats: Settlers have been moving into the region ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 81. PAGE 70steadily, subjecting residents to incursions from the northwest by individuals looking toexploit the standing timber and clear land for pastures and agricultural development. This hasexacerbated the lack of potable water available to the community, as one of the streams fromfresh water is widely considered to be very contaminated from harvesting practices.The women of Orinoco have had some success in economic development activities. In recentyears, a women’s fishing cooperative purchased the catch directly from local fishermen,selling to buyers in Pearl Lagoon. Although women in the community are organized to alarge extent, the community’s decision-making bodies are largely male dominated, andOrinoco women are still faced with challenges in recognition and support.The feedback provided by Orinoco residents is similar to the priorities expressed in MarshallPoint, with the main areas of focus being the renewal of the artisan fishing fleet, and supportto agricultural rehabilitation with a focus on key crops. Residents are in need of technicalsupport to increase production levels of locally adapted crops, specifically pineapple, cassavaand rice as well as tropical fruits (citrus, cashew, mangoes and others). The lack of capacityto store, transport and market crops are a major concern for local producers. Orinocoresidents will participate directly in the Pearl Lagoon Basin projects outlined below.5.3.4 Project Outlines – Pearl Lagoon Basin CommunitiesPearl Lagoon Basin Communities Agricultural Reactivation ProjectCreole, Garifuna and Miskito communities in the basin are suffering from decreasingpopulations of finfish and shrimp, heretofore the main source of economic activity. In theimmediate vicinity of most communities, agricultural land is available crop production.Currently, cashew and tropical fruits grow almost wild and most of the product rots on thebranch or in the fields. While soils are productive, local farmers use low quality seed and low-input technology that results in low crop yield levels. In addition, crop production is limited tosmall family plots for lack of credit sources to expand their productive plots, and lack ofknowledge of and access to markets.This prototype proposes to formalize and consolidate groups of farmers in the communities ofPearl Lagoon, Marshall Point and Orinoco. The groups are made of largely of women in thecommunities who are prepared to work a section of their family parcels with technicalassistance, training and improved seed. The initiative will utilize the skills of the PearlLagoon Agricultural Extension Worker to coordinate with points of contact in eachcommunity to undertake soil analyses and field tests on productive technologies, technicaltraining for farmers and the distribution of improved seeds.This initiative will also involve a comprehensive review of regional, national and internationalmarket potential for commodities identified as having excellent growing potential in thecommunity, including specifics on processing, packaging, presentation and handling ofproducts. The information gathered will be distributed directly to the producers themselves,and communities will work in conjunction with MAG-FOR, regional universities, andpossibly an IDB-supported Centro de Desarollo Empresarial (CDE) in Bluefields in themanagement of market information. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 82. PAGE 71Development of Value-Added Agricultural Processing Industry in the Pearl Lagoon BasinFor lack of market knowledge, technical assistance, processing and transportationinfrastructure, basin residents have not developed value-added agricultural products. Whileproducers in the area are traditional farmers, their post-harvest losses are extremely high, andprices obtained for their crops are low, as they are currently restricted to the Bluefields marketwith most having only the option of selling out of their boats off the dock.There is recognition amongst producers of the potential for value-added processing of cashew,pineapple and rice in the immediate term with strong potential in the local, regional, nationaland international markets. The initiative will be managed by local women, and build uponproject infrastructure created in the Agricultural Reactivation Initiative. The focus will be onorganizational development in each of the three communities, and testing of artisanalprocessing techniques suitable for the area, and in line with the capabilities of local soils. Atthis stage, community organization around this initiative is still very weak, and assistance andtraining to individual processors is a fundamental aspect of the initiative.As with the Agricultural Rehabilitation Initiative, commercialization methods and marketanalysis are fundamental, as well as an analysis of the processing and packaging requirementsfor the markets identified. Information will be passed on directly to the communities, andindividuals/groups will be assisted to initiate small-scale artisanal processing of key products,with a vision to larger-scale processing facilities in the basin in the longer-term.Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing FleetCatches in the Pearl Lagoon basin and in the open ocean have been steadily dwindling eachyear. At the same time, local fleets, equipment and fishing gear have been deteriorating,severely reducing the capacity of craft fishermen to obtain good yields and to diversity intoother commercial species. The consultants were told that larger industrial fishing boats in thearea openly flaunt national regulations, reducing even more the share of catch available tolocal fishermen.There is an opportunity to support the Pearl Lagoon Seafood Fishermen’s Cooperative todevelop into a more entrepreneurial organization with a board of directors comprised ofrepresentatives from amongst the individual fishermen. This organization could providesupport to its member fishermen in the provision of supplies and capital for boat andequipment repair and upgrading, and could benefit from the construction of ice makingfacilities and basic processing infrastructure, so that for local craft fishermen can have optionsbeyond simply selling to the large fishing companies. Eventually, this organization couldprovide credit to fishermen. Individual fishermen and/or fishermen’s organizations inMarshall Point and Orinoco will also benefit from collaboration with their colleagues in PearlLagoon. Local leader George Howard has a vision of strengthening the organization as arallying point for basin fishermen. One of the principal challenges involved in supporting thisgroup is the organization of individuals who are prepared to work towards the establishmentof a privately run enterprise.Key activities will include working closely with the Seafood Fishermen’s Cooperative inPearl Lagoon, as well as incipient fishing groups in Marshall Point and Orinoco to provideinstitutional strengthening, and establish the means to manage credit to repair and upgradeboats and gear. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 83. PAGE 725.3.5 Implementation Plan for Pearl LagoonImplementation Considerations o To avoid losing momentum created by this assessment, the IDB and its representatives should endeavor to establish a means of maintaining constant communications and consultations with Pearl Lagoon participants; o It is important to continue to foster relationships established between Pearl Lagoon productive leaders and fishermen, and their counterparts in Orinoco and Marshall Point, to solidify relationships for institutional/group collaboration; o Need to support incipient women’s agricultural organization and artisanal fishermen’s co-operative to provide strong foundation for micro-regional prototypes; o Need to establish integrated project implementation headquarters or liaison in Pearl Lagoon as home base for Agricultural Extension Worker and individual project coordinators, including to maintain coordinate ongoing communications and information sharing with outlying communities of Marshall Point and Orinoco, to coordinate project activities locally, and to maintain communications with Bluefields and Managua; o IDB requirements of 10% community in-kind contribution will likely have to be reflected in provision of land/space for project activities, and labor on the part of Pearl Lagoon participants. The exact nature of this contribution will have to be established as early as possible to ensure that participants in the community are amenable and prepared to offer a suitable contributions to abide by IDB funding policies;Action Steps o Arrange meeting with Pearl Lagoon Mayor Gilbert Downs to confirm support and participation of Pearl Lagoon Municipality; o Arrange meeting between IDB representative, George Howard of Fishermen’s Co- operative, Women’s Agricultural Group leader Juana Howard, BICU professor and local resident Karl Tinkham, Marcelino Chan of Marshall Point/Orinoco and other key community representatives to confirm volition of community groups in Pearl Lagoon to receive support and provide leadership for Pearl Lagoon basin micro-regional initiatives; o Clarify in-kind contribution requirements for IDB support, and reaffirm the volition and capacity of participants in Pearl Lagoon to meet requirements; o Arrange to present project initiatives to RAAS Regional Planning Commission; o Solidify institutional collaboration with BICU, URACCAN, MAG-FOR, ADPESCA and MARENA through information sharing workshop in Bluefields; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 84. PAGE 735.3.6 Implementation Plan for OrinocoImplementation Considerations o Bank representatives should reaffirm the volition of Orinoco fishermen, farmers and women’s cooperative members to collaborate with colleagues in Pearl Lagoon and Marshall Point; o Orinoco participants will likely be challenged to meet IDB requirements of 10% community in-kind contribution. This contribution will likely have be calculated through land, space in homes and/or boats and equipment for project activities, and the labor of Orinoco participants. The exact nature of this contribution will have to be established as early as possible to ensure that participants in the community are amenable and prepared to offer a suitable contributions to abide by IDB funding policies;Action Steps o Arrange meeting to between Bank representatives and Orinoco community leaders to confirm interest and participation of community groups and individuals in collaboration with Pearl Lagoon basin micro-regional initiatives; o Clarify in-kind contribution requirements for IDB support, and reaffirm the volition and capacity of participants in Orinoco to meet requirements; o Though Rural Electrification support to Orinoco has been included as a Tier Two Prototype in this assessment, it may behoove the Bank to arrange meeting with Luis Mairena of RAAS Regional Planning Commission and Harold Somarriba of the World Bank/CNE to clarify the Regional Government’s intention to provide electrification support to Orinoco, and discuss opportunities for collaboration with World Bank/CNE initiative in Orinoco;5.3.7 Implementation Plan for Marshall PointImplementation Considerations o To maintain the dialogue initiated by the consulting team with Marshall Point residents, the IDB establish a means of maintaining frequent communications and consultations with Marshall Point, utilizing Pearl Lagoon as a hub for information sharing, and re-affirm the volition of Marshall Point fishermen and farmers to collaborate with colleagues in Pearl Lagoon and Orinoco on micro-regional prototypes; o As with Orinoco participants, Marshall Point producers and fishermen may be hard- pressed to meet IDB/IDR requirements of 10% community in-kind contribution. A formula may have to be developed wherein other variables are considered as the community’s contribution, and the Bank would be advised to confirm the capacity of Marshall Point participants to meet the terms of that formula; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 85. PAGE 74Action Steps o Arrange meeting between IDB representative and Marshall Point leaders Alicia Cayaso, Elvita Moses, Hernacio Casildo and Marcelino Chan to confirm volition of community groups in Marshall Point to receive support and collaborate in Pearl Lagoon basin micro-regional initiatives; o Clarify in-kind contribution requirements for IDB support, and reaffirm the volition and capacity of Marshall Point participants to meet requirements;5.4 Corn Island5.4.1 Community SummaryIt is estimated that nine out of ten residents of the Corn Islands (Islas de Mais) directly orindirectly derive their livelihood from the fishing industry, while tourism is still a relativelynascent generator of employment.There is concern in the community around the island’s near total dependence uponimportation of goods and services – especially agricultural products – as well as the lack offacilities to store and transport products to markets, the lack of commercial links andinformation about existing markets for producers. There are also concerns around increasingpopulation density, solid waste management, and a lack of economic diversification on theisland.Due to over-fishing of shrimp and lobster by industrial fishing boats and the gradual reductionin family incomes due to lower stocks, local authorities and individuals are interested indiversifying the islands’ economic base with more sustainable enterprises such as: thereactivation of local crops (coconut, agape, fruit trees), support to small-scale tourisminitiatives, and upgrading of the local artisan fishing fleet through two fishermen’sorganizations on the island.5.4.2 Project Outlines - Corn IslandAgricultural Rehabilitation Program for Corn IslandAt present, most non-seafood perishables are imported to the island, and costs are rising whilefamily incomes are dropping. Before Hurricane Joan in 1988, the main economic activity onthe island was the production of coconut, and most of the available productive land on thelarge island was devoted to this crop. While most plantations where razed by the hurricane, orabandoned for the promise of lobster fishing, patches of coconut remain that could bereactivated for profitable production. The areas could also be planted with other locally grownfruits such as noni (agape), mangoes, and fruit trees. There is a high demand in the regionalmarket as well as the local tourist market for these products.An incipient Creole grower’s organization on the island called the Corn Island CocoterosAssociation is attempting to revitalize and rehabilitate the agriculture industry of the island.The 26 members of the Association aim to enrich the parcels of privately-owned land wherethere are currently some coconuts and fruit trees being grown. They have recognized theopportunity to partner with a local association of coconut growers in Bluefields, who haveaccess to a coconut press with capacity to manage 750 hectares worth of coconuts. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 86. PAGE 75Productive technologies on the island must be improved in order to increase yields and topreserve local ecology. The initiative would include the formalization and consolidation of thegrowers’ organization, the undertaking of soil capacity analyses including field tests on cropproduction techniques, the provision of improved seed, and the design and delivery oftechnical training workshops with the leadership of the Corn Island Agricultural ExtensionWorker. The prototype also contemplates a study of regional, national and internationalmarket potential including specifics on packaging, presentation and handling of products, aswell as an assessment of commercial transportation linkages between Corn Island andBluefields, Rama and other principal markets identified. Market information would bedistributed directly to the growers.Development of Commercial Partnerships between Canadian Indigenous Organizationsand Miskito Fishermen on Corn IslandOn Corn Island, the majority of craft fishermen fish with small boats and lobster pots, and selltheir catch to one of the nine “acopios” or storage / buying stations on the island, which inturn sell the lobsters to one of the two larger private companies with processing and storagecapacit y. The island’s Miskito fishermen have their own small acopio, which is supported bythe private company CAF (Central American Fisheries), but they lack resources to repair andupgrade their boats and gear. As a result, many Miskito fishermen resort to diving forlobsters using antiquated scuba gear and without training in safe and proper diving practices –sometimes to depths in excess of 100 feet. As a result, many fishermen have suffered thegrave and often-fatal effects of decompression sickness.The fishermen themselves recognize that the practice is very dangerous, but they feel theyhave few alternatives as other commercial opportunities are extremely limited, and fewMiskito own land on the island. The Association of Miskito Fishermen of Corn Island(APAM) represents 120 island fishermen, and is seeking support for organizationaldevelopment & capacity building of their fleet, in the interest of shifting their members awayfrom the environmentally damaging practice of diving. Financial support could be providedto APAM members for the upgrading and repair of fishing equipment (boats, motors, nets, iceboxes, others), and a feasibility study conducted on the upgrading of storage facilities and theconstruction of an ice plant or small-scale processing infrastructure.APAM leaders also wish to pursue development of a partnership with a Canadian Indigenouslobster fishing organization that would be able to provide partnership and technical expertiseto the Association and its members. While this has been stimulated by the current project thepartnership is being pursued as a stand-alone initiative.Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing Fleet Through the Corn Island Artisanal Fishermen’sUnionAs mentioned above, lobster and shrimp catches in the fishing grounds around Corn Islandhave been steadily decreasing year after year, resulting in drastic decreases in family incomefor Creole fishermen. This has in turn exacerbated tensions between the various ethnic groupscompeting for land and jobs on the island. Creole fishermen received support from OxfamCanada and the Canadian government in the development of the Corn Island ArtisanalFishermen’s Union (UPACIN) after the hurricane in 1988. This financial support allowed theUnion to construct a warehouse store in the Long Bay area of Greater Corn Island, and toprovide members with credit to purchase boats, motors, equipment and gear. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 87. PAGE 76At the time, the Union boasted a membership of 200 fishermen. Since then, UPACIN hasbeen unsuccessful at recouping nearly 1.7 million córdobas (roughly $110,000) in credit andsupplies, since many fishermen deemed the credit a post-hurricane donation and wereunwilling to repay the loans. The Union has lost over 80% of its membership in recent years,and is attempting to renew itself with new policies and services. The store which was builtwith Canadian aid has excellent potential for growth, and offers discounted prices to membersas well as non- members, representing a viable alternative to the private fishing companiesgenerally onerous credit policies to individual fishermen and acopiadores.This initiative would involve a review of UPACIN’s credit policies and past credit agreementswith members to assess the potential for recouping accounts receivable, while working withUnion leadership to upgrade credit policies and revive membership. Financial support couldbe provided to members for the upgrading and repair of fishing equipment (boats, motors,nets, ice boxes, others), and the capacity of the small fishing plant owned by the Union couldbe augmented through a feasibility study on the installation of an ice- making machine andprocessing equipment.Note to Reader: The preceding prototypes are included in this assessment as stand-aloneprototypes with the following explanation and caveats for the Bank. It was originallycontemplated that both groups would fall under the auspices of one prototype encompassingglobal support to craft fishermen on the island through a fisheries commission or board. Itwas made clear to the consultants that the wishes of the two groups were to work individually,as they do not have a history of collaboration and there is a lack of goodwill between them.UPACIN and APAM are at different stages of organizational development, and receivedifferent levels of support from local government.While we are not convinced that these individual prototypes represent the best way to go –given the inherent duplication, overhead costs and expenses, etc. that could be avoided byconsolidating the prototypes – the lack of willingness of stakeholders and the inherentinstitutional weaknesses of both groups suggest that this approach may be the most viable atpresent. The consultants strongly recommend that these issues be given due considerationbefore these initiatives are launched.5.4.3 Implementation PlanImplementation Considerations o IDB and its representatives should establish ongoing communications with Corn Island participants directly or through the Municipality to advise and update on the status of negotiations around the prototypes; o As an incipient organization, The Corn Island Cocoteros Association will need a great deal of early support in organizational development; o Need to establish integrated project implementation headquarters or liaison on Greater Corn Island, likely with the strong support and collaboration of the Municipality, including strong local leadership to maintain coordinate ongoing communications and information sharing, to coordinate project activities locally, and to maintain communications with Bluefields and Managua; o Due to the extreme lack of financial resources and credit, IDB requirements of 10% community contribution may have to take the form of land & office space usage, ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 88. PAGE 77 fishing boats and equipment for project activities, as well as labor on the part of Corn Island participants. The exact nature of this contribution will have to be established as early as possible to ensure that participants on the island are amenable and prepared to offer a suitable contributions to abid e by IDB funding policies; o As mentioned above, there is a lack of goodwill between the two fishermen’s organizations on the island, which is a principal reason for the separate prototypes. Major economies of scale and synergies are to be found by rolling the two prototypes together, but at present that seems unlikely without some kind of mediation or bridge building between the two organizations.Action Steps o Arrange meeting with Corn Island Mayor Roberto Ow and Vice-Mayor Dr. David Somarriba to confirm support, participation and leadership of Corn Island Municipality; o Arrange meeting between IDB representative, Eugenio Dixon of UPACIN, Cocoteros Association Leader Ronald Chensam, BICU professor Rene Cassels, Lorraine Bodden of the Movimiento Comunal de Corn Island, Denis Jackson of APAM and Norma Dixon of the Movimiento por la Dignidad y Desarrollo de Corn Island, to update them on the status of the IDB/IDR process, and re-affirm the volition of the various groups to participate; o Clarify in-kind contributio n requirements for IDB/IDR support, and affirm the capacity of Corn Island participants to meet requirements; o Arrange to present Corn Island project initiatives to RAAS Regional Planning Commission – ideally at same time as Pearl Lagoon initiatives are being put forward; o Solidify institutional collaboration with BICU, MAG-FOR and ADPESCA through information sharing workshop in Bluefields, perhaps in conjunction with similar meeting around Pearl Island initiatives; o Develop a strategy for proceeding with (or decide to abandon) the fishing projects, given the relationship issues that exist.5.5 Wasakin5.5.1 Community SummaryThe community of Wasakin is less than 8 miles from the city of Mina La Rosita in the centerof the former mining heartland of Northeastern Nicaragua in the RAAN. Alternately knownas Wasaquin or Wasa King, the community is recognized as the capital of Sumo culture in thecountry. The Banbana River which runs alongside the community is navigable to the Atlanticcoast, and road access to the main highway linking Managua and Puerto Cabezas is generallygood. Along the river, the soil is deep with a high sand content, good humus percentage andmoderately acidic; these soils are very fertile and productive for both agriculture andhardwood forest production.Historically, Wasakin residents were prolific farmers, growing cassava, yams, and maizealong the river after winter floods had receded, as well as bananas and plantains that wereplanted year-round back from the riverbank. Years of industrial mining upriver has left a ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 89. PAGE 78legacy of impurities in the river – the community’s principal source of water – and Wasakinresidents suffer from intestinal diseases and other effects of the lack of potable water.Wasakin residents feel that they have received little attention and support from governments –a pattern that many community leaders are attempting to break with the formation of aregional development organization. Donor agencies and development organizations haveexpressed a great deal of interest in Wasakin because of its potential for both agriculturaldevelopment and agro- forestry exploitation. Residents are interested in participating in acommunity-driven, integrated and well supported development initiative. To take advantageof the large tracts of communally- held forest and agricultural land, community leaders want tofocus on activities related to agricultural and cattle production, and agro forestry initiatives.The main crops recognized by the community included basic grains (corn, beans, rice), realpalm for use of leaves to built local roofs, and American palm for oil extraction. Collectionand processing of forest products (teas, flowers, aromatic woods, others) is another alternativewith excellent potential in the region. Hydroelectric energy production using a water fall inthe Bambana river located about 5 kilometers from the community is also a key point ofinterest in the development landscape, especially for the World Bank.5.5.2 Project Outlines - WasakinWasakin Agricultural Support ProjectResidents of Wasakin are traditional producers of basic grain and root crops, and thecommunity has a long tradition of farming, low-intensity forestry and hunting/gathering.Despite the availability of huge tracts of agricultural land, production techniques employedare rudimentary in the extreme, crop yields are extremely low and the community utilizesonly small patches along the riverbank to grow mainly food crops for self-consumption. Allland in Wasakin is communally owned and managed, with each family managing a small plot.The community has expressed a great deal of interest in launching a well-supported integratedagricultural initiative to take advantage of the rich growing area, and the central location ofthe community as a hub of agricultural development.Working in conjunction with the Wasakin Agricultural Extension Worker, this initiativewould see the establishment of a small project implementation office in nearby Rosita,utilizing office space either of the Municipality, or perhaps of one of the NGOs with availablespace. Given that Wasakin lacks electrical power and phone service, CB radio links will beestablished between the community and the office to provide constant communication andfollow-up. An agricultural committee will be established in the community as the main pointof contact for support, communications, training, marketing information and storage andcommercialization of agricultural products through this initiative.Soil capacity analyses will be undertaken, including field tests on crop productiontechnologies, with a particular focus on basic grain crops (black beans, rice, corn), root crops(quequisque, cassava, dashin), bananas, cacao, chile peppers, ginger and achiote. Nurseriesfor the development of improved seed will be established, and on-site workshops will bedelivered in soil preparation and planting techniques, crop rotation, irrigation and soilmanagement, as well as harvesting techniques and post-harvest management.A critical aspect of this initiative is an analysis of local, regional and national market potentialfor the agricultural products identified in soil analysis, including specifics on storage andcommercial transportation of products from Wasakin to Rosita, Managua, Puerto Cabezas and ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 90. PAGE 79other principal markets. Market information will be disseminated directly to Wasakin farmersthrough the agricultural development committee. If feasible, confirmation and certification oforganic produce will be sought through the appropriate national and/or international bodies,such as the Asociación Nicaraguense de Productores y Exportadores de Productos noTradicionales (APENN).Wasakin Agro Forestry DevelopmentThe Sumo residents of Wasakin are traditional forest people, and a good portion of family andcommunity income is derived from forest product gathering. It is predicted that vast forestryresources exist in the immediate area, including a variety of hardwoods and ‘precious’ woods,as well as raw material with potential use in medicines, essences and other products. In recentyears, however, local forest and wildlife resources have been decreasing and degrading as aresult of unmanaged harvesting, incursions from non-resident settlers and loggers, and lack ofeducation in forestry management techniques.This initiative is focused around the development of a sustainable plan to increase andimprove the harvesting, management and reforestation of such resources, cataloguing andpreserving what currently exists while sustainably increasing harvesting of diversifiedproducts with recognized export market potential. Many of the activities described for thisprototype reflect close collaboration and cost sharing with the agricultural developmentinitiative described above. It is erroneous to consider agricultural and agro- forestrydevelopment to be one in the same, though project infrastructure can easily be shared betweenthe two initiatives to take advantage of economies of scale and natural synergies.An agro- forestry development committee will be established in the community as the mainpoint of contact for support, communications, training, marketing information and storage andcommercialization of agricultural products, as well as institutional collaboration throughinitiatives such as POSAF II. A comprehensive diagnostic/inventory of existing agro- forestryresources in area around Wasakin will be created with the active participation of theAgricultural Extension Worker, local foresters and gatherers. A market analysis for agro-forestry products identified in the diagnostic will be launched, including specifics on value-added processing, storage, packaging and commercial transportation of products fromWasakin to Rosita, Managua, and other principal markets. This information will bedisseminated directly to Wasakin foresters and gatherers through Agro-Forestry DevelopmentCommittee.Training workshops in reforestation, harvesting techniques and post harvest management willbe developed and delivered by the AEW with institutional support from a variety oforganizations. Nurseries will be established for the cultivation of seeds, seedlings andsaplings, and field tests on low- impact forest production and gathering technologies will becontemplated. Reforestation and silviculture activities will be launched in areas most affectedby deforestation, and harvesting licenses sought from MAG-FOR, before actual harvestingactivity is undertaken.Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-ForestryProducts in WasakinPost-harvest losses amongst farmers in the Wasakin area are very high, and forestry extractionpractices are inefficient and provide no value-added to the community, meaning residents tendto receive low prices for their products. Local farmers and forest gatherers do not have proper ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 91. PAGE 80facilities to store, preserve and process products, particularly agricultural ones, and manyflowers, fruits and leaves from the forest that are very delicate and tend to decay rapidly. Thislack of infrastructure in combination with the lack of knowledge around processing is madeworse by the dearth of commercialization channels for all products from the area. Theresultant outcome is that local producers tend to cultivate very small areas and extract smallamounts of products from the forest. The lack of commercialization experience also meansthat the quality of the products may not be enough to meet the requirements of the exportmarket. Residents recognize that greater value from their cultivation and harvesting activitiescan be accrued through storage and value-added processing, and that this requires financialcommitment from partners and donors for the construction and maintenance of facilities,extensive training, and access to information.Community leaders and producers i tend to work collectively with support and technical nassistance to identify value-added products with strong market potential, and whoseprocessing can be done on an artisanal level at the outset, in the hope of attracting theresources and partnership to eventually develop larger scale production and storage facilities.Presently, there is no formal women’s organization in the community, but it is widelyrecognized that a community value-added processing initiative would be led by women, andthat a critical first step would be the formalization of a women’s organization to provideleadership.This initiative would build upon the progress and momentum of the Agricultural Support andAgro Forestry Development Projects described above, utilizing infrastructure (office, projectmanagement, institutional support) established through the other two initiatives. Tests wouldbe conducted on small-scale artisan processing technologies for local products, and if feasible,facilities including bodegas for storing agr icultural products, grain silo(s) and rice mill will beconstructed. Technical assistance and financing for purchase of equipment and tools will beprovided to artisan processors in areas such as furniture construction, drying and packaging ofherbs and flowers, timber milling, with a vision to the eventual construction of larger-scalecommunity-run processing facilities.5.5.3 Implementation PlanImplementation Considerations o Ongoing communications and consultations with Wasakin participants should be maintained; o Project implementation headquarters for all three prototypes will need to be established in Mina La Rosita, given that Wasakin lacks sufficient infrastructure and electricity to house an office at present; o Wasakin is an impoverished community, and has no access to capital or credit. IDB/IDR requirements for in-kind contribution will have to be reflected in the provision of land for project activities, and labor on the part of Wasakin participants. The exact nature of this contribution will have to be established as early as possible to ensure that participants in the community are amenable and prepared to offer a suitable contributions to abide by IDB funding policies; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 92. PAGE 81Action Steps o A meeting should be arranged with Rosita Mayor Roger Acevedo Mayorga to confirm support and participation of Rosita Municipality in road maintenance, and support for Wasakin’s candidacy for Phase II of World Bank/CNE Rural Electrification Initiative (see Prototypes Requiring Further Development in the Appendices), and general support to IDB in implementation of prototypes; o A meeting between IDB representative, REPROMAB Coordinator Neddy Ismael Johnson, Consejal Luis Beltrán Alfaro, Alma Nivia Alfaro and other key community representatives to confirm volition of community groups in Wasakin to receive support and work with project collaborators; o Clarify in-kind contribution requirements for IDB support, and establish the volition and capacity of participants in Wasakin to meet requirements; o Arrange meeting with Centuriano Knight of the RAAN Regional Government and Harold Somarriba of the World Bank/CNE to clarify the potential for collaboration around rural electrification support to Wasakin; o Arrange to present project initiatives to RAAN Planning Commission; o Solidify institutional collaboration with URACCAN, MAG-FOR and MARENA’s POSAF II initiative through information sharing workshop in Puerto Cabezas;5.6 Francia Sirpi5.6.1 Community SummaryFrancia Sirpi is the largest of 15 Miskito communities in the Tasba Raya region of thenorthern-central RAAN, bridging the Waspam and Puerto Cabezas Municipalities. It is themost prominent community in the region due to its central location to various satellitecommunities in the area, its good road access to the markets of Puerto Cabezas and Waspam,and its larger population base.The Tasba Raya region is widely considered to offer some of the most fertile soils and idealclimactic conditions for agricultural development along the coast. The community does notlive under the threat of flooding, and the growing conditions are good for a variety ofagricultural products, offering potential for a sustainable agricultural development initiative.The presence of seven communities in very close proximity (within 50 km2 ) suggestspotential for large-scale agricultural production with a vision to eventual export capacity. Arecent agricultural study was undertaken by the Government of Nicaragua to support thisclaim. One of the principle challenges in Francia Sirpi is the lack of communityinfrastructure. There is currently no consistent supply of electricity, access to potable water ispoor, and there are no communications or transportation available in the community.The Corredor Biológico del Atlántico (CBA) has identified Francia Sirpi as one of its prioritycommunities within Block 17 of the Waspam / Rio Coco Municipality. The community hasalso been selected as a Phase I community under the World Bank’s Rural ElectrificationInitiative. MARENA’s POSAF II would be well suited to support regional agro- forestrydevelopment, and is looking to this assessment for guidance on community selection. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 93. PAGE 82The abundance of forest and agricultural land suggests that the community focus its economicdevelopment on activities related to agricultural production, cattle raising, and agro forestryexploitation. The main crops produced locally are rice, beans, corn, cassava, citric fruits andcoconut. The community also sees an excellent alternative in the collection and processing offorest products (herbs, flowers, aromatic woods, others). They want to promote theestablishment of small private enterprises such as a bakery, general store and tailor shop, aswell as the construction of storage facilities for agricultural and agro- forestry products.5.6.2 Project Outlines - Francia SirpiFrancia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agricultural Support ProjectFrancia Sirpi residents have a tradition of farming, low-intensity forestry, hunting/gatheringand long-range cattle ranching. Farmers in the community produce primarily basic grains,and despite the availability of land, production techniques are rudimentary, yields are low andpost-harvest losses are high. Most farmers who have sufficient crops to sell at market areforced to either rent a vehicle to transport the crops, which is prohibitively expensive. Otherssimply carry as much as they can on their backs for the dozens of mile walk to market.All land in Francia Sirpi is communally owned and managed, and each family manages asmall plot. The community is interested in undertaking a supported agricultural developmentinitiative which would see the establishment of a small project implementation office inWaspam to house an a project implementation team including the Francia Sirpi AgriculturalExtension Worker. An agricultural development committee will be convened in thecommunity as the main point of contact for support, communications, training, marketinginformation and storage and commercialization of agricultural products through this initiative.Soil capacity analyses will be completed with the active participation of the AEW, includingfield tests on crop production technologies, with a particular focus on basic grains, root crops,bananas, cacao, chile peppers and ginger. Nurseries for the development of improved seedwill be established, and on-site workshops will be delivered in soil preparation and plantingtechniques, crop rotation, irrigation and soil management, as well as harvesting techniquesand post-harvest management.This prototype will also include study of local, regional and national market potential for theagricultural products identified in the soil analysis, including specifics on storage andcommercial transportation of products from Francia Sirpi to Waspam and Puerto Cabezas andother principal markets. Market information will be disseminated directly to Francia Sirpifarmers through the Agricultural Development Committee with support of the AEW. Iffeasible, confirmation and certification of organic produce will be sought through theappropriate national and/or international bodies, such as the Asociación Nicaraguense deProductores y Exportadores de Productos no Tradicionales (APENN).Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agro Forestry DevelopmentFrancia Sirpi’s Miskito residents are traditional farmers, foresters, and hunter-gatherers.Those traditions continue to this day in the Tasba Raya area, which are not traditional landsfor the Miskito, but rather are lands to which they were relocated first in the late 1960s and1970s, then again in the 1990s after the conclusion of the war. A reasonable portion of familyand community income is derived from forestry activities, and it is predicted that agro-forestry resources exist in the immediate area surrounding the community, including a variety ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 94. PAGE 83of hardwood species and raw material with potential use in medicines, essences and otherproducts. Recently, these resources have been subject to indiscriminate and uncheckedlogging, culling and degradation as non-resident settlers and loggers have made inroads intothe area. The lack of education in forestry management techniques and support forreforestation is a major challenge to area residents.Francia Sirpi represents an excellent pilot community for the development of a plan toincrease and improve the harvesting, management and renewal of forestry resources;cataloguing and preserving what is currently available while sustainably increasing harvestingof diversified forest products with recognized export market potential. Many of the activitiesdescribed for this prototype reflect close collaboration and cost sharing with the agriculturaldevelopment initiative described above.An agro- forestry development committee will be established in the community as the mainpoint of contact for support, communications, training, marketing information and storage andcommercialization of agricultural products, as well as institutional collaboration throughinitiatives such as POSAF II. A comprehensive diagnostic/inventory of existing agro- forestryresources in the Tasba Raya region will be created with the active participation of theAgricultural Extension Worker, local foresters and gatherers. A market analysis for agro-forestry products identified in the diagnostic will be launched, including specifics on value-added processing, storage, packaging and commercial transportation of products from FranciaSirpi to Waspam, Puerto Cabezas and other principal markets. This information will bedisseminated directly to Francia Sirpi foresters and gatherers through Agro-ForestryDevelopment Committee.Training workshops in reforestation, harvesting techniques and post harvest management willbe developed and delivered by the AEW with institutional support from a variety oforganizations. Nurseries will be established for the cultivation of seeds, seedlings andsaplings, and field tests on low- impact forest production and gathering technologies will becontemplated. Reforestation and silviculture activities will be launched in areas most affectedby deforestation, and harvesting licenses sought from MAG-FOR, before actual harvestingactivity is undertaken.Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-ForestryProducts in Francia SirpiPost-harvest losses amongst Francia Sirpi farmers tend to be high, and forestry extractionpractices are inefficient and provide little or no value-added to the community, whilegenerating very low prices for their products. Local farmers and forest gatherers do not haveproper facilities to store, preserve and process products, particularly agricultural ones, andmany flowers, fruits and leaves from the forest that are very delicate and tend to decayrapidly.This lack of infrastructure in combination with the lack of knowledge around processing isexacerbated by the lack of consistent transport and commercialization channels for theirproducts. For all of these reasons, local producers tend to cultivate very small areas and smallamount of products from the forest. This lack of infrastructure in combination with the lack ofknowledge around processing is exacerbated by the dearth of commercialization channels fortheir products. As a result, local producers tend to cultivate very small areas and extract smallamounts of products from the forest. The lack of commercialization experience also meansthat the quality of the products may not be enough to meet the requirements of the export ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 95. PAGE 84market. Residents recognize that greater value from their cultivation and harvesting activitiescan be accrued through storage and value-added processing, and that this requires financialcommitment from partners and donors for the construction and maintenance of facilities,extensive training, and access to information.Community leaders and producers intend to work collectively with support and technicalassistance to identify value-added products with strong market potential, and whoseprocessing can be done on an artisanal level at the outset, in the hope of attracting theresources and partnership to eventually develop larger scale production and storage facilities.Presently, there is no formal women’s organization in the community, but it is widelyrecognized that a community value-added processing initiative would be led by women, andthat a critical first step would be the formalizatio n of a women’s organization to provideleadership.This initiative would build upon the progress and momentum of the Francia Sirpi AgriculturalSupport and Agro Forestry Development Projects described above, utilizing infrastructure(office, project manage ment, institutional support) established through the other twoinitiatives. Tests would be conducted on small-scale artisan processing technologies for localproducts, and the feasibility of construction of crop storage facilities, grain silo(s) or a ricemill will be established. Technical assistance and financing for purchase of equipment andtools will be provided to artisan processors in areas such as furniture construction, drying andpackaging of herbs and flowers, timber milling, with a vision to the eventual construction oflarger-scale community-run processing facilities.5.6.3 Implementation PlanImplementation Considerations o To avoid losing momentum created by this assessment in Francia Sirpi, efforts should be made to establish a means of communications and consultations with Francia Sirpi participants, in order to update them on the status of the IDB/IDR initiative; o A project implementation office for Project Coordinators and Agricultural Extension Workers will need to be established in Waspam – perhaps in the Municipal offices – due to the lack of electricity in Francia Sirpi; o IDB requirements of 10% community in-kind contribution will likely have to be reflected in provision of land for nurseries and productive technology test plots, space for project activities, and labor on the part of Francia Sirpi participants. The exact nature of this contribution will have to be established as early as possible to ensure that participants in the community are amenable and prepared to offer a suitable contributions to abide by IDB funding policies;Action Steps o A meeting should be arranged as early as possible with local leaders Arsenio Vanegas, Alistan Thomas Felipe, Amador Francis David, Gaspar Chow Thompson, Israel Lentch García and other key community representatives to affirm the interest of Francia Sirpi residents to participate in the IDR/IDB initiative; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 96. PAGE 85 o Community in-kind contribution requirements for IDB/IDR support should be confirmed and explained to Francia Sirpi participants, so that their capacity to meet requirements can be established; o A meeting with Waspam Mayor José Osorno should be convened to confirm support and participation of the Municipality in road maintenance, the provision of office space and general support to IDB in implementation of prototypes; o RAAN Regional Government representative Centuriano Knight and the RAAN Planning Commission should be presented with project initiatives for Francia Sirpi, with the goal of confirming the Regional Government’s support for same; o Institutional collaboration with URACCAN, MAG-FOR and INTA should be confirmed through information sharing workshop in Waspam or Puerto Cabezas;5.7 Project Integration FrameworkThere are significant inter-project synergies to be considered within each of the selectedcommunities and micro-regions. Areas such as equipment purchase and use, office space, andoverhead represent areas in which the Bank will be able to realize economies of scale andscope by implementing pilot projects in concert with one another.To illustrate this, we have developed the following framework for project integration. Theexample we cite is the inter-project synergies accruing to the Pearl Lagoon Agriculturalinitiatives. In the interest of avoiding repetition in this assessment, we have not re-created theframework for the other communities, as there are numerous similarities between them. Theimpact of inter-project synergies and the inherent benefits of an integrated suite of pilotinitiatives are also referenced in budget considerations in the Introduction to the ProjectPrototypes in the following section. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 97. PAGE 865.7.1 Pearl Lagoon Basin Agricultural Initiatives Inter-Project Coordination Framework YEAR AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS1 o Engagement of Project Officer (shared o Review of processing and storage o Engagement of four (4) Agriculture between production and processing technologies (informed/focused by Extension Officers project.) information from market study and soil o Engagement of half-time Agricultural capacity analysis); o Market study and development of strategic Extension Coordinator based out of marketing plan o Organizational development activities Bluefields. (ongoing throughout both projects) o Soil capacity analysis o Ongoing coordination between o Development of a draft agricultural Agricultural Extension Officers and o Organizational development activities processing and storage plan for the Pearl sharing of best practices and (ongoing throughout both projects) Lagoon Basin. This plan would likely information. It is expected that there o Community workshops include local (village) level and Basin-wide will be at least 2 seminars each year o Demonstration production projects; (Pearl Lagoon) level initiatives. The plan that would bring together the extension will take account of the current level of officers for information sharing and o Development of detailed plan for year 2 organizational capacity in the region and professional development sessions. provide for organizational development support as required. If appropriate the plan should also include pilot tests. o Testing of findings from above review (if appropriate); o Development of detailed plan for year 22 o Community level production workshops to o Community level processing workshops to o Ongoing disseminate information from production disseminate information from above review workshops and to distribute any required and develop an implementation plan (likely production equipment (on credit); the implementation plan would include pilot initiatives); o Ongoing technical support provided to producer groups and individuals (to be o Pilot projects as identified in provided by Agriculture Extension implementation plan; workers); o Review of pilot projects, including ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 98. PAGE 87 YEAR AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS o Community level workshops to review the community level review, technical review year’s production, share best practices and and market and infrastructure related issues; refine production strategy and approach as o Determination of appropriate organizational required; structure and preparation of financial, o Development of detailed plan for year 3 business, operational and organizational development plans for lead organization(s) (e.g., if the producers decide to form a processing co-op, or evolve existing organizations to assume project ownership) o Development of detailed plan for year 33 o Based on Year 3 plan (expected to be o Based on Year 3 plan. Expected to include o Ongoing similar to Year 2); development and rollout of one or more facilities as determined through the above process; o Development of detailed plan for year 4 including an organizational sustainability plan that will enable ongoing operation of the facilities after completion of current project (funding)4 o Ongoing production on a sustainable basis o Ongoing activities as determined above; o Ongoing ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 99. PAGE 886 P ROJECT P ROTOTYPES6.1 IntroductionThe following project prototypes outline specific interventions in select Afro-Latin andIndigenous communities along the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua that can be supported by theInter-American Development Bank. All 13 prototypes meet the criteria to receive supportthrough the NI-0159 Agricultural Reactivation initiative in partnership with Nicaragua’sInstituto de Desarrollo Rural (IDR), and in some instances through the POSAF II initiative,also supported by the Inter-American Development Bank. The prototypes are based upon theanalyses outlined previously, and reflect the priorities and suggestions of the communitiesthemselves. As referred to within the Community Action Plans in the previous section, theimplementation considerations are critical to the success and sustainability of theseprototypes.The following guidelines were provided to the consulting team in July 2002 by Mr. Hans Gatzand Mr. Jaime Cofre of the Bank’s Managua office, and reflect the parame ters aroundAtlantic coast pilot initiatives for NI-0159. These were taken into account in the developmentof the prototypes: o Up to 8 pilot projects to be considered on Atlantic Coast; o Roughly $2 million total budget over two years for pilots, with potential for increasing budget based upon project success; o Budget allocations of between $100,000 and $400,000 per pilot, with an average of $170,000 per initiative; o Implementation and execution of pilots will go out to competitive bid; o Communities will be expected to meet 90/10 contribution structure;In consideration of these parameters, executing agencies selected under competitive bid mustbe able to provide facilitative monitoring and execution support to projects, which willinclude capacity development at the community level, ongoing communications andfeedback, and the facilitation of inter- institutional collaboration as part of an integrateddevelopment approach.A critical success factor common to all of the following projects is the need to consider in-kind contributions on the part of the communities and organizations. The vast majority ofproponents and potential participants in the following prototypes have no access to credit, andlittle or no monetary capital available to them. The recommendation of the consultants is thatin-kind contributions of land, private buildings, and labor be considered as part of projectfinancing requirements.Throughout our many meetings with community leaders “A major lesson learned is thethey consistently stressed that they were not interested in fundamental need to systematizebeing part of projects led by external, civil society experiences within successfulorganizations. They cited many examples of externally development projects”designed and led projects producing little in the way ofsustainable results as justification for this. While it was Kenneth Foxbeyond the mandate of this assignment to undertake a Director of Agro-Forestrycomprehensive assessment of all earlier projects, we Project, FADCANIC ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 100. PAGE 89recognize that local ownership and enthusiastic local participation will be one of the mostcritical success factors moving forward. We believe that this should be considered by IDR asthey further develop the following project prototypes. Regional civil society organizationshave not been included as potential partners and collaborators within the prototypesthemselves. However, in the interest of providing IDR and IDB with additional information,should they decide to explore other implementation partnerships, we have prepared ananalysis of the institutional capacity and project implementation experience of a variety ofNGOs working in the region. These analyses are listed within Appendix V.Many bilateral development agencies operating along the Atlantic Coast have beeninterviewed by the consultants, and have confirmed their interest in collaborating with theInter-American Development Bank in the Prototypes listed below. A summary of thesebilateral agencies, outlining annual budgets, focus areas and current initiatives is included inAppendix VII. The authors have refrained from attempting to bring this collaboration to thelevel of specific prototypes as we felt that this level of discussion should be left until theprototypes had been thoroughly considered by IDR/IDB and specific implementation planshad been agreed to.The prototypes presented here have been selected from over thirty project concepts that werepresented to the Consulting team and discussed over the course of numerous visits to eachcommunity. Our objective in selecting prototypes was to focus on those that: o Have strong community support; o Would provide benefits directly to Afro-Latin and Indigenous communities/people; o Build upon existing experiences and expertise; o Would be sustainable – e.g., the project benefits would continue long beyond project financing; o Have strong organizational proponents, or were such that it would be relatively straightforward to organize project participants into organizations which could, with appropriate development support, assume ‘ownership’ of the projects; o Would not damage local environments; o Would respect and collaborate with existing organizational and political structures; o Would integrate well with other regional development priorities and objectives; o Would produce results that could be replicated in other areas; and o Would not duplicate efforts of other development agencies in the communities;From the 30+ project ideas we were presented with, we selected roughly 20 for detailedexamination. These were prioritized with 13 being presented as project prototypes forimmediate inclusion in the NI-0159 initiative and the remaining initiatives being presented asPrototype s Requiring Further Development in Appendix IV. The objectives of theselected prototypes coincide with the objectives of Productive Agricultural RehabilitationProgram. An outline of the Community Consultation process that fostered these prototypes,can be found in Appendix II.The prototypes should be considered in concert with the Community Action Plans presentedin the previous section. With the exception of one regional project, the remainder areorganized according to the communities and micro-regions that they will impact. Again, with ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 101. PAGE 90the exception of one Regional project, each prototype is presented in a standard frameworkthat contains the following points: o Proponents; (which organizations and/or individuals we expect to be key stakeholders in the project) o Sectors; (which sector(s) the project focuses on) o Objectives; (lists some of the key social and economic objectives of the prototype) o Beneficiaries; (who would be the key beneficiaries if the project goes ahead) o Project Background and Description; (background information on the situation/project and a short description – additional background information is available in the community profiles and community action plans) o Partners and Collaboration; (lists some potential partners and collaborators) o Metrics (How to Measure Success); o Budget and Financing; (lists total expected budget and any key financing issues) o Market Information; (preliminary information on markets and related information – for many projects the initial stage involves market research and development) o Production Information; (a short discussion on production issues related to the proposed project) o Geographic and Infrastructure Issues; (a short discussion on geographic and infrastructure issues that will affect the project’s success) o Previous Experience; (discussion of any previous related experience of the proponent or other key stakeholders) o Capacity Analysis (Proponent); (some discussion on the current capacity level of the proponent organizations/individuals – this will serve to guide the institutional strengthening aspects of the project) o Major Strengths; (some discussion on the major strengths of the project and its key stakeholders/proponents) o Major Risks and Mitigation; (major risks the project will face and, where possible, mitigation plans and strategies) o Technical Assistance Requirements; (some discussion on the form and level of technical assistance that will be required to implement the project)Our approach to budgeting the cost of the prototypes has taken into account the fact that firmbudget targets and frameworks for the prototypes are still in a somewhat fluid state and willbe finalized in the coming months as detailed plans are developed for the Atlantic Coast. Inorder to provide flexibility to the overall project and to enable the individual prototypes tobetter integrate into an overall budget framework, we have established budget ranges for eachprototype, rather than a fixed budget target. This provides decision makers with a minimumbudget amount, below which we feel the project cannot really be expected to achieve itsobjectives, and a high-end, where there should be sufficient resources to achieve the statedobjectives.The budgets also reflect the integration of the various projects, as discussed in the CommunityAction Plans. The prototypes have been designed to maximize synergies at the community ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 102. PAGE 91level and across all of the projects in the region. It is to be expected that delaying oreliminating one of the prototypes will add costs to the budget for the others within thatcommunity, or in the case of the regional project, to all of the projects. This is another reasonfor providing budget ranges – it allows decision makers significant budgetary latitude, withoutthe necessity of eliminating any of the prototypes.The following Next Steps are common to each of the prototypes, and represent a startingpoint for the Bank to initiate the formal process of launching each of the projects. Specificsuggestions and recommendations to the Bank are presented in Section 7. o Review of project prototypes by IDB/IDR officials; o Communication with local stakeholders to advise them of project development path; o Preparation of Detailed Terms of Reference and finalization of a transparent tendering process o Engage a project executing agency through a transparent tendering process; o Begin project execution.Many of the prototypes are closely related and will have some areas of overlap requiringcoordination. These have been outlined in Prototype Coordination Frameworks wherenecessary. A comprehensive summary framework listing all of the projects and key elementsis presented in Subsection 6.7. The following sub-sections present the 13 project prototypes.6.2 Atlantic Coast RegionAgricultural development represents a significant opportunity for all of the pilot communities.However, to fully develop the potential requires ongoing access to professional agricultureextension services in order to undertake necessary research and provide advice, training andsupport during the initial years of cultivating new/improved crops and implementingimproved harvesting, processing and storage procedures. The provision of these services canbe done much more efficiently under a separate project that would provide one agricultureextension officer to each of the four regions, with the service coordinated from a centrallocation to maximize synergies, economies of scale, access to professional support anddevelopment, and shared learning. This regional project is presented below.6.2.1 Agricultural Extension Services for Atlantic CoastPROPONENTS This region-wide initiative reflects the need for sustainable support and technical assistance in agricultural development along the coast.SECTORS AgricultureOBJECTIVES To provide direct and ongoing support to the six pilot communities involved in the agricultural rehabilitation, agro-forestry development and agricultural processing initiatives, in the development and dissemination of agricultural information, provision of training and technical assistance, and inter-project coordination for a three to four year pilot initiative.B ENEFICIARIES o Agricultural producers in the six pilot communities; o Other agriculture producers in RAAS and RAAN who will benefit from lessons learned and the future dissemination of project results; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 103. PAGE 92PROJECT In order to provide ongoing, direct support to agricultural rehabilitation andB ACKGROUND AND processing initiatives in the six pilot communities, four full-time AgricultureDESCRIPTION Extension Workers (AEW) would be coordinated through a central organization such as BICU, URACCAN or MAG-FOR in Bluefields. These AEWs would work full time in the regions (Corn Island, Pearl Lagoon Basin, Wasakin, Francia Sirpi and would be required to spend considerable time in the communities working directly with individual producers and community based producer groups. This initiative complements the Agricultural Reactivation, Agro-Forestry Development and Small-Scale Agricultural Processing initiatives described below, providing efficiencies and integration at the community level. The AEWs will have professional support and network available through one of the regional Universities, and/or MAG-FOR. In order to provide value-added to the Agro-Forestry Development prototypes in the RAAN, the ideal candidates would have experience in forestry management as well. For coordination purposes, a half-time Agricultural Extension Coordinator would be contracted and based out of Bluefields to provide management support and coordination to AEWs for organization of training workshops, liaison with stakeholders, provision of improved seed and other specific duties. It is expected that there would be two or three professional development seminars per year where all of the AEWs would attend in order to share experiences and results and to further their professional development. While some parts of the seminars would be focused specifically on the management of this project (e.g., planning, reporting frameworks, etc.) we expect that some of the more general professional development aspects might be made available to a wider range of agriculture experts in the region, thus enhancing the overall level of agricultural expertise in the region. Four extension officers on 3-4 year contract (to be determined by budget) based in each of the 4 regions would provide the following services to support agricultural development: Agricultural Development Support Provide support to local agricultural development by: o Overseeing soil capacity analysis with the support of MAG-FOR, INTA, BICU and URACCAN, including field tests on crop production technologies, with a specific focus on the potential for cashew, almonds, pineapple and rice already being produced by local farmers, and also on easily adaptable crops such a root crops (malanga, cassava, yam, etc.) s and fruit trees (mangoes, oranges, avocados, etc.) o Liaison with agricultural technology extension programs available through universities and INTA and elaboration of extension training workshops; o Elaboration and delivery of onsite workshops with local producers in the following areas: o Soil preparation and planting techniques, o Crop rotation, irrigation, and soil management, o Harvesting techniques, and o Post-harvest management including storage and handling of ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 104. PAGE 93 crops; o Facilitation of delivery of improved seeds for agricultural production to local farmers; o Confirmation/certification of organic agricultural products in each pilot community through appropriate national and/or international bodies, such as the Asociación Nicaraguense de Productores y Exportadores de Productos no Tradicionales (APENN); o Frequent site visits to assist producers in applying the information from workshops; Agro-Forestry Development Support The Agro-Forestry support would primarily be targeted at the two RAAN communities. However, we would encourage the Pearl Lagoon AEW to review the Agro-Forestry plans for the RAAN regions to determine if there may be some applicability in the Pearl Lagoon basin • Preparation of a strategic review/prioritization of agro-forestry potential that takes into account market issues; • Development and implementation of a strategic agro-forestry program; Support to Local Processing Provide support to the development of local processing capacity by: o Based on production information (e.g., market and production capacity as well as local infrastructure capacity that will be developed for each region) assist to identify and prioritize various processing, storage and value-added technologies suitable for implementation in the Pearl Lagoon basin; o Identify the most promising technologies and processes and hold community workshops to discuss the technologies with appropriate community stakeholders and identify community priorities and key implementation issues and risks, including organizational, transportation, storage and marketing issues; o Develop an implementation plan that takes into account implementation priorities, issues and risks identified above and includes a facilitative monitoring component that will provide ongoing feedback and support to all stakeholders; o Roll out implementation plan as above;PARTNERS AND The AEWs would be housed in local Municipal Offices where they would beCOLLABORATION provided with office space, access to fax machines and logistical support. MAG- FOR, INTA, BICU and URACCAN would also be close partners and collaborators. MAG-FOR may be the best organization to actually manage the project, providing access to additional technical expertise as required and facilitating the dissemination of learning to other regions in the RAAS and RAAN.M ETRICS (HOW o Presence of AEWs in each of the four micro-regions;TO M EASURE o Reporting on soil capabilities, agricultural development activities andSUCCESS) technical support provided for each of the six communities; o Number of onsite seminars and training activities conducted with ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 105. PAGE 94 producers; o Overall increases in production and cash-crop incomes.B UDGET AND Anticipated Project Budget: $275,000 to $415,000 over three yearsFINANCINGNote: This project prototype, because it is more service oriented than the others, has been presented in a slightly modified fashion from the others. Detailed information on markets, production, etc. can be found in the various community/regional projects below.6.3 Pearl Lagoon Basin6.3.1 Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities Agricultural Reactivation ProjectPROPONENTS Organization of Pearl Lagoon Women Farmers (Incipient) Organization of Marshall Point Farmers (Incipient) Organization of Orinoco Farmers (Incipient) Pearl Lagoon MunicipalitySECTORS Agriculture Women in DevelopmentOBJECTIVES o Create community-run agricultural development organizations owned by local farmers; o Improve crop production technology; o Improve market information for local producers; o Increase crop yield levels; o Improve qua lity of products to meet exportation requirements; o Increase family/community monetary income and improve family diet; o Create local job opportunities; o Provide food security to the local populationB ENEFICIARIES o Creole and Garifuna women farmers and their families; o The community economies of Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point and Orinoco, as well as other communities in the Basin who will benefit from access to the improved technology.PROJECT Creole, Garifuna and Miskito communities in the basin are suffering fromB ACKGROUND AND decreasing populations of finfish and shrimp, heretofore the main source ofDESCRIPTION economic activity. In the immediate vicinity of most communities, good agricultural land is available to be used for production of cash crops. While some land is currently used for subsistence farming, little is systematically used for the production of cash crops. Anecdotal evidence suggests several explanations for this lack of cash cropping: lack of technical advice and support; lack of market information; inefficient harvesting, processing and storage; weak transportation infrastructure; lack of access to credit/working capital; etc. Preliminary research suggest the following are some products that have potential to develop as cash crops: ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 106. PAGE 95 o Cassava, Coconut, Plantain, Yam, Pineapple, RiceThis project will utilize the AEW and provide fundamental support towardsreactivating and improving agricultural production in the Pearl Lagoon basin. Itwill begin with a marketing study to determine which crops offer the best potentialto be produced as cash crops and how they can best be marketed. Concurrent withthis an organizational development process will assist the community groups tostrengthen their organizations and ready them to be effective partners in projectimplementation. A review of local soils will help to determine which products andtechniques will be most suitable.The market study and soil analysis will identify preferred crops for eachcommunity. An analysis of production, harvesting and storage techniques will beundertaken and will inform the development of agriculture workshops, which willbe delivered in the region. The workshops will provide detailed information onsoil preparation and planting techniques, crop rotation, irrigation, and soilmanagement, harvesting techniques, and post-harvest management includingstorage and handling of crops. The analysis will also identify any new tools orequipment needed to enable the producers to follow the procedures presented inthe workshop. The project would provide producers with assistance to securethese tools and to execute the marketing strategy (e.g., support for collectiveprocessing and marketing efforts). We expect that the project should operate forthree full seasons in order to help ensure that the learning has been fully absorbed.The first year would produce the marketing strategy, perform soil tests andanalysis and production trials, and improve the organizational capacity to managethe project. The third year should include activities designed to disseminateproject information and technology to other communities in the Basin andelsewhere.A group of women farmers in the community of Pearl Lagoon, as well asorganized groups of farmers in both Marshall Point and Orinoco are prepared tospearhead this project with appropriate support for institutional development andproduction.The principal activities involved in this prototype are as follows:Project Management and Organizational Development o Contracting of Local P roject Officer to work out of the Pearl Lagoon Municipal Offices and facilitate organization of and communications with community productive leaders and manage project information at the local level; o Formalization of community agricultural development groups in each of the three communities; o Establishment of points of contact and means of communication with productive leaders in each of the three communities. The consultants have already identified candidates in each community to serve in this capacity; o Introduction and adaptation of participatory tools to strengthen communal understanding of, and activities related to, implementation of development plans; o Design and delivery of training workshops in community-based SME development and management with focus on agriculture;Agricultural Development o Coordination with Pearl Lagoon Agricultural Extension Worker for Agricultural Development activities, including:ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 107. PAGE 96 o Soil capacity analyses o Onsite workshops with local producers in the following themes: § Soil preparation and planting techniques, § Crop rotation, irrigation, and soil management, § Harvesting techniques, and § Post-harvest management including storage and handling of crops; § Ideas on how to respond to inclement weather and calamities. o Provision of improved seeds for agricultural production to local farmers; o Frequent site visits by regional AEW to assist producers in applying the information from workshops; Market Analysis and Commercialization o Comprehensive review of regional, national and international market potential for commodities identified in diagnostic, including specifics on processing, packaging, presentation and handling of products, either through CDE or BICU; o Dissemination of market information directly to producers; o Review/assessment of commercia l transportation linkages between Pearl Lagoon, outlying basin communities, and principal markets identified in market study; o Elaboration of a marketing plan/process to ensure marketability of productionPARTNERS AND o Executing Agency – Project implementation and financial management;COLLABORATION o Pearl Lagoon Municipality – Office space and support; o INTA – Support in preparation/delivery of training workshops for producers; o MAG-FOR – Support of AEW activities; o Regional Universities – Assistance in developing extension services and training programs for producers; o ASDI-BID CDE Initiative – Marketing and business development support; and o Regional and local private distributors (distribuidoras comerciales).M ETRICS (HOW o Increase in amount of land (ha) under crop productionTO M EASURE o Soil Capacity Diagnostics preparedSUCCESS) o Number of producers trained in planting and harvesting techniques o Crop yields per unit area o Volume of products marketed and value received; o Family and individual income levels o Training workshops held o Market studies available to producers in communities o Replication in other areasB UDGET AND o Project participants will provide land for the project and their own labor,FINANCING as well as office space within the Municipality offices as the community’s in-kind contribution. Participants will also agree to freely share the information developed with other producers. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 108. PAGE 97 Estimated Project Budget: $195,000 to $300,000 over three yearsM ARKET The local market for agricultural production is very limited. The regional market isINFORMATION larger but there are too many producers feeding directly into Bluefields market, which cannot absorb all production. The national and international markets offer wider opportunities but it is necessary to identify markets and establish commercialization linkages. A primary output of the early stages of the project is a marketing strategy that will identify specific niches and other opportunities.PRODUCTION It will be necessary to run field tests to determine the capacity of the soils andINFORMATION improve crop production technologies. Farmers should be directly involved performing these field tests, evaluating results and fine-tuning processes and procedures.GEOGRAPHIC AND A traditional challenge faced by these producers is the storage and transportationINFRASTRUCTURE of crops. The area is isolated and lacking in storage and processing space, and theISSUES transportation of goods is expensive and scarce. The issue of storage and processing is addressed in the concurrent Agricultural Processing prototype. Transportation to outlying communities within the basin remains an ongoing challenge.PREVIOUS Farmers in both Marshall Point and Orinoco have been working their lands forEXPERIENCE years, but primarily at subsistence levels. Few have experience in the commercialization of agricultural projects. FADCANIC currently is managing an agro-forestry project that includes the community of Pearl Lagoon, though the level of participation and results are unclear. Several of the women involved in the Pearl Lagoon organization are currently, or have recently been working their lands.CAPACITY To date there has been no local experience implementing projects of this type,ANALYSIS though the community has been involved in large-scale craft fishing support(PROPONENT) initiatives. Organizational development support is critical to the success of this project.M AJOR o The desires of the local people to increase production and improve livingSTRENGTHS standards; o The availability of agricultural land and human resources; o Volition of landowners to support the initiative; o Recent upgrade of Pearl Lagoon wharf to facilitate movement of product to markets; and o Decline of fisheries is forcing people to look for alternative economic opportunities.M AJOR RISKS AND o Lack of technical information and support on agricultural techniques andM ITIGATION methodologies. This will be mitigated by the AEW prototype presented earlier; o Low capacity to meet quality requirements of n ational and international markets. This can be avoided by providing improved seed, and providing training to producers in crop management, and the appropriate handling and storage of produce; o Risk of damage by natural disasters (hurricanes, etc) – this can be mitigated to a certain extent by implementing innovative planting schemes designed to protect crops; o Lack of experience in establishment of community organizations – this ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 109. PAGE 98 issue can be mitigated by providing focused and relevant training and technical assistance to community leaders and local organizations throughout the project; o Lack of market information – mitigated by linking producers with providers of detailed market information, whether it be the CDE or a Market Information Center established through the BICU; o Lack of commercialization experience – this can be mitigated with ongoing support from a CDE or BICU providing information and training in the establishment of commercial linkages; o Lack of access to commercial credit – a perennial challenge, to be mitigated in the medium- to long-term by the resurrection of commercial loan portfolios made available to productive groups as a result of proven capacity and access to market, as well as support from local civil society providing in-kind and cash credit to producers; o Lack of adequate processing and storage facilities – mitigated by the provision of training in the storage and handling of agricultural products, as well as the development of appropriate processing and storage infrastructure – refer to “Development of Value-Added Agricultural Processing in the Pearl Lagoon Basin” prototype below. o Poor quality of road between Pearl Lagoon and Kukra Hill. To mitigate this critical issue, the municipality must lobby for support from DANIDA Transport to make the improvements necessary, and to show that it is prepared to provide maintenance on an improved road. o Lack of motivation to plant and maintain cash crops. This is the result of a lack of readily available technical support and market information. It will be mitigated by the market study in this prototype and the technical support provided by the AEW prototype; and o Unclear land demarcation – potential conflict with Tasbapauni residents who claim ownership over land in and around communities of Marshall Point and Orinoco. Land invasions are an ongoing issue that is being addressed on several levels.TECHNICAL o Review of market for local crops and preparation of a strategic marketingASSISTANCE planREQUIREMENTS o Assistance with the development and/or strengthening of local producer organizations. o Analysis of local soils and assessment of potential crops against soil capacities and market availability; o Development and delivery of workshops to provide training and support in all aspects of preparation, planting, tending, harvesting, etc. o Field visits by agriculture extension workers during the growing season; o Technical and logistical support for marketing o Post-season workshops to review the year, identify lessons learned and make plans for the following year; o Additional workshops and information dissemination ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 110. PAGE 996.3.2 Development of Value-Added Agricultural Processing Industry in the Pearl Lagoon BasinPROPONENTS Organization of Pearl Lagoon Women Farmers (Incipient) Organization of Marshall Point Farmers (Incip ient) Organization of Orinoco Farmers (Incipient) Women’s Cooperative of Orinoco Individual Women in Marshall Point, Orinoco and Pearl Lagoon Pearl Lagoon MunicipalitySECTOR Agricultural ProcessingOBJECTIVES The primary objective is to begin development of agricultural processing and value added capacity in the Pearl Lagoon basin in order to enhance the ability of Basin residents to develop and maintain sustainable livelihoods. A secondary objective is to identify and enhance agricultural processing technology that can be adapted to remote rural settings in Nicaragua, and to support its eventual dissemination to other appropriate locations.B ENEFICIARIES o Local farmers and their families in Marshall Point, Orinoco and Pearl Lagoon; o People involved in artisan processing of agricultural products; o Other communities in the basin who can avail themselves of the information gathered, workshops, facilities, etc. o Bluefields residents – increased income in Pearl Lagoon basin will circulate through Bluefields o RAAS – this will increase economic activity in region and has the potential to become a model project; o Other rural, remote communities who may benefit from the technology and information developed through this project; o National government – increased foreign exchange earnings in medium and long term;PROJECT According to various studies and expert opinions, the Pearl Lagoon Basin hasB ACKGROUND AND significant agricultural potential. As discussed earlier, this potential remainsDESCRIPTION largely undevel ped due to lack of outreach services to train/support people in o appropriate production technologies, lack of market information/access and lack of processing and storage technology and facilities. The previous prototype (6.3.1) addresses production and marketing issues. This initiative will begin development of appropriate processing and storage technology and facilities. It will build on the existing agricultural activities and expertise and facilitate improved economic returns to the region’s producers. Guided by the information developed through the marketing and soil analysis components of the previous project, a review will be conducted to identify appropriate processing and storage technology for the identified cash crops. An analysis, which will include market, production capacity, technological and organizational requirements and capacity will identify the processing and storage technologies with the most potential for application in the Pearl Lagoon basin. These technologies will be reviewed with local producers and other stakeholders and a plan prepared to facilitate the development of processing and storage facilities. The plan will take into account the capacity development needs that ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 111. PAGE 100 would enable eventual transfer of operational responsibility to local interests. It is our expectation that some form of producer cooperative or a network of them would be a preferred organizational structure. In reviewing the following description of project activities, it is essential to recognize that this prototype and the Agricultural Rehabilitation prototype are intrinsically linked and inter-dependent (see Inter-Project Coordination Framework immediately following this prototype). Building upon the efforts of the Agricultural Rehabilitation Prototype, the principal activities involved in this prototype are as follows: Organizational Development o Contracting of Local Project Officer to work out of Municipal offices, facilitating communications with implementing agency and community producers, and organizin g small-scale artisanal processing initiatives in each community. This individual could the be same person contracted in the Agricultural Rehabilitation Initiative; o Identification of and developmental support to individual cooperatives in each community to lead small-scale processing pilots; o Coordination with community agricultural development groups in each of the three communities to provide product to processing groups; o Design and delivery of training workshops in community-based SME development and management; Commercialization of Value -Added Products o Based on production information (market and production capacity as well as local infrastructure capacity) identify and prioritize various processing, storage and value-added technologies suitable for implementation in the Pearl Lagoon basin; o Identify the most promising technologies and processes and hold community workshops to discuss the technologies with appropriate community stakeholders and identify community priorities and key implementation issues and risks, including organizational, transportation, storage and marketing issues; o Develop an implementation plan that takes into account implementation priorities, issues and risks identified above and includes a facilitative monitoring component that will provide ongoing feedback and support to all stakeholders; o Roll out implementation plan as above; o Develop a strategic plan to enable lessons learned from this project to be applied to other RAAS/RAAN regions;PARTNERS AND o Executing Agency – project management;COLLABORATION o Pearl Lagoon Municipality – office support and logistics; o ASDI-BID CDE Initiative – potential marketing and business development support; o Local community and farmers organizations – collaboration and provision of product to processors; o National Ministry of Industry – support in quality control and processing techniques; o Regional (BICU and URACCAN) and national (UNA, UNI, UNAN, UCA, etc) universities – methodology development, training & testing; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 112. PAGE 101M ETRICS (HOW o Existence of organized groups of processors in each community withTO M EASURE sufficient training and market information, and with formal agreementsSUCCESS) with producers for supply of raw goods; o Existence of market information on semi-processed, value-added agricultural products readily available to community producers and processors; o Volume and quality of processed agricultural goods marketed from Pearl Lagoon basin; o Decrease in post-harvest agricultural losses; o Number of jobs created; o Increase in family and individual income levels; o Number of women managing small-scale artisanal processing out of their homes;B UDGET AND o Most individual processors lack the financial resources to provide aFINANCING contribution to project costs, but could provide space in their homes and their own time for in-kind contribution. o It is anticipated that the Municipality will provide any necessary office space to support the project. Anticipated Project Budget: $185,000 to $315,000 over three yearsM ARKET The local market for value-added products is minimal at present, but theINFORMATION anticipation is that the regional and national markets would offer excellent opportunities, especially given that there are almost no competitors for the value- added cashew and pineapple products being contemplated. National and international markets are much larger but competition is stiffer and quality requirements are higher. Specific market information and strategies will be developed and will guide the selection of crops, processing methods, etc.PRODUCTION It will be necessary to perform tests on improving traditional processingINFORMATION technologies. Tests should be run directly in collaboration with the processors themselves, who will likely be local women from the communities. It may be necessary to assist with the purchase of basic processing equipment to support individual women in their efforts.GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenge to product processing will be the storage, preservation,INFRASTRUCTURE transportation and distribution of products. The region is isolated and with noISSUES adequate infrastructure for any of the above mentioned areas. In the pilot stage of this initiative, processing will likely happen out of the homes/yards of the individuals involved in the processing, with a vision to eventually establishing a central processing and storage facility in Pearl Lagoon. Transportation links do exist between Pearl Lagoon and the outlying communities, but routes are only covered once a week, and prices are still relatively high. The improvement of marine transportation services is a critical aspect to the long-term growth of value-added processing in the area.PREVIOUS There is no experience to date with organized and commercialized value-addedEXPERIENCE agricultural processing in the Pearl Lagoon basin. Having stated that, many community members produce cashew wine and chutney for their own consumption, and the processes are well known to many.CAPACITY There is no local experience implementing proje cts of this type. Training, ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 113. PAGE 102ANALYSIS organizational development and focused technical assistance are essential to the(PROPONENT) success of this initiative.M AJOR o The desires of the local people to increase production, create jobs andSTRENGTHS improve living standards o The availability of local resources (products and human); o Support provided by AEW and access to Regional Universities, MAG- FOR and other expertise;M AJOR RISKS AND o Low capacity to meet quality requirements of markets. This will beM ITIGATION overcome by improving the quality of the processed products and by providing focused and sustained training and capacity building support; o Risk of damage by natural disasters (hurricanes, etc) o Lack of experience in the establishment of community organizations – this issue can be mitigated by providing focused and relevant training and technical assistance to community leaders throughout the project; with ongoing facilitative monitoring o Lack of market information – mitigated by the marketing plan itself and by linking producers with providers of detailed market information, whether it be the CDE or a Market Information Center established through the BICU; o Lack of commercialization experience – this can be mitigated with ongoing support from a CDE or BICU providing information and training in the establishment of commercial linkages; o Lack of access to commercial credit – a perennial challenge, to be mitigated in the medium- to long-term by the resurrection of commercial loan portfolios made available to productive groups as a result of proven capacity and access to market, as well as support from local civil society providing in-kind and cash credit to producers;TECHNICAL o Community Organization;ASSISTANCE o Technology testing and quality control;REQUIREMENTS o Training and entrepreneurship development;6.3.3 Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing Fleet in Pearl Lagoon BasinPROPONENT Artisan Fishers Association of Pearl Lagoon Organization of Artisan Fishers of Marshall Point (Incipient) Organization of Artisan Fishers of Orinoco (Incipient)SECTOR FisheriesOBJECTIVES The primary objective is to enhance the efficiency, safety and environmental and financial sustainability of the local artisanal fishing industry.B ENEFICIARIES o Members of Fishermen’s Associations; o Fishermen’s families; o Economies of the communities;PROJECT Fishing (finfish, shrimp and lobster) has been a mainstay of the Pearl LagoonB ACKGROUND AND basin economy since colonial times, conducted primarily by artisanal fishermen ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 114. PAGE 103DESCRIPTION who have sold their catch to various buyers and processors. Technological inputs have traditionally been very limited due to lack of access to appropriate technology, lack of access to credit and capital and lack of appropriate infrastructure. Artisanal fishermen have largely been dependent upon buyers for access to credit and technology and have often had to pledge their catch to specific buyers in order to get the equipment and working capital to begin each fishing season. In the development of this prototype, consultants conferred with local fishermen and community leaders who reflected upon the challenges and uncertain results of a recent fisheries support program through the Dutch Government known as DIPAL. The initiative, which concluded in 2001, aimed to provide support to Basin fishermen in the areas of fisheries management, organization, and fishing technologies. Residents explained that the principal weakness of the project was that it was created with little communal participation and did not have strong support in the community. According to local sources, the DIPAL initiatives largely taught fishermen what they already knew. While DIPAL provided financing to fishermen, it was managed through one of the private fishing companies - Mar Caribe - a problematic scenario which did not afford the fishermen true autonomy over their organizational development. Building upon the lessons learned from these and other initiatives, the proposed project would work directly with the Artisan Fishers Association of Pearl Lagoon and incipient Fishermen’s organizations in Marshall Point and Orinoco to prepare a detailed business plan that would include: o Building upon lessons learned from recently-completed DIPAL initiative, review and assess the Pearl Lagoon Seafood Fishermen’s Cooperative’s organizational status and capacity to manage a credit organization, and identify and prioritize institutional development requirements; o If feasible, contract successful regional credit management civil society organizations (ADEPHCA in Bluefields, PANA PANA in Puerto Cabezas), to organize and train local people to manage a private credit enterprise and provide ongoing support during its implementation; o Coordinate with bilateral donor agencies and/or development partners to provide startup credit financing to the Cooperative; o Review existing fleet capacity and technology and identify the most suitable upgrades based on budget, maintenance capacity and the capacity of the fisheries resource; o Prepare a fleet capacity enhancement plan based on the above information. o Provide credit to member fishermen to upgrade their fishing equipment (boats, motors, nets, ice boxes, others); o Assess cost, feasibility and potential environmental impact of construction of small portable ice production plant in Pearl Lagoon; o If feasible, install plant; o Train Cooperative members in management and maintenance of ice plant; Note: Organizational development activities should be coordinated with the Agricultural Reactivation Initiative. E.g., if organizational development specialists are brought in for workshops and training all organizations should participate to ensure economies of scale and scope. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 115. PAGE 104PARTNERS AND o Executing Agency – Project management;COLLABORATION o ADPESCA / MEDEPESCA – policy support and collaboration; o Municipality of Pearl Lagoon – institutional support and office space; o ADEPHCA – support and capacity building in provision of credit services; o URACCAN – partnership and training; and o Bi-lateral agencies – provision of capital for micro-credit program.M ETRICS (HOW o Availability of credit for basin fishermen;TO M EASURE o Increase in yields of finfish and shrimps;SUCCESS) o Number of jobs created; o Number of different species caught; o Family and individual income levels; and o Feasibility study and cost assessment on ice production plant installation.B UDGET AND o The local Fishermen Association will provide labor and space for projectFINANCING offices, as well as space within local building owned in partnership with URACCAN as their in-kind contribution; Estimated Project Budget: $200,000 to $335,000 over three yearsM ARKET The market for seafood products (finfish, lobster, shrimp) is very broad and wellINFORMATION defined, and the demand for reasonably priced and good quality ice is very good. Trade relationships already exist with several markets through local fishing companies and to a smaller scale with buyers in Pearl Lagoon and Bluefields.PRODUCTION o If deemed feasible, a portable ice-making plant in Pearl Lagoon to beINFORMATION managed by the Artisanal Fishermen would be installed; and o If required, appropriate training would be provided on new fleet technology and equipment and on the operation of the ice plant.GEOGRAPHIC AND A pre-existing edifice co-managed with URACCAN would be the potential site ofINFRASTRUCTURE an ice-making plant.ISSUESPREVIOUS Extensive prior experience with fish harvesting generally. In the past, a few localEXPERIENCE fishermen have received credit to upgrade their fishing capacity through DIPAL project.CAPACITY There is some experience processing and marketing products. Training and isANALYSIS essential to enhance institutional capacity and likely necessary to support efficient(PROPONENT) utilization of new fleet technology (e.g., quality improvement through cons istent icing)M AJOR o Extensive experience in the fishing industry stretching back overSTRENGTHS generations; o Local knowledge and experience on best fishing grounds in the area; o Experience (some) with credit programs for artisanal fishermen; o Commitment of local stakeholders and their families; and o Existence of strong local organization with experience and leadership.M AJOR RISKS AND o Over fishing due to increased capacity of fishing fleet and limitedM ITIGATION capacity of the regulatory infrastructure: T can be mitigated by the his ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 116. PAGE 105 consistent education of fishermen, and enforcement of regulations including catch limits and minimum size restrictions, as well as through the promotion of diversified catches and training of fishermen in conservation/sustainability techniques and methodologies; o Risk of damage and losses of equipment by natural disasters (hurricanes, etc); and o General lack of success of cooperatives and credit enterprises in the region. This can be mitigated by the presence of experienced and successful regional credit organizations to provide advice and support.TECHNICAL o Organizational development & capacity building;ASSISTANCE o Credit management;REQUIREMENTS o Production quality (e.g., training in use of icing techniques and other methods for improving quality of catch) o Fleet repair & maintenance training; o Installation and management of ice plant. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 117. PAGE 1066.4 Corn Island6.4.1 Agriculture Rehabilitation Program for Corn IslandPROPONENTS Corn Island Cocoteros Association (Incipient); Bluefields Coconut Growers Association; Corn Island MunicipalitySECTOR Agricultural RehabilitationOBJECTIVES o Contribute to the development of the agro industrial sector on Corn Island, with an awareness of the potential and the limitations of the natural environment; o Implement agricultural development aspect of integrated land use planning strategy developed by MARENA and Corn Island Municipality; o Improve crop production technologies and crop yield levels on the island; o Improve quality of products to meet export requirements; o Increase family/community monetary income and improve family diet; and o Create local job opportunities;B ENEFICIARIES o Local farmers and their families; o The Corn Island community economy; o Social infrastructure on island – cultivated land will dissuade potential squatters from settling in the area; Noni (Agape) Coconut ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 118. PAGE 107PROJECT Declining fisheries production and lack of alternative economic options (especiallyB ACKGROUND AND since Hurricane Joan in 1988) is placing severe pressures on families and on aDESCRIPTION social infrastructure that is struggling to meet the increasing needs of a growing population. Patches of coconut plantations remain that could be reactivated for profitable production. Other areas could also be planted with coconut and other locally grown fruits such as noni (agape), mangoes, and other fruit that have high demand in the regional market and in the local tourist market. An incipient Creole grower’s organization on the island called the Corn Island Cocoteros Association has expressed interest in spearheading the revitalization of the agriculture sector on the Island. Preliminary research (and historical production practices) suggests that coconuts can be grown on Corn Island and sold fresh in Managua, be processed into grated coconut, or pressed into oil for sale in Granada top soap factories. Bluefields have a coconut press with capacity to manage 750 hectares worth of coconuts. The press is owned by MAGFOR, and is currently not operating, though it is in good shape. MAG-FOR Regional Director Steven Hayes advises that he is in the process of attempting to devolve ownership of the press to the Bluefields Association. There is a nursery and plantation in Kukra Hill that is producing coconut seeds and hybrids. It is anticipated that MAG-FOR will soon certify the seeds as quality seeds. Noni (Agape), mangoes, papaya and avocadoes may also present attractive cash- crop opportunities. The principal activities involved in this prototype are as follows: Project Management and Organizational Development o Contracting of Local Project Coordinator to work out of Municipal offices and facilitate communications with; o Formalization and consolidation of Corn Island Cocoteros Association, including obtaining legal status and establishing membership structure; o Design and delivery of training workshops in community-based SME development and management through BICU campus, with focus on agricultural development; o Formalization of relationship between Corn Island Cocoteros Association, MAG-FOR, and the Bluefields Coconut Growers Association; and o Transfer of ownership of the coconut press to a local producer association. Agricultural Development o Coordination with Corn Island Agricultural Extension Worker (AEW) in support of Agricultural Development activities, including: o Soil capacity analyses o Onsite workshops with local producers in the following themes: § Soil preparation and planting techniques, § Crop rotation, irrigation, and soil management, § Harvesting techniques, and § Post-harvest management including storage and handling of crops; o Provision of improved seeds for agricultural production to local farmers; o Frequent site visits by AEW to assist producers in applying the information from workshops; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 119. PAGE 108 Market Analysis and Commercialization o Comprehensive review of regional, national and international market potential for commodities identified in diagnostic, including specifics on packaging, presentation and handling of products, as well as an assessment of commercial transportation linkages between Corn Island and Bluefields, Rama and other principal markets identified; o Dissemination of market information directly to members of Cocoteros Association;PARTNERS AND o Corn Island Municipality – project oversight, coordination,COLLABORATION communications, provision of office space and support; o BICU – Training, diagnostics and market study; o INTA – facilitation/provision of improved seed and training; o MAG-FOR – support and potential housing of AEW in MAG-FOR office on Corn Island; o CDE Initiative – market information support; o Regional and local private distributors (distribuidoras comerciales); andM ETRICS (HOW o Legal structure of Cocoteros Association finalized and Board of DirectorsTO M EASURE established;SUCCESS) o Board of Directors trained in SME development and management; o Producers trained in agricultural technologies; o Soil diagnostic and market study available to Association members; o Amount of land (ha) under crop production; o Improved seeds delivered; o Crop yields per unit area; o Number of active members in Cocoteros Association; o Family and individual income levels; and o Transfer of ownership and successful operation of coconut press.B UDGET AND Estimated Project Budget: $190,000 to $285,000 over three yearsFINANCINGM ARKET In the short term, coconuts would be taken by boat up to Rama and sold fresh inINFORMATION Managua. Currently, one or two boats per week leave Corn Island taking freight to/from Rama. There is regular cargo service from Rama to Managua. There is apparently a deficit of fresh coconuts in Managua based upon the prices, which are much higher than international market price. Currently, the price of coconuts in Managua is around 20 cents, whereas internationally, they are sold for 4 – 5 cents per unit. Eventually, the Corn Island Cocoteros Association would like to partner with the Bluefields Coconut Growers Association to utilize the coconut press currently owned by MAG-FOR, and which the Ministry is in the process of trying to divest to the Bluefields Association. The Cocoteros would like to eventually set up small-scale processing infrastructure on the island to press oil out of the coconuts, which would in turn be sold in Granada in the soap factories. There are also potential markets in the Dominican Republic and Jamaica.PRODUCTION It is necessary to run field tests to improve crop production technologies in order toINFORMATION increase yield and decrease environmental impact of agricultural activity. Farmers should be directly involved in performing such field tests. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 120. PAGE 109GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenges to crop production will be to increase yields (since availableINFRASTRUCTURE productive land is limited), as well as providing storage and transportation ofISSUES products, all without harming the local ecosystem.PREVIOUS Participants have some level of farming/agriculture experience but few have anyEXPERIENCE commercial production experience. The organizations have limited capacity and experience.CAPACITY There is little local experience implementing an agricultural rehabilitation projectANALYSIS of this type. There is strong capacity and support available through the(PROPONENT) Municipality, and BICU has expressed strong interest in participating in capacity building and training of Association members.M AJOR o The desires of the local people to increase production, and improve livingSTRENGTHS standards; o Opportunity for economic diversification in a region heavily dependent upon fisheries; o Already existing trade market relationships; o Wide experience in coconut crop production; o The availability of local resources (land and human); and o Strong potential local market for crops – both residents and visitors.M AJOR RISKS AND o Potential negative environmental impact by using most available land onM ITIGATION the island for crop production. This can be avoided using appropriate technology and training farmers in soil management and harvesting techniques; o Risk of losses by natural disasters (hurricanes, etc); o Inability of producers to cooperate effectively could lead to challenges with the management of any group owned processing facilities. (is this fair?)TECHNICAL o Review of market for local crops and preparation of a strategic marketingASSISTANCE planREQUIREMENTS o Assistance with the development and/or strengthening of Cocoteros Association. o Analysis of local soils and assessment of potential crops against soil capacities and market availability; o Development and delivery of workshops to provide training and support in all aspects of preparation, planting, tending, harvesting, etc. o Field visits by Corn Island AEW during the growing season; o Technical and logistical support for marketing o Post-season workshops to review the year, identify lessons learned and make plans for the following year; o Additional workshops and information dissemination ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 121. PAGE 110Note to Reader:The following two project prototypes focus on supporting the two fishermen’s organizations on CornIsland. After careful consideration and consultation, we have decided to include these as stand-aloneprototypes, but with the following explanation and caveats for the Bank.It was originally contemplated that both groups would fall under the auspices of one prototypeencompassing global support to craft fishermen in the form of a fisheries commission or board. It wasmade clear to the consultants that the wishes of the two groups were to work individually, as they donot have a history of collaboration and there is a lack of goodwill between them. The Fishermen’sUnion and the Association of Miskito Fishermen are at very different stages of organizationaldevelopment, and receive different levels of support from local government.While we are not convinced that these individual prototypes represent the best way to go – given theinherent duplication, overhead costs and expenses, etc. that could be avoided by consolidating theprototypes – the lack of willingness of stakeholders and the inherent institutional weaknesses of bothgroups suggest that this approach may be the most viable at present. The consultants stronglyrecommend that these issues be given due consideration before these initiatives are launched.Notwithstanding the fact that the following prototypes are presented individually, they do not includeindividual budget estimates, as the economies of scale in a combined initiative are too great tooverlook. The consultants estimate that a combined initiative would have an estimated budget ofbetween $275,000 and $470,000 over a three year period.6.4.2 Capacity Development of Asociación de Pescadores Miskitos de Corn IslandPROPONENT Association of Miskito Artisanal Fishermen (APAM)SECTOR FisheriesOBJECTIVES o Organizational support to Association to improve services to its membership; o Improved fishing boats and gear to dissuade fishermen who are currently diving for lobster to use methods that are less dangerous and harmful to environment; o Development of inter-indigenous linkages between Canada and Nicaragua; o Increase business development capacity at community level;B ENEFICIARIES o Corn Island Miskito fishermen and their families; o Canadian First Nation partners;PROJECT Fishing represents the primary source of income for 91% of the residents of CornB ACKGROUND AND Island. Presently, the majority of fishermen on the island use small pangas andDESCRIPTION lobster pots, and sell their catch to one of the nine “acopios” or storage / buying areas on the island, which in turn sell the lobsters and other catches to one of the two larger private companies on the island with processing and storage capacity – PASENIC or CAF. The Miskito fishermen of Corn Island have their own small acopio, which is supported by CAF, but they lack resources to repair and upgrade their boats and gear. As a result of this lack of resources, many Miskito lobster fishermen resort to diving for lobsters using antiquated diving gear and without ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 122. PAGE 111 training in safe and proper diving practices – sometimes to depths in excess of 100 feet. Many fishermen have suffered the grave and often-fatal effects of decompression sickness as a result of this activity. There is currently no decompression chamber on the island, though the NGO SOS International is in the process of attempting to bring an older chamber to the island. The Miskito fishermen themselves recognize that the practice is very dangerous, but they feel that their relationship with the predominantly Creole community and municipal government leaves them with no choice but to do what they can to earn a living, as other commercial opportunities are extremely limited. None of the Miskito fishermen are landowners, and racial tensions on the island are on the rise, exacerbated by decreasing lobster stocks, and the recently imposed two- month off-season for lobster fishing along the whole coast. APAM is seeking support to improve their fleet capacity and receive training in organizational development & capacity building. Strong potential also exists for commercial partnerships, mentorship and technology transfer from Canadian indigenous lobster fishermen. The principle activities of this project are as follows: o Needs assessment for the Association; o Feasibility study on indigenous partnership development, including review of best practices of Canada-Nicaragua inter-indigenous business partnerships and lessons learned, identification of suitable Canadian partners and funding support; o Relationship building between the various organizations; o Development of workshops for information sharing; o Formalization of business partnership; o Purchase of new boats and equipment for Miskito fishermen;PARTNERS AND o Canadian Department of Indian AffairsCOLLABORATION o First Nations Organizations in Canada o CIDA Aboriginal Partnership Fund o Aboriginal Business CanadaM ETRICS (HOW o Number of Miskito fishermen no longer using diving equipment to fishTO M EASURE for lobster;SUCCESS) o Purchase of new fishing gear and upgrade/purchase of new boats; o Number of Miskito fishermen trained in safe and efficient lobster harvesting techniques; o Existence of formal business partnership;B UDGET AND Financing for this initiative would be sought from various Canadian partnerFINANCING organizations interested in supporting inter-indigenous business development initiatives. Financing would be acquired with the support of an organization with experience in indigenous business development in Canada and Nicaragua, and with a strong understanding of the various potential funding agencies involved. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 123. PAGE 112M ARKET The market for lobster is particularly strong and well established on Corn Island.INFORMATIONPRODUCTION Initially, APAM can continue to sell their catch to Central American Fisheries. InINFORMATION the medium-term, however, with support and increased entrepreneurial and technical capacity, processing and storage infrastructure could be built to facilitate a greater level of independence for the Association.GEOGRAPHIC AND Currently, APAM has a small acopio the beach alongside the CAF factory. It isINFRASTRUCTURE very susceptible to high wind and waves, and in July 2002, the building was badlyISSUES damaged by heavy weather. The Association is currently in the process of rebuilding at a safer location. At present, APAM depends upon the goodwill of CAF to provide them with land and resources to maintain their acopio.PREVIOUS The Association has several years of fishing experience, and the capacity to repairEXPERIENCE and maintain their own boats and buildings.CAPACITY The Association is a relatively new organization, and though they have fewANALYSIS resources, they have proven to be adept at securing the basic needs (office space,(PROPONENT) computer, gear, etc.) to provide basic support to their members. The officers of the Association lack entrepreneurial training, and will require a certain amount of business training and capacity development to ensure sustainability and transparency in the project.M AJOR o Strong levels of interest and potential support from various potentialSTRENGTHS Canadian partners and collaborators; o Dedicated leadership of Association; o Commitment on behalf of the Association and its members to seek alternatives to dangerous and environmentally deleterious fishing practices currently being used;M AJOR RISKS AND o Relationship with Municipality is not on solid ground at present, asM ITIGATION Miskito fishermen feel that efforts being made at the community level to support and regulate fishing activities do not work in their favor; o The Association is a relatively new organization, and will require support, training and monitoring to ensure transparency and sustainability in project;TECHNICAL o Entrepreneurial development and inter-regional partnership building.ASSISTANCE o Capacity building;REQUIREM ENTS o Boat repair and upgrading; o Training in environmentally friendly and efficient harvesting.NEXT STEPS o Present initiative to potential funding agencies such as CIDA, Assembly of First Nations, Aboriginal Business Canada and others; o Identify appropriate Canadian First Nation organizations as partners, and approach to assess interest; o Secure funding for inception mission and study to source funding for overall initiative. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 124. PAGE 1136.4.3 Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing Fleet Through the Corn Island Artisanal Fishermen’s UnionPROPONENT Unión de Pescadores Artesanales de Corn Island (UPACIN)SECTOR FisheriesOBJECTIVES o Renewal of Corn Island Artisanal Fisherman’s Union in the areas of obtaining their legal papers (personería juridica), reviewing and upgrading lending policies to members, recouping of accounts receivable, and management of fishing supplies store; o Create increased competitiveness between artisanal fishing fleet and industrial fishing boats; o Provide members of Union with infrastructure necessary to upgrade their capacity and efficiency; o Increase the capacity of local fishermen to catch larger amounts and a greater variety of finfish species; o Create local jobs; o Increase family/community incomes; o Decrease dependence of artisanal fishermen on private fishing companies;B ENEFICIARIES o Creole fishermen and their families; o Local businesses;PROJECT Lobster and shrimp catches in the fishing grounds around Corn Island have beenB ACKGROUND AND steadily decreasing year after year, resulting in drastic decreases in family incomeDESCRIPTION for Creole fishermen, which in turn exacerbates the tensions between the various ethnic groups on the island. Creole fishermen received support from Oxfam Canada and the Canadian government in the development of the Corn Island Artisanal Fishermen’s Union after the devastation of Hurricane Joan in 1988. This financial support allowed the Union to construct a warehouse store in the Long Bay area of the island, and to provide members with credit to purchase badly needed boats, motors, equipment and gear. At the time, the Union boasted a membership of 200 fishermen - the vast majority of fishermen on the island in the late 1980s. The Union has been largely unsuccessful at recouping nearly 1.7 million córdobas (roughly US$110,000) in credit and supplies, as most fishermen deemed the credit a post-hurricane donation from the Canadian government, and are unwilling to repay their debts. The Union has lost over 80% of its membership in recent years, and is attempting to renew itself with a new board of directors and new policies and services. The store which was built with Canadian aid has excellent potential for growth, and offers discounted prices to members as well as non-members, representing a viable alternative to the private fishing companies generally onerous credit policies to individual fishermen and acopiadores. In recent years, boats and gear have been deteriorating rapidly for lack of proper maintenance and upgrading. This has reduced the capacity of the artisanal fleet to obtain good yields or go after other commercial species. Meanwhile, industrial boats in the area are using more and more traps to go after a steadily decreasing stock of lobster (some reports say that each boat carries up to 9,000 traps, in dire ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 125. PAGE 114 contravention of nationally-established but unregulated limits of 1,600 per boat). Notwithstanding the increased expense and efforts of the industrial boats, catches continue to decrease – greater resources are being devoted to less and less productivity. To exacerbate the situation, local fishermen are being chosen less often to crew the industrial boats, further restricting their capacity to provide a steady income and support their families. In May and June of 2002, for the first time in 36 years, a two-month ‘veda’ or off-season provided some relief to lobster and shrimp stocks. If the political will exists, in the coming years the off-season will be expanded gradually – in 2003 it will be three months. At present, it is estimated that 91% of Corn Island’s residents are directly dependent upon fishing for their livelihoods. The following activities would be undertaken to meet the above outlined objectives: o Review of the Fishermen’s Union’s credit policies and past credit agreements with members to assess the potential for recouping accounts receivable; o Work with Union leadership to upgrade credit policies and revive membership; o Provide credit to members to repair and upgrade fishing equipment (boats, motors, nets, ice boxes, others); o Improve and increase the processing capacity of the small fishing plant owned by the Fishermen Association o Widen commercial trade relationships;PARTNERS AND o Corn Island Municipality – support, project oversight and office space;COLLABORATION o National Ministry of Fisheries (ADPESCA) – institutional support and policy development support; o External Agency – project management; o Private fishing companies (CAF and PASENIC) – ongoing support and collaboration;M ETRICS (HOW o New credit policies in place for Union;TO M EASURE o Recouping of some accounts receivable;SUCCESS) o Credit provided to Union members to repair and upgrade boats; o Increase in Union membership; o Increase in amount of yields of fishes and lobsters; o Increased family and individual income levelsB UDGET AND o The local Municipality will provide office space and support inFINANCING implementation and management of project; o The Fishermen’s Union will provide labor, as well as the operation of the local fish processing plant already functioning in Greater Corn Island and operated by this AssociationM ARKET The market for seafood products (lobster, shrimp) is very broad and wellINFORMATION established. There do exist trade relationships with local, national and international markets through the private companies on the island.PRODUCTION Besides providing fishermen with appropriate fishing equipment, there is a needINFORMATION to install basic processing equipment and an ice production plant. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 126. PAGE 115GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenge is the resolution of the dispute over ownership of the landINFRASTRUCTURE upon which the Union’s warehouse/store is built. Former owner Norman DownsISSUES is in the process of attempting to reclaim the land, which was appropriated by the Sandinista government in the late 1980s and given to the Union. His intention seems to be to also assume ownership of the building, or charge the Union several years of back rent. It is not possible to move the building across the road or inland, as the land is all owned privately, and it is critical that the building be on the waterfront. Another infrastructure challenge is the poor condition of the road in Long Bay, which needs resurfacing. The municipality has secured support from the Central Government and the World Bank to resurface 10 km of road in the area in the coming years. To be competitive and to add value to the raw catch, the Union would like to increase its capacity to provide ice to its members and have basic storage infrastructure for their production. Another important challenge is the isolation of the area and difficulty of transportation.PREVIOUS In the past, a few local fishermen have received credit to upgrade their fishingEXPERIENCE capacityCAPACITY The Union has experience in managing credit and retail fishing equipmentANALYSIS operations, but their track record with credit management is not good. Some(PROPONENT) members of the Board of Directors have received training in accounting. Training and capacity building in this area, and in policy development are essential to ensure that lessons learned from past mistakes are not repeated. One of the inherent challenges of the Union is that it is providing quasi-social services to its members, while attempting to be a facilitator of business development and a private enterprise. The lack of fiscal prudence, and the lack of ability to call in loans are a major concern.M AJOR o The Union has been an entity on the island for over a decade, and enjoysSTRENGTHS strong relationships with the Municipality; o The Municipality has recently opened up an office to serve as a policy/support liaison for fishing activity on the island, headed up by Felix Alexander, Vice-President of the Union; o The Union has had some success in the operation of their fishing supplies store in Long Bay; o Increased recognition that industrial fishing is experiencing decreasing productivity, and that a shift toward craft fishing is inevitable for the survival of stocks; o The desires of the local people to create jobs, increase family income and improve living standards o Local knowledge and experience on best fishing grounds in the area ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 127. PAGE 116M AJOR RISKS AND o Lack of success in managing a credit enterprise. Training and capacityM ITIGATION building based upon best practices in the region and elsewhere are essential to ensure that mistakes are not repeated; o Over fishing due to increased capacity of fishing fleet is a risk in the current unregulated environment; The promotion of more local-level regulation and monitoring, as well as the diversification of catches should help to avoid over fishing in the future; o Risk of damage and losses of equipment by natural disasters (hurricanes, etc); This is always a risk in an area susceptible to high wind and wave; o Potential exacerbation of current ethnic tensions between Miskito and Creole fishermen if one group is supported over another. The fishermen’s Union has expressed interest and volition to work in collaboration with APAM, but that Associa tion is not interested.TECHNICAL o Financial management and oversightASSISTANCE o Credit management;REQUIREMENTS o Training o Boat repair and maintenance o Installation & management of ice plant6.5 Wasakin6.5.1 Wasakin Agricultural Support ProjectPROPONENTS Wasakin Community Elders Council, Síndigo and Community Coordinator (Traditional) REPROMAB (Incipient) Individual FarmersSECTOR AgricultureOBJECTIVES o Create a community-focused agricultural development organization to be operated by residents; o Improve crop production technologies in the area; o Increase formal agriculture activity in the area, organizing community and families to increase cultivation on their plots; o Increase crop yield levels; o Improve quality of products to meet exportation requirements; o Increase family/community income and improve family diet; o Create local job opportunities;B ENEFICIARIES o Sumo farmers and their families; o The community and local economy; and o Other communities and agricultural producers who will benefit from the lessons le arned and research undertaken in this project. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 128. PAGE 117PROJECT Residents of the Sumo Indian community of Wasakin are traditional producers ofB ACKGROUND AND basic grain and root crops. The community has a long tradition of farming, low-DESCRIPTION intensity forestry and hunting/gathering. Despite the availability of large tracts of agricultural land crop yields are extremely low due to inefficient and outmoded production technologies and the community utilizes only small patches along the riverbank for subsistence farming. All land in Wasakin is communally owned and managed, and each family manages a small plot. The community has expressed a great deal of interest in launching a well-supported integrated agricultural initiative to take advantage of the rich growing area, and the central location of the community as a hub of agricultural development. Wasakin has relatively easy access to the market of Mina La Rosita (12 kilometers away), which in turn has road access to Managua to the West, and Puerto Cabezas to the East. This project will work with the Wasakin AEW and provide fundamental support towards stimulating and formalizing agriculture production in Wasakin. The initiative will begin with a marketing study to determine which crops offer the best potential to be produced as cash crops and how they can best be marketed. Concurrent with this an organizational development process will assist REPROMAB and individual producers to formalize and strengthen their organizations and prepare them to be effective partners in project implementation. Further to this will be a review of the capacity of local soils in order to determine which products and techniques will be most suitable for the Wasakin area. The market study and soil analysis will identify preferred crops for the community. A concurrent and related project will help to identify the most suitable processing and storage methods and assist with their development. Project Management and Organizational Development o Establish project implementation offic e in Rosita until such a time that sufficient infrastructure exists in Wasakin (office space, electricity, radio/phone service) to support an agricultural development office there; o Provision of CB radios as means of regular contact between Rosita office and community; o Establishment and organization of Wasakin Community Agricultural Development Committee to serve as community-based point of contact for support, communications, training, marketing information and storage and commercialization of agricultural products. Market Analysis and Commercialization o Analysis of market potential for agricultural products identified in soil analysis, including specifics on storage and commercial transportation of products from Wasakin to Rosita, Managua, Puerto Cabezas and other principal markets; o Dissemination of market information directly to Wasakin farmers through Agricultural Development Committee; Agricultural Development o Coordination with Wasakin Agricultural Extension Worker for Agricultural Development activities, including: o Identification of appropriate test fields in Wasakin; o Soil capacity analyses ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 129. PAGE 118 o Development of nurseries for improved seed in products recognized as having strong market potential, and facility for growth in local soils; o Onsite workshops with local producers in the following themes: § Soil preparation and planting techniques, § Crop rotation, irrigation, and soil management, § Harvesting techniques, and § Post-harvest management including storage and handling of crops; o Provision of improved seeds for agricultural production to local farmers; o Frequent site visits by regional AEW to assist producers in applying the information from workshops;PARTNERS AND o REPROMAB - Organization of local farmers & maintaining institutionalCOLLABORATION relationships with supporting organizations; o Executing agency – Project Management; o Rosita Municipality - Collaboration on road maintenance and office space for project officer; o INTA (Collaboration in training initiatives for farmers); o Regional and local private distributors (distribuidoras comerciales); and o MAG-FOR (Technical support to AEW)M ETRICS (HOW o Existence of community agricultural development committee;TO M EASURE o Establishment of project office in Rosita;SUCCESS) o Market information for locally-grown produce available at community level; o Amount of land (ha) under cultivation; o Crop yields per unit area; o Value of crop sales; o Number of different crops being grown (market diversity); o Family and individual income levels;B UDGET AND o As their in-kind contribution, community producers will provide land forFINANCING nurseries, test crops and general production under the auspices of this initiative, and will eventually provide space for construction of agricultural development committee headquarters and other facilities associated with the economic development of the community; Estimated Project Budget: $185,000 to $280,000 over three yearsM ARKET Local market (Municipality of Rosita) and buyers from other regions of theINFORMATION country are likely more than enough to purchase all Wasakin production in the initial years. As productive technologies are improved and crop yields grow, it will be essential to have information on national and international markets, quality and packaging requirements, and information on viable transportation options for moving product.PRODUCTION It will be necessary to run field tests to improve crop production technologies andINFORMATION assess the viability of producing certain key products in various areas. Farmers should be directly involved performing such field tests. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 130. PAGE 119GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenge to crop production will be the storage and transportation ofINFRASTRUCTURE products. The lack of proper transportation means and the lack of definitionISSUES around respons ibility for maintenance of the access road from Rosita will affect commercialization of products DANIDA has committed to continue improving the road in partnership with the community and municipality, and are planning to build two pedestrian bridges over the Bambana River in the summer of 2002- 2003.PREVIOUS The community of Wasakin has had experience with private foreign investment inEXPERIENCE the forestry development sector, but the experiment was short-lived. There has been no experience to date with organizing community-level agricultural development committees, but Wasakin has traditional organizations in the community that can provide an organizational basis and direction.CAPACITY The community lacks the capacity to effectively manage financial resources, andANALYSIS to manage communications with potential donors and partners in development. It(PROPONENT) is essential to build in capacity development activities, training, and infrastructure throughout the initiative to ensure sustainability. Productive leaders at the community level – such as Neddy Israel, President of REPROMAB – must be supported and trained to provide leadership and follow-through.M AJOR o Residents have expressed a keen and urgent desire to manage their ownSTRENGTHS resources, increase production and improve their living standards; o Availability of fertile land and human resources; o Wasakin has relatively good access to the market or Rosita; o DANIDA has committed to partner in the improvement and maintenance of roads and bridges in the community; o World Bank may consider Wasakin as a candidate for Phase II of their rural electrification project; o Canadian government may consider Wasakin for water & sanitation projects in future; o All agricultural crops are organic;M AJOR RISKS AND o Currently there is low capacity to meet quality requirements of markets.M ITIGATION This can be mitigated by providing adequate seed and teaching farmers to use appropriate production, harvesting and processing technologies; o Poor relationships between community and the Municipality of Rosita. The Municipality should be approached as a development partner for the community, and encouraged to assume responsibility for maintaining access roads into Wasakin; o Lack of institutional presence in community (municipal, regional or central government, civil society, etc.) – the organizational development aspect of this project will assist the community to be better able to communicate its needs with Rosita and other governments. o Poor community health due to ack of potable water. Support from l Canadian government, Red Cross and other agencies should be formalized to ease the health burdens on the individuals in the community; o Lack of storage and transportation infrastructure to facilitate commercialization of products. Strong collaboration with DANIDA Transport and the Municipality to reach institutional commitments on road improvements and maintenance is critical. Storage facilities should be contemplated within “Development of Value-Added Processing” ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 131. PAGE 120 project outlined below;TECHNICAL o Support to develop a local producer organization to provide leadershipASSISTANCE and continuity to the initiative;REQUIREMENTS o Direct technical support in appropriate and focused agricultural development technologies that are connected to identified markets for agricultural products; o Crop testing of improved technologies with commensurate training and capacity building for formers in collaboration with technical support and expertise of INTA and MAG-FOR;6.5.2 Wasakin Agro Forestry DevelopmentPROPONENT Wasakin Community Elders Council, Síndigo and Community Coordinator (Traditional); REPROMAB (Incipient); and Individual Foresters and Gatherers;SECTOR Agro-ForestryOBJECTIVES o Develop and implement a sustainable development plan for timber/non- timber forest products; o Reforest and preserve local forests and wildlife for future sustainable use; o Produce wood and food trees in nurseries for silviculture/reforestation purposes; o Improve forest product gathering technologies; o Increase the sustainable revenue generating capacity of local forests for local people; o Improve quality of products to meet exportation requirements; o Increase family/community incomes; o Create local job opportunities;B ENEFICIARIES o Forest gatherers and their families; o The community economy; o The local environment;PROJECT Wasakin has a tradition of farming, forestry, and hunting/gathering that continuesB ACKGROUND AND to this day in traditional lands surrounding the community. A good portion ofDESCRIPTION family and community income is derived from forest product gathering activities, and it is expected that ample forestry resources exist in the immediate area, including a variety of hardwoods and ‘precious’ wood, as well as raw material with potential use in medicines, essences and other products. In recent years, however, local forest and wildlife resources have been decreasing and being degraded as a result of unmanaged harvesting, incursions from non- resident settlers and loggers, and lack of education in forestry harvesting and management techniques. The community has expressed interest in implementing a plan to increase and improve the harvesting, management and reforestation of such resources, cataloguing and preserving what they currently have while at the same time sustainably increasing harvesting of timber and non-timber forest resources, especially those with demonstrated export market potential. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 132. PAGE 121Note: many of the activities described for this prototype reflect closecollaboration and cost sharing with the agricultural development initiativedescribed above. It is erroneous to consider agricultural and agro-forestrydevelopment to be one in the same, though project infrastructure can easily beshared between the two initiativesThe principal activities involved in this prototype are as follows:Project Management, Organizational Development, Diagnostics and MarketAnalysis o Collaborate with Agricultural project implementation office in Rosita as base for project implementation/management, utilizing office space, sharing radio communications, and cost-sharing project overhead; o Establishment and organization of Community Agro-Forestry Development Committee to serve as community-based point of contact for support, collaboration with initiatives such as POSAF II, communications, training, marketing information and storage and commercialization of raw and value-added forestry products; o Undertake a comprehensive diagnostic/inventory of existing agro-forestry resources in area around Wasakin (including a focus on non-timber forest products), with active participation of local foresters and gatherers. A rudimentary diagnostic of agro-forestry and agricultural products in the area was undertaken by Contigo International in 2000, and may provide insight into the potential of the region; o Conduct national and international market analysis of for agro-forestry products identified in the area diagnostic, including specifics on value- added processing, storage, packaging and commercial transportation of products from Wasakin to Rosita, Managua, and other principal markets; o Dissemination of market information directly to Wasakin foresters and gatherers through Agro-Forestry Development Committee; and o Dissemination of production and market information to other communitie s and organizations who would be able to benefit from it.Agro-Forestry Harvesting and Reforestation o Coordinate with Wasakin Agricultural Extension Worker (AEW) on the following activities: o Review of agro-forestry technology extension programs available through Universities, PROFOR, POSAF, etc.; o Elaboration of extension training workshops; o Delivery of on-site workshops with local foresters in: o Reforestation; o Identification and Harvesting of timber/non-timber forest products, and o Post-harvest management including storage and handling of wood products (drying & treating, etc.)storage and handling of crops; o Gathering and provision of improved seeds for agro-forestry products to local foresters; o Establishment of nurseries for seeds, seedlings and saplings in agro- forestry products recognized as having strong market potential, and facility for growth in local soils; o Conduct field tests on low-impact forest product reproduction and gathering technologies;ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 133. PAGE 122 o Launch reforestation and silviculture activities in areas most affected by deforestation activity, with support from POSAF II; o Clarification and acquisition of harvesting licenses from MAG-FOR; o Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest resources, fruit, herbs, flowers, roots, etc. identified in diagnostic and market study Commercialization o Review/assessment of commercial transportation linkages between Wasakin and principal markets identified in market study; o Dissemination of market access information directly to Wasakin Agricultural Development Committee;PARTNERS AND o MAG-FOR – licenses and technical assistanceCOLLABORATION o MARENA / POSAF II – Forestry management & reforestation support; o INTA – Agro-forestry management training o URACCAN’s Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development (IREMADES) o Rosita Municipality – support and collaboration o Meadow Lake Tribal Council and Contigo International – potential support & collaboration through CIDA-funded forestry management initiative in Prinzapolka & Bambana regions.M ETRICS (HOW o Establishment of Agro-Forestry Development Committee;TO M EASURE o Comprehensive diagnostic of timber and non-timber forestry resourcesSUCCESS) available to community; o Market study for locally-produced agro-forestry products available to community; o Participation of POSAF II in Wasakin; o Amount of trees planted in nursery; o Number of local foresters trained in forestry management techniques; o Amount and diversity of different forestry products being gathered; o Family income levelsB UDGET AND o As their in-kind contribution, individuals will provide land for nurseries,FINANCING as well as their own labor; o Forest gatherers will provide traditional knowledge and information to support research efforts; and o The community will provide land for the facilities of the Program and other resources to conduct studies and field tests; Estimated Project Budget: $180,000 to $270,000 over three yearsM ARKET It is anticipated that local and regional buyers will provide a consistent market forINFORMATION raw lumber, while market studies must be undertaken to determine the national and international markets for various value-added and raw forestry products;PRODUCTION It will be necessary to run tests to improve harvesting and reforestationINFORMATION technologies and assess the viability of producing certain key products in various areas. Foresters and gatherers from the community should be directly involved performing such field tests. Certain types of harvesting equipment identified as being ideal for the physical environment a for the types of products being nd harvested will need to be provided. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 134. PAGE 123GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenges to agro-forestry production in Wasakin will be theINFRASTRUCTURE sustainable harvesting and the transportation of products. The lack of properISSUES transportation means and the lack of definition around responsibility for maintenance of the access road from Rosita will affect commercialization of products DANIDA Transport program has committed to continue improving the road in partnership with the community and municipality, and are planning to build two pedestrian bridges over the Bambana River in the summer of 2002- 2003. Development of additional economic utilization of the transportation infrastructure should serve to increase the motivation of other partners to keep it in passable condition.PREVIOUS In the late 1990s, the lumber company La Amistad – which had been grantedEXPERIENCE several years worth of timber rights to communal lands in the area - closed operations due to poor capitalization and lack of implementation and forestry management plans. Indications are that there was a major design flaw in the mill that was constructed as part of the project, and that biodiversity concerns were not well considered in the company’s efforts. Currently, the Meadow Lake Tribal Council and Canadian NGO Contigo International are working with support from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) on a forestry initiative throughout the Prinzapolka and Bambana regions, including the community of Wasakin. This is an indigenous partnership project in agro-forestry, and may present opportunities for synergies with POSAF II and general developmental support to Wasakin.CAPACITY At present, the community lacks the capacity to protect and sustainably manageANALYSIS its forest resources, to manage communications with potential donors and partners(PROPONENT) in agro-forestry development, and to manage financial resources involved in a project of this nature. It is essential to build in capacity development activities, training, and infrastructure throughout the initiative to ensure sustainability. Productive leaders at the community level – such as Neddy Israel, President of REPROMAB – must be supported and trained to provide leadership and follow- through.M AJOR o Availability of forestry resources and human resources;STRENGTHS o A keen and urgent desire expressed by local residents to manage their own forestry resources, protect the region’s biodiversity, increase agro- forestry production in a sustainable manner and improve their living standards; o Relatively good road access to Rosita; o DANIDA has committed to partner in the improvement and maintenance of roads and bridges in the community; o MARENA interested in considering Wasakin as a pilot community for their POSAF II forestry management initiative;M AJOR RISKS AND o Currently no capacity to determine and meet quality requirements ofM ITIGATION markets for agro-forestry products. This can be mitigated by providing adequate training and teaching foresters and gatherers to use appropriate productive technologies and reforestation techniques; o Poor relationships between exist between Wasakin and the Municipality of Rosita. Through projects such as this one, the Municipality should be approached as a development partner, and should be encouraged to assume responsibility for maintaining access roads into Wasakin, ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 135. PAGE 124 amongst other commitments; o Lack of institutional presence in community (municipal, regional or central government, civil society, etc.) – to be mitigated by the institutional development aspect of this and other projects; and o Lack of storage and transportation infrastructure to facilitate commercialization of products. Strong collaboration with DANIDA Transport and the Municipality to reach institutional commitments on road improvements and maintenance is critical. Storage facilities should be contemplated within “Development of Value-Added Processing” project outlined below;TECHNICAL o Development of a local agro-forestry organization to provide leadershipASSISTANCE and continuity to the initiative;REQUIREMENTS o Direct technical support in appropriate and focused reforestation and harvesting technologies that are connected to identified markets for forestry products; o Testing of improved technologies with commensurate training and capacity building for formers in collaboration with technical support and expertise of INTA, PROFOR and MAG-FOR; o Area diagnostic and marketing study for local products;6.5.3 Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-Forestry Products in WasakinPROPONENTS Wasakin Community Elders Council, Síndigo and Community Coordinator (Traditional) REPROMAB (Incipient) Local Women’s Organization (Incipient)SECTOR ProcessingOBJECTIVES o Formalization of a women’s organization to spearhead a community based processing initiative; o Testing and improvement of artisan processing technology for agricultural crops and forest products; o Reduction in post-harvest losses of agricultural crops; o Establishment of appropriate small-scale processing facilities to generate products that meet market requirements with an eye to developing export capability; o Creation of formal employment; o Enhancement of commercialization opportunities for local products; o Increase family/community incomes;B ENEFICIARIES o Wasakin farmers, forest gatherers and their families; o Individuals in the community; o Women involved in artisan processing of agricultural and forest products o The community economy;PROJECT Local farmers and forest gatherers do not have proper facilities to store, preserveB ACKGROUND AND and process products, particularly agricultural ones, and many flowers, fruits and ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 136. PAGE 125DESCRIPTION leaves from the forest that are very delicate and tend to decay rapidly. This lack of infrastructure in combination with the lack of knowledge around processing is exacerbated by the lack of commercialization channels for their products. Local producers tend to cultivate very small areas and small amount of products from the forest. The lack of commercialization experience also means that the quality of the products may not be enough to qualify for the export market. Residents recognize that greater value from their cultivation and harvesting activities can be accrued through application of improved technology and information and from improved storage and value-added processing. They recognize that this requires their personal commitment as well as financial commitment from partners and donors, construction and maintenance of facilities, extensive training, and access to information. Community leaders and producers intend to work with the AEW and other interests to identify value-added products with strong market potential, and whose processing can be done on an artisanal level at the outset, in the hope of attracting the resources to eventually develop larger scale production and storage facilities. Presently, there is no formal women’s organization in the community, but it is recognized that women should lead a value-added community processing initiative, and that a critical first step would be the formalization of a women’s organization to provide leadership. Given that this initiative would build upon the success of the Agricultural Support and Agro Forestry Development Projects described above, appropriate timing for rollout of this initiative would be in Year 2 or 3 of those initiatives. This initiative would build upon the infrastructure (office, project management, institutional support) established through the other two initiatives. The principal activities involved in this prototype are as follows: Project Management and Organizational Development o Support to formation of Wasakin Processing Organization to lead processing initiative in the community; o Depending upon the status of the Rosita Agricultural Support and the Agro Forestry Development project office, and if sufficient infrastructure exists (electrification, radio, etc.) the project office could be relocated to Wasakin. Processing and Storage Infrastructure o Based on production information (market and production capacity as well as local infrastructure capacity) identify and prioritize various processing, storage and value-added technologies suitable for implementation in Wasakin; o Identify the most promising technologies and processes and hold community workshops to discuss the technologies with appropriate community stakeholders and identify community priorities and key implementation issues and risks, including organizational, transportation, storage and marketing issues; o Develop an implementation plan that takes into account implementation priorities, issues and risks identified above and includes a facilitative monitoring component that will provide ongoing feedback and support to all stakeholders; o Roll out implementation plan as above; o Develop a strategic plan to enable lessons learned from this project to be applied to the micro-region; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 137. PAGE 126PARTNERS AND o National Ministry of Industry;COLLABORATION o URRACAN and national universities (UNA, UNI, UNAN, UCA, etc) o Rosita Municipality; o Meadow Lake Tribal Council; o Contigo International; o CIDA; o Local farmers and foresters through Agricultural and Agro-Forestry Development Committees; and o Regional and local private distributors (distribuidoras comerciales).M ETRICS (HOW o Decrease in post-harvest agricultural losses;TO M EASURE o Volume of products marketed and value received;SUCCESS) o Family and individual income levels o Training workshops held; o Community Processing Implementation Plan developed; o Market studies available to producers in communities; o Replication in other areasB UDGET AND o As their in-kind contribution, the community will provide labor and landFINANCING for processing and storage facilities for the Program. They will also provide their traditional knowledge around processing and storage technologies; o A potential source of additional financing for construction of processing and storage infrastructure could be partner indigenous organizations in Canada and the United States with interest in value-added lumber, forestry and agricultural products; Estimated Project Budget: $175,000 to $290,000 over three yearsM ARKET The local market for value-added processed goods is somewhat limited, whereasINFORMATION the regional market is far greater, and at present there are few regional competitors for most products. National and international markets are much larger but competition is stiffer and quality requirements are considerably higher. Ultimately, the goal will be to access these markets through supported commercial partnerships and linkages and ever-increasing quality through improved processing capabilitiesPRODUCTION This project will require a great deal of research, testing and construction of bothINFORMATION processing and storage infrastructure. Depending upon the p roducts considered viable this project might consider the construction of grain silos, rice mills, portable saw mills, drying and packaging of forest products, and/or primary processing of fruits and vegetables. These will be prioritized and a rollout pla n developed that will take into account local capacity and financial and market limitations.GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenge to product processing will be the construction of artisanalINFRASTRUCTURE processing in the initial stages. Infrastruc ture for the storage, preservation,ISSUES transportation and distribution of products is a further consideration. One of the clear limitations in terms of processing is the lack of electrification in the ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 138. PAGE 127 community. It is the hope that Wasakin can partner with the World Bank as a key Phase II community in their rural electrification initiative, thus providing a key element necessary for processing of some forestry products.PREVIOUS The community of Wasakin has little or no experience in value-added processing.EXPERIENCE During the late 1990’s a private company called La Amistad attempted to set up a lumber milling operation in the community, but it was not sustainable. Local residents did not play a strong role in the project.CAPACITY There is no local experience implementing projects of this type even though theANALYSIS community has already been involved in some other very small social projects(PROPONENT) such as improvements to the school and small economía de patio projects. Training and capacity building are critical to ensure sustainability.M AJOR o Availability of forestry resources and human resources;STRENGTHS o Strong potential for agricultural development; o A strong expression of interest by local residents to own and operate their own processing facilities; o Integration with the other proposed prototypes, including the AEW project; o Relatively good road access to Rosita and other markets; o DANIDA has committed to partner in the improvement and maintenance of roads and bridges in the community; o MARENA interested in considering Wasakin as a pilot community for their POSAF II forestry management initiative, which will support the sustainable harvesting of forest products;M AJOR RISKS AND o Currently no capacity to determine and meet quality requirements ofM ITIGATION markets for value-added agricultural and agro-forestry products. This can be mitigated by providing adequate training in artisanal processing technologies, with a vision to developing larger-scale processing and storage facilities; o Community has no experience managing its own business and maintaining equipment. Sufficient financial support, training and sustained technical assistance from development partners (public and private sector), civil society, governments will increase the chances of sustainability for this initiative; o Poor relationships between exist between Wasakin and the Municipality of Rosita. Through projects such as this one, the Municipality should be approached as a development partner, and should be encouraged to assume responsibility for maintaining access roads into Wasakin, amongst other commitments; o Lack of institutional presence in community (municipal, regional or central government, civil society, etc.) o No electrification – it is hoped that Wasakin will receive support from the World Bank’s rural electrification project to provide a key element to this initiative;TECHNICAL o This initiative is largely dependent upon the implementation and successASSISTANCE of the Agricultural Support and Agro Forestry Development ProjectsREQUIREMENTS described above in terms of productive inputs and institutional capacity development at the community level; o Sustained training, technical assistance and support in the construction ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 139. PAGE 128 and maintenance of processing and storage infrastructure are critical to the success of this initiative; and o National Ministry of Industry and universities will provide technical expertise for technology tests, training and capacitating activities6.6 Francia Sirpi (Tasba Raya)6.6.1 Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agricultural Support ProjectPROPONENTS Francia Sirpi Community Elders Council, Síndigo and Community Coordinator (Traditional) Individual FarmersSECTOR AgricultureOBJECTIVES o Improve crop production technologies in the area; o Increase formal agriculture activity in the area, organizing community and families to increase cultivation on their plots; o Increase crop yield levels; o Improve quality of products to meet exportation requirements; o Increase family/community income and improve family diet; o Create local job opportunities;B ENEFICIARIES o Miskito farmers and their families; o The community economy; and o Satellite communities and their residents throughout the area.PROJECT The Miskito Indian community of Francia Sirpi has a long tradition of farming,B ACKGROUND AND low-intensity forestry, hunting/gathering and long-range cattle farming. FarmersDESCRIPTION in the community are traditional producers of basic grains. However, despite the availability of huge tracts of agricultural land, production technologies currently utilized are rudimentary in the extreme, crop yields are extremely low and the community utilizes only small patches along the riverbank to grow mainly subsistence food crops. The traditional market for their products has been Waspam and Puerto Cabezas. The community is located less than 20 kilometers away from the main Puerto Cabezas-Waspam highway, and the access road is in very good condition thanks to the support of DANIDA Transport in recent years. All land in Francia Sirpi is communally owned and managed, and each family manages a small plot. The community has expressed a great deal of interest in launching a well-supported integrated agricultural initiative to take advantage of the rich growing area, and the central location of the community in the extensive Tasba Raya as a hub of agricultural development. This project will support agriculture production in the Tasba Raya region with a vision to providing resources and technical assistance to the numerous satellite communities in the immediate vicinity of Francia Sirpi. The initiative will begin with a market study to determine which crops offer the greatest potential as cash crops and how they can best be marketed in the region. Concurrent with this an ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 140. PAGE 129 organizational development process will assist farmers in the area to formalize and strengthen an Agricultural Development Committee and prepare them to be effective partners in project implementation. Further to this will be a review of the capacity of local soils in order to determine which products and techniques will be most suitable for the Tasba Raya area. The market study and soil analysis will identify preferred crops for the community. The principal activities involved in this prototype are as follows: Project Management and Organizational Development o Establish project liaison office in Francia Sirpi; o Provision of CB radios as means of regular contact between IDB/IDR project implementation office in Puerto Cabezas and community; o Establishment and organization of Francia Sirpi Community Agricultural Development Committee to serve as community-based point of contact for support, communications, training, marketing information and storage and commercialization of agricultural products. Market Analysis and Commercialization o Analysis of market potential for agricultural products identified in soil analysis, including specifics on storage and commercial transportation of products from Francia Sirpi to Waspam, Puerto Cabezas and other principal markets; o Dissemination of market information directly to Francia Sirpi farmers through Agricultural Development Committee; Agricultural Development o Coordination with Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agricultural Extension Worker for Agricultural Development activities, including: o Identification of appropriate test fields in Francia Sirpi area; o Soil capacity analyses o Development of nurseries for improved seed in products recognized as having strong market potential, and facility for growth in local soils; o Onsite workshops with local producers in the following themes: § Soil preparation and planting techniques, § Crop rotation, irrigation, and soil management, § Harvesting techniques, and § Post-harvest management including storage and handling of crops; o Provision of improved seeds for agricultural production to local farmers; o Frequent site visits by regional AEW to assist producers in applying the information from workshops;PARTNERS AND o Waspam Municipality - collaboration on road maintenance;COLLABORATION o INTA - collaboration in training initiatives for farmers, and provision of improved seed; o MAG-FOR – collaboration; and o Regional and local private distributors (distribuidoras comerciales).M ETRICS (HOW o Existence of community agricultural development committee;TO M EASURE o Establishment of project liaison office in Francia Sirpi; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 141. PAGE 130SUCCESS) o Market information for locally-grown produce available at community level; o Amount of land (ha) under cultivation; o Crop yields per unit area; o Sales/income generated through agriculture; o Number of different crops being grown (market diversity); and o Family and individual income levels;B UDGET AND o As their in-kind contribution, community producers will provide land forFINANCING nurseries, test crops and general production under the auspices of this initiative, and will provide space for construction of agricultural development committee headquarters and other facilities associated with the economic development of the community; Estimated Project Budget: $185,000 to $275,000 over three yearsM ARKET The Waspam and Puerto Cabezas markets will provide initial demand forINFORMATION consistent and quality supply of agricultural product. As productive technologies are improved and crop yields grow, it will be essential to have information on national and international markets, quality and packaging requirements, and information on viable transportation options for moving product.PRODUCTION It will be necessary to run field tests to improve crop production technologies andINFORMATION assess the viability of producing certain key products in various areas. Farmers should be directly involved performing such field tests.GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenge to crop production will be the storage and transportation ofINFRASTRUCTURE products. The lack of a vehicle will affect commercialization of products, and theISSUES high cost of renting a vehicle will have to be taken into consideration. DANIDA has committed to continue providing support in the maintenance of the road in partnership with the community and municipality.PREVIOUS The community of Francia Sirpi has had very little experience with integratedEXPERIENCE development in the agriculture sector. There has been no experience to date with organizing community-level agricultural development committees.CAPACITY The community lacks the capacity at present to manage financial resources, and toANALYSIS manage communications with potential donors and partners in development. It is(PROPONENT) essential to build in capacity development activities, training, and infrastructure throughout the initiative to ensure sustainability. Productive leaders at the community level, both men and women, must be supported and trained to provide leadership and follow-through.M AJOR o Residents have expressed a keen and urgent desire to manage their ownSTRENGTHS resources, increase production and improve their living standards; o Availability of fertile land and human resources; o Francia Sirpi has relatively good access to the markets of Waspam and Puerto Cabezas; o DANIDA has committed to partner in the improvement and maintenance of roads into the community; o World Bank and CNE has selected Francia Sirpi as a candidate for Phase I of their rural electrification project; o Canadian government may consider Francia Sirpi for water & sanitation ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 142. PAGE 131 projects in future; o All agricultural crops are organic;M AJOR RISKS AND o Currently there is low capacity to meet quality requirements of markets.M ITIGATION This can be mitigated by providing adequate seed and teaching farmers to use appropriate productive technologies; o There is minimal communication and planning between the community and the Municipality of Waspam. The Municipality has expressed interest in being a partner in Francia Sirpi’s development, but recognizes that it lacks the resources to be a major player; o Lack of institutional presence in community (municipal, regional or central government, civil society, etc.) o Lack of potable water. Support from Canadian government, Red Cross and other agencies should be formalized to ease the health burdens on the individuals in the community; o Lack of storage and transportation infrastructure to facilitate commercialization of products. Storage facilities should be contemplated within “Development of Value-Added Processing” project outlined below, while the purchase/lease of a vehicle to move product may be an eventual consideration to facilitate commercialization and decrease dependency on foreign buyers and movement of product on foot or by beast.TECHNICAL o Formation of a local producer organization to provide leadership andASSISTANCE continuity to the initiative;REQUIREMENTS o Direct technical support in appropriate and focused agricultural development technologies that are connected to identified markets for agricultural products; o Testing of improved technologies with commensurate training and capacity building for formers in collaboration with technical support and expertise of INTA and MAG-FOR;6.6.2 Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agro Forestry DevelopmentPROPONENT Francia Sirpi Community Elders Council, Síndigo and Community Coordinator (Traditional) Individual Foresters and GatherersSECTOR Agro-ForestryOBJECTIVES o Recover and preserve local forests and wildlife for future sustainable use; o Produce wood and food trees in nurseries for silviculture/reforestation purposes; o Improve forest product gathering technologies; o Increase the amount of products that can be extracted from the forest; o Improve quality of products to meet exportation requirements; o Increase family/community incomes; o Create local job opportunities; o Invite the participation of MARENA/POSAF II; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 143. PAGE 132B ENEFICIARIES o Forest gatherers and their families; o The community economy; o The local environment;PROJECT Miskito residents are traditional farmers, foresters, and hunter-gatherers. AB ACKGROUND AND significant portion of family and community income is currently derived fromDESCRIPTION forestry activities. Preliminary research indicates that there is significant commercial potential in the timber/non-timber resources in the immediate area surrounding the community. The project will build on the existing community experience and their knowledge of local lands and resources to maximize the sustainable commercial value of local timber and non-timber forest products. Note: many of the activities described for this prototype reflect close collaboration and cost sharing with the agricultural development initiative described above. It is erroneous to consider agricultural and agro-forestry development to be one in the same, though project infrastructure can easily be shared between the two initiatives The principal activities involved in this prototype are as follows: Project Management, Organizational Development, Diagnostics and Market Analysis o Collaborate with Agricultural project liaison office in Francia Sirpi as base for project implementation/management, utilizing office space, sharing radio communications, and cost-sharing project overhead; o Establishment and organization of Community Agro-Forestry Development Committee to serve as point of contact for support, collaboration with initiatives such as POSAF II, communications, training, marketing information and storage and commercialization of raw and value-added forestry products; o Undertake a comprehensive diagnostic/inventory of existing agro-forestry resources in area around Francia Sirpi, with active participation of local foresters and gatherers; o Conduct national and international market analysis of for agro-forestry products identified in area diagnostic, including specifics on value-added processing, storage, packaging and commercial transportation of products from Francia Sirpi to Waspam, Puerto Cabezas, Managua, and other principal markets; o Dissemination of market information directly to Francia Sirpi foresters and gatherers through Agro-Forestry Development Committee; Agro-Forestry Harvesting and Reforestation o Coordinate with Francia Sirpi Agricultural Extension Worker (AEW) on the following activities: o Review of agro-forestry technology extension programs available through Universities, PROFOR, POSAF, etc.; o Elaboration of extension training workshops; o Delivery of on-site workshops with local foresters in: o Reforestation; o Harvesting techniques, and o Post-harvest management including storage and handling of wood products (drying & treating, etc.) storage and handling of crops; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 144. PAGE 133 o Gathering and provision of improved seeds for agro-forestry products to local foresters; o Establishment of nurseries for seeds, seedlings and saplings in agro- forestry products recognized as having strong market potential, and facility for growth in local soils; o Conduct field tests on low-impact forest product reproduction and gathering technologies; o Launch reforestation and silviculture activities in areas most affected by deforestation activity, with support from POSAF II; o Clarification and acquisition of harvesting licenses from MAG-FOR; o Sustainable harvesting of wood resources, fruit, herbs, flowers, roots, etc. identified in diagnostic and market study Commercialization o Review/assessment of commercial transportation linkages between Wasakin and principal markets identified in market study; o Dissemination of market access information directly to Francia Sirpi Agricultural Development Committee;PARTNERS AND o MAG-FOR – licenses and technical assistanceCOLLABORATION o MARENA / POSAF II – Forestry management, reforestation support; o PROFOR – Forestry management, reforestation support; o INTA – Agro-forestry management training o URACCAN’s Institute of Natural Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development (IREMADES) – training and diagnostics o Waspam Municipality – support and collaborationM ETRICS (HOW o Establishment of Agro-Forestry Development Committee;TO M EASURE o Comprehensive diagnostic of forestry resources available to community;SUCCESS) o Market study for locally-produced agro-forestry products available to community; o Presence of POSAF II in Francia Sirpi; o Number of trees planted in nursery; o Number of local foresters trained in forestry management techniques; o Amount and diversity of different forestry products being gathered and marketed; o Family income levelsB UDGET AND o As their in-kind contribution, individuals will provide land for nurseries,FINANCING as well as their own labor and traditional knowledge; o The community will provide land for the facilities of the Program and other resources to conduct studies and field tests; Estimated Project Budget: $180,000 to $270,000 over three yearsM ARKET It is anticipated that regional and national buyers will provide a consistent marketINFORMATION for raw lumber, while market studies must be undertaken to determine the national and international markets for various value-added and raw forestry products; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 145. PAGE 134PRODUCTION It will be necessary to run tests to improve harvesting and reforestationINFORMATION technologies and assess the viability of producing certain key products in various areas. Foresters and gatherers from the community should be directly involved performing such field tests. Certain types of harvesting equipment identified as being ideal for the physical environment and for the types of products being harvested will need to be provided.GEOGRAPHIC AND The main challenges to agro-forestry production in Francia Sirpi will be theINFRASTRUCTURE sustainable harvesting and the transportation of products. The lack of properISSUES transportation means will affect commercialization of products DANIDA Transport program has committed to continue improving the road in partnership with the community and municipality.PREVIOUS The community has had no measurable experience in an agro-forestry initiative ofEXPERIENCE this sort.CAPACITY At present, the community lacks the capacity to protect and sustainably manageANALYSIS its forest resources, to manage communications with potential donors and partners(PROPONENT) in agro-forestry development, and to manage financial resources involved in a project of this nature. It is essential to build in capacity development activities, training, and infrastructure throughout the initiative to ensure sustainability. Productive leaders at the community level must be supported and trained to provide leadership and follow-through.M AJOR o Availability of forestry resources and human resources;STRENGTHS o A keen and urgent desire expressed by local residents to manage their own forestry resources, protect the region’s biodiversity, increase agro- forestry production in a sustainable manner and improve their living standards; o Good road access to Waspam and Puerto Cabezas; o DANIDA has committed to partner in the improvement and maintenance of roads and bridges in the community; o MARENA is interested in considering Francia Sirpi as a pilot community for their POSAF II forestry management initiative;M AJOR RISKS AND o Currently no capacity to determine and meet quality requirements ofM ITIGATION markets for agro-forestry products. This can be mitigated by providing adequate training and teaching foresters and gatherers to use appropriate productive technologies and reforestation techniques; o Relationships between Francia Sirpi and GRAAN and the Waspam Municipality are not great. Through projects such as this one, the Municipality and GRAAN should be approached as a development partner, and should be encouraged to assume responsibility to support the community in its development aspirations; o Lack of institutional presence in community (municipal, regional or central government, civil society, etc.) o Poor access to potable water. There are only a handful of wells in the community, and during the summer season, many run dry. The nearest river is over a mile walk away, and it polluted; o Lack of storage and transportation infrastructure to facilitate commercialization of products. Strong collaboration with DANIDA ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  • 146. PAGE 135 Transport and the Waspam Municipality to reach institutional commitments on road improvements and maintenance is critical. Storage facilities should be contemplated within “Development of Value-Added Processing” project outlined below;TECHNICAL o Development of a local agro-forestry organization to provide leadershipASSISTANCE and continuity to the initiative;REQUIREMENTS o Direct technical support in appropriate and focused reforestation and harvesting technologies that are connected to identified markets for forestry products; o Testing of improved technologies with commensurate training and capacity building for formers in collaboration with technical support and expertise of INTA, PROFOR and MAG-FOR; o Area diagnostic and marketing study for local products;6.6.3 Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-Forestry Products in Francia SirpiPROPONENTS Wasakin Community Elders Council, Síndigo and Community Coordinator (Traditional) Local Women’s Organization (Incipient)SECTOR ProcessingOBJECTIVES o Development of an organization to spearhead processing initiative in the community; o Test and improve artisan processing technology for agricultural crops and forest products; o Reduce post-harvest losses of agricultural crops; o If feasible, establish appropriate product processing facilities to generate quality products that meet market requirements with an eye to export capability; o Create local jobs; o Enhance commercialization opportunities for local products; o Increase family/community incomes;B ENEFICIARIES o Local farmers, forest gatherers and their families; o Individuals in the community; o People involved in artisan processing of agricultural and forest products o The community economy;PROJECT Francia Sirpi residents are traditional farmers and forest gatherers, but their post-B ACKGROUND AND harvest losses are very high, and forestry extraction practices are inefficient.DESCRIPTION Local farmers and forest gatherers do not have training and/or proper facilities to store, preserve and process the products that they harvest. The proposed initiative will build upon the Agricultural Support and Agro Forestry Development Projects described above, and support the development of value added processing and storage facilities and knowledge. It wil