ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC D EVELOPMENT              OPPORTUNITIES FORA FRO-LATIN AND I NDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE        AT...
ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC D EVELOPMENTOPPORTUNITIES FOR A FRO-LATIN COMMUNITIES IN THE         ATLANTIC COAST OF N ICARAGUA  ...
- i-FOREWORD TO READERSDuring the course of conducting this assessment and preparing this document, it became clear to the...
- ii -EXECUTIVE S UMMARYThis assessment of economic development opportunities was commissioned in 2002, withfinancing from...
- iii -   o   Government of the Southern Atlantic Autonomous Region (GRAAS);   o   Government of the Northern Atlantic Aut...
- iv -agricultural information, provision of training and technical assistance, and inter-projectcoordination for a three ...
-v-AcronymsACDI / CIDA      Agencia Canadiense de Desarrollo Internacional / Canadian International                   Deve...
- vi -IDSIM       Instituto de Desarrollo de la Iglesia de MoraviaINATEC      Instituto Nacional TecnológicoINDEL       In...
- vii -TABLE OF CONTENTS1           INTRODUCTION.............................................................................
- viii -    5.4     Corn Island                                                                                           ...
- ix -7            SUCCESS FACTORS AND ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................145  ...
PAGE 11 INTRODUCTIONEarly in 2002, The Social Development Division of the Sustainable Development Departmentof the Inter-A...
PAGE 2   o Section 7 presents a brief set of general comments and suggestions specific to the     rollout of the Bank’s NI...
PAGE 32 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHIn order to achieve the primary objective of this Consultancy - “To develop project models ...
PAGE 4Figure 2-1 Graphical Representation of Methodological Approach      External Analysis                               ...
PAGE 52.1 Major ActivitiesFollowing is a brief description of the principal missions and activities involved in theprepara...
PAGE 6        o Review of project documents        o Where possible, interviews with 2 or more project stakeholders   o Su...
PAGE 72.3.3 Community SelectionWhile the primary objective of this assignment was to elaborate specific project prototypes...
PAGE 8     Figure 2-2: Community Selection Analytical FrameworkCOMMUNITY                           STRENGTHS              ...
PAGE 9COMMUNITY                         STRENGTHS                                           WEAKNESSES                    ...
PAGE 10COMMUNITY                            STRENGTHS                                            WEAKNESSES               ...
PAGE 11COMMUNITY                          STRENGTHS                                            WEAKNESSES                 ...
PAGE 12COMMUNITY                        STRENGTHS                                            WEAKNESSES                   ...
PAGE 13Waspam   §   Predominantly Miskitu population                     §   History of failed projects on large scale    ...
PAGE 142.3.4 Community Assessment FrameworkThe Consultants prepared comprehensive community assessments to provide a snaps...
PAGE 153 O VERVIEW OF SOCIO-E CONOMIC C ONDITIONS AND  P RODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES ON THE ATLANTIC C OASTSix communities that c...
PAGE 16activities were largely unsustainable, environmentally devastating, and gave littleconsideration for local communit...
PAGE 17infrastructure such as CB radio, telephone, or even local radio stations. While a fewcommunities have a clinic for ...
PAGE 18the Autonomous Regions, a full 20% of households along the Atlantic Coast receiveremittances from family and friend...
PAGE 194 SELECTED COMMUNITIES4.1 IntroductionThis section provides profiles of the six communities selected as pilot commu...
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua
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Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua

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This assessment of economic development opportunities available to Afro-Latin and Indigenous communities on the Miskito Coast of Nicaragua was commissioned in 2002 by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The report includes a detailed socio-economic, political and capacity assessment of the region and the six targeted communities. The report outlines 20 specific project opportunities, 13 of which were deemed viable.

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Assessment of Economic Development Opportunities for Afro-Latin Communities in the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua

  1. 1. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC D EVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES FORA FRO-LATIN AND I NDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES IN THE ATLANTIC COAST OF N ICARAGUA - FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED TO : CLAIRE NELSON INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT B ANK DECEMBER 2002 SUBMITTED B Y: WAYNE D UNN & ASSOCIATES , L TD. 2457 B AKERVIEW ROAD M ILL BAY, BC CANADA V0P 2R0 WAYNE D UNN ANDREW GRANTThis report was developed with the support of the CANTAP Assistance Fund and administered by the Inter-American Development Bank.
  2. 2. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC D EVELOPMENTOPPORTUNITIES FOR A FRO-LATIN COMMUNITIES IN THE ATLANTIC COAST OF N ICARAGUA - FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED TO : CLAIRE NELSON INTER-AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT B ANK DECEMBER 2002 SUBMITTED B Y: WAYNE D UNN & ASSOCIATES , L TD. 2457 B AKERVIEW ROAD M ILL BAY, BC CANADA V0P 2R0 WAYNE D UNN ANDREW GRANT This report was developed with the support of the CANTAP Assistance Fund and administered by the Inter-American Development Bank.
  3. 3. - i-FOREWORD TO READERSDuring the course of conducting this assessment and preparing this document, it became clear to theconsulting team that there was no single place where one could find detailed information on the pilotcommunities, on community- and regional- level organizations and on other key developmentstakeholders along the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua.In order to properly fulfill the requirements of this assignment, the authors made every effort todevelop and consolidate this information, making it available to the Inter-American DevelopmentBank in order that they could properly assess the project prototypes that are presented. A decision wasmade to include much of this information within this report so that it would be available to otherreaders and could, hopefully, provide background information and detail that will direct and encourageadditional development in the communities and region. Where the authors deemed it practical (e.g.,organizational assessments) information has been presented as an appendix. Information presentedwithin the body of the document is directly pertinent to the assessments undertaken, and can serve toinform further analysis of the prototypes as well as finalization of implementation plans.The Introduction to this report outlines in detail what is contained within each Section as well as theAppendices. Readers wishing less comprehensive information are encouraged to go directly to thosesections/communities/projects that are relevant for their purposes. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  4. 4. - ii -EXECUTIVE S UMMARYThis assessment of economic development opportunities was commissioned in 2002, withfinancing from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), by theInteramerican Development Bank (IDB) through the Social Development Division of itsSustainable Development Department. The mandate of the cons ulting team was theelaboration of project models or prototypes of viable income- generating activities for selectAfro-Latin and Indigenous Communities along the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua in directconsultation with producers and leaders within the communities.Using a systematic community selection process, six communities along Nicaragua’s Atlantic(Miskito) coast were identified to be the focus of pilot initiatives. Of these six, four (PearlLagoon, Marshall Point, Orinoco and Corn Island) are princ ipally Afro-Latin communities,displaying a relatively large population of Creole and/or Garifuna inhabitants. Anothercommunity (Francia Sirpi) is Miskito, while the sixth (Wasakin) has a predominantly Sumopopulation.The project prototypes are based on community priorities, take into account the variouschallenges inherent in development initiatives along the Atlantic Coast, and attempt to buildupon pre-existing community infrastructure and organizations. The communities selected toparticipate in this assessment reflect micro-regional cultural and development hubs, whereinproductive support can have the greatest impact with an initial emphasis on capacity building,diagnostics, market recognition and productive development activities, rather than thepolemic issues of physical infrastructure development and the establishment of commercial orcommunity-based credit systems.The prototypes presented in this assessment have been validated by the communitiesthemselves as well as the Regional Governments of the Southern and Northern AutonomousRegions, the regional offices of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAG-FOR),participating Municipalities of Rosita, Pearl Lagoon, Corn Island and Waspan, and bothregional Universities: BICU and URACCAN.To ensure that lessons learned were incorporated in the recommendations of this assessment,the methodology included an analysis of past and present economic developmentinterventions in the region which have been supported by a variety of institutions inc luding,World Bank, UNDP, IDB, ASDI, CIDA, USAid, Interamerican Foundation, DANIDA, civilsociety and NGOs, and others.Efforts were made to assess these initiatives, and to develop a comprehensive perspective ofthe development landscape along the coast, in order to avoid the potential for duplication ofactivity, and to inform the IDB of opportunities for collaboration. To that end, the consultantshave held discussions with the following organizations and projects, all of which haveexpressed their commitment to support the prototypes presented herein with parallelinitiatives in accordance with their own development priorities, within the context of anintegrated development strategy: o Emergency Social Investment Fund (FISE); o World Bank Rural Electrification Initiative; o United Nations Development Programme; o DANIDA Transport; o Inter-American Foundation; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  5. 5. - iii - o Government of the Southern Atlantic Autonomous Region (GRAAS); o Government of the Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region (GRAAN); o Municipalities; o POSAF; o Corredor Biológico del Atlántico; o Meadow Lake Tribal Council Proinzapolka Forestry Initiative (Funding from CIDA);A principal focus of this assessment was the identification of prototypes whose objectives fitwithin the Bank’s Productive Agricultural Reactiva tion initiative (NI-0159) in collaborationwith Nicaragua’s Instituto de Desarrollo Rural (IDR). Given the IDR’s current lack ofpresence along the Atlantic coast, and the parameters provided to the consulting team by theBank’s representatives in Managua, the consulting team has developed implementationstrategies, partnerships, and potential institutional collaboration to increase the visibility andpotential impact of the IDR’s efforts in the region.Findings suggest that in all communities assessed, community- led agricultural reactivationpresents a viable and sustainable means of economic development. Preliminary analyses andcurrent production levels suggest that much of the land which is currently producing atsubsistence levels or laying fallow has the capacity to produce a variety of products whichhave a proven market regionally, nationally and internationally. An added benefit is that themajority if not all agricultural production from the communities along the coast could becertified as organic by national and international bodies. This presents a tremendousopportunity for communities to derive even greater value from agricultural exports.The principal technical challenges to agricultural reactivation are in the lack of awareness ofmarkets amongst producers, lack of access to markets due to the lack of transportationoptions, and the lack of technical skills in the areas of seeding, crop rotation, irrigation,harvesting, handling and packaging of product. The technical challenges are compounded byorganizational issues – the majority of community based organizations that could supportagricultural initiatives require focused and sustained institutional strengthening in order toeffectively support their membership and be sustainable contributing partners to the process.Project prototypes in the area of agricultural reactivation for all six communities are designedto support these groups to meet the organizational challenges they face. Groups andindividuals have been identified in each c ommunity to assume a leadership role in theseinitiatives.In the interest of diversifying economic activity and creating value-added to the productiveagricultural opportunities, the consultants are also recommending prototypes focused on theprocessing of agricultural and agro-forestry products in selected communities. In this regard,the Bank- funded POSAF II sustainable agro- forestry initiative represents an opportunity forco-financing and institutional collaboration. The initial stage of POSAF did not includecommunities along the Atlantic Coast, but program representatives expressed to theconsultants the sincere interest in leveraging the Bank’s findings through this assessment intotheir own community selection process. The consultants strongly suggest that the Bankconsider three communities – Pearl Lagoon, Wasakin and Francia Sirpi – as pilotcommunities for POSAF II in the region.A critical finding of this assessment is the need to provide direct and ongoing support to thesix pilot communities involved in the agricultural rehabilitation, agro- forestry developmentand agricultural processing initiatives, as well as in the development and dissemination of ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  6. 6. - iv -agricultural information, provision of training and technical assistance, and inter-projectcoordination for a three to four year pilot initiative. To facilitate these goals, one prototypefocuses on region-wide agricultural extension services to provide ongoing support tocommunities and to serve as a conduit for information and transfer of knowledge.In the four Afro- Latin communities considered in this assessment – Pearl Lagoon, MarshallPoint, Orinoco and Corn Island – small-scale craft or ‘artesanal’ fishing is the principalincome generator for the vast majority of residents, alongside cash remittances from familyand friends living and working abroad. In recent years, artisanal fisheries have been on thedecline due to decreasing stocks of lobster, shrimp and some finfish, highly-efficient andenvironmentally degrading fishing practices, lack of resources to maintain and upgrade boatsand equipment, and increasing competition with foreign-owned industrial boats. Throughoutthe assessment, it was the consensus opinion of industrial fishermen and individual craftfishermen alike that small-scale fishing operations are more productive and efficient, whilebeing less environmentally damaging than industrial fishing. Prototypes developed for theCreole and Garifuna communities of Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point and Orinoco, as well as theCreole/Miskitu communities of Greater and Lesser Corn Island, reflect opportunities tostrengthen the abilities of craft fishermen working in common to improve their infrastructureand protect the resources of the sea and lagoon.Beyond the 13 prototypes considered as viable for this assessment, seven additionalprototypes were also developed in the areas of aquaculture, support to home-based tourism,and cattle production. In the opinion of the consultants, these prototypes lack strong supportin the community, and require further study to determine implementation feasibility andenvironmental impact. They are listed in the appendices of this assessment as prototypes forfurther consideration.Throughout the assessment, community leaders, agricultural producers, fishermen and womenin the various communities frequently expressed their frustration concerning nature andprocess of previous development efforts. Another finding is that many of the communities aresuffering from “development fatigue” resulting from the large numbers of ‘studies’ (whichrequire community time and energy and seem to seldom produce any tangible communitybenefits). To combat the skepticism stemming from this situation, the consultants recommendthe establishment and/or reinforcement of strong and enduring lines of communicationbetween the development agencies and the communities themselves. This is an initiative thatcould be spearheaded by the Inter-Institutional Forum for the Atlantic Coast (FIICA), andmay mitigate some of the negative sentiment around development initiatives pervasive in theregion today.Thoughtful support of community-based development along the Atlantic coast must recognizethe increasing political, cultural and economic isolation felt by the residents of thesecommunities, and must take into account efforts undertaken in past interventions, drawingexperience from the lessons learned from both successful and unsuccessful initiatives. TheBank has an opportunity to support incipient and established development groups in thecommunities outlined in this report, and to foster pilot initiatives to provide a catalyst for theintegration of the efforts of development agencies, civil society groups, national and regionalgovernments in the region. The prototypes presented in this assessment represent viablemeans of supporting disadvantaged peoples and communities. It is expecated that many ofthe prototypes will produce information and lessons that can be applied throughout the regionand can serve to inform IDB projects in other countries in the hemisphere. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  7. 7. -v-AcronymsACDI / CIDA Agencia Canadiense de Desarrollo Internacional / Canadian International Development AgencyACNUR Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para RefugiadosADEPHCA Asociación de Desarrollo y Promoción Humana de la Costa AtlánticaADESCA Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Costa AtlánticaADPESCA Administración Nacional de Pesca y AcuiculturaADRA Adventist Development And Relief AgencyAECI Spanish International Cooperation AgencyAMICA Asociación de Mujeres Indígenas de la Costa AtlánticaAMIR Asociación de Mujeres Indígenas RamaAMURACAN Asociación de Municipios de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Atlántica de NicaraguaAPAM Asociación de los Pescadores Buzos Artesanales MiskitosAPENN Asociación Nicaraguense de Productores y Exportadores de Productos no TradicionalesASDI / SIDA Swedish International Development CooperationBICU Bluefields Indian and Caribbean UniversityBID/IDB Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo / Inter-American Development BankBM/WB Banco Mundial / World BankCARUNA Cooperativa de Ahorro y Crédito "Caja Rural Nacional" R.LCDE Centro de Desarrollo EmpresarialCDM Comités de Desarrollo MunicipalCEDECHA Centro de Derechos Civiles, Humanos y AutónomosCentro CONADES Conservación de la Naturaleza y el DesarrolloCIDA Canadian International Development AgencyCONADES Consejo Nacional de DesarrolloCONPES Consejo Nacional de Planificación EconómicaDANIDA Danish Agency for Development AssistanceEA Entidades AdministrativasERCERP Estrategia Reforzada de Crecimiento Económico y Reducción de PobrezaFADCANIC Fundación para la Autonomía y el Desarrollo de la Costa Atlántica de NicaraguaFIICA Foro Inter-Institucional de la Costa AtlánticaFISE Fondo Social de Inversión y EmergenciaFUNDE Fundación para el Desarrollo EconómicoFUNDECA Foundation for the Education and Development of the Atlantic CoastFURCA Fundación por la Unidad y Reconstrucción de la Costa AtlánticaGRAAN Gobierno Regional de la Región Autónoma Atlántico NorteGRAAS Gobierno Regional de la Región Autónoma Atlántico SurGTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische ZusammenarbeitIDR Instituto de Desarrollo Rural ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  8. 8. - vi -IDSIM Instituto de Desarrollo de la Iglesia de MoraviaINATEC Instituto Nacional TecnológicoINDEL Iniciativas para el Desarrollo LocalINEC Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y CensosINFOR Instituto Nacional ForestalINIFOM Instituto Nicaragüense de Fomento MunicipalINPRU Instituto de Promoción HumanaINTA Instituto Nicaragüense de Tecnología AgropecuariaIPADE Instituto para el Desarrollo de la DemocraciaJICA Japan International Cooperation AgencyKEPA The Service Centre for Development Cooperation (Finland)MAGFOR Ministerio Agropecuario y ForestalMARENA Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos NaturalesMECD Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y DeportesMEDA Mennonite Economic Development AssociatesMIFIC Ministerio de Fomento, Industria y ComercioMINSA Ministerio de Salud de NicaraguaMTI Ministerio de Transporte e InfraestructuraNGO/ONG Non-Governmental Organization / Organización No-GubernamentalNOVIB Netherlands Organization for International Development CooperationOAGANIC Nicaraguan Afro-Garifuna OrganizationPAC Proyecto de Apoyo a la Competitividad AgroalimentariaPANA PANA Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Costa AtlánticaPNDR Programa Nacional del Desarrollo RuralPOSAF Programa Socioambiental y de Desarrollo ForestalPROFOR Proyecto Forestal de NicaraguaPRORAAS Proyecto de Apoyo al Desarrollo Humano Sostenible de las Comunidades Indígenas y Campesinas de la Zona Norte de la Región Autónoma del Atlántico SurPROTIERRA Proyecto Reforzamiento de Políticas de Recursos NaturalesPRPA Programa de Reactivación Productiva AgroalimentariaPRSP Nicaraguan Poverty Reduction Strategy PaperRAAN Región Autónomos Atlántico NorteRAAS Región Autónomos Atlántico SurSETEC Secretaria Técnica de la PresidenciaSIBURAAN Sindicato de Busos de la RAANSISPADRU Sistema de Procedimientos Ambientales de Desarrollo RuralSUKAWALA National Association of Sumu Communitie sUE / EU Unión Europea / European UnionUNAG Unión Nacional de Productores y GanaderosURACCAN University of the Autonomous Regions of the Caribbean Coast of NicaraguaUSAID United States Agency for International Development ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  9. 9. - vii -TABLE OF CONTENTS1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 12 M ETHODOLOGICAL APPROACH ............................................................................................ 3 2.1 Major Activities 5 2.2 Data Gathering and Research 5 2.3 Use of Analytical Frameworks 6 2.3.1 Multi-Lateral and Bi-Lateral Program Review Framework.....................................................6 2.3.2 Summary of Key Bi-Lateral Development Agencies...................................................................6 2.3.3 Community Selection.........................................................................................................................7 2.3.4 Community Assessment Framework ............................................................................................14 2.3.5 Organizational Assessment Framework ......................................................................................14 2.3.6 Dev-SCOT Analysis..........................................................................................................................14 2.3.7 Project Prototype Assessment Framework ..................................................................................143 OVERVIEW OF SOCIO -ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES ON THE ATLANTIC COAST............................................................................................................... 15 3.1 Historical and Socio-Economic Overview of Atlantic Coast 15 3.2 General Comments on Atlantic Coast Development Challenges 184 SELECTED COMMUNITIES ................................................................................................... 19 4.1 Introduction 19 4.2 Pearl Lagoon Basin (Pearl Lagoon, Marshall Point and Orinoco) 20 4.2.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................20 4.2.2 Community-Based Organizations .................................................................................................25 4.2.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Pearl Lagoon Basin.............................................................................32 4.3 Corn Island 33 4.3.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................33 4.3.2 Community-Based Organizations .................................................................................................38 4.3.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Corn Island ............................................................................................46 4.4 Wasakin 47 4.4.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................47 4.4.2 Wasakin Community Organizations.............................................................................................51 4.4.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Wasakin..................................................................................................56 4.5 Francia Sirpi 57 4.5.1 Community Assessment ...................................................................................................................57 4.5.2 Community-Based Organizations .................................................................................................62 4.5.3 Dev-SCOT Analysis for Francia Sirpi .........................................................................................645 COMMUNITY ACTION PLANS .............................................................................................. 65 5.1 Introduction 65 5.2 General Considerations 67 5.3 Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities 68 5.3.1 Pearl Lagoon.....................................................................................................................................68 5.3.2 Marshall Point...................................................................................................................................69 5.3.3 Orinoco ...............................................................................................................................................69 5.3.4 Project Outlines – Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities..............................................................70 5.3.5 Implementation Plan for Pearl Lagoon.......................................................................................72 5.3.6 Implementation Plan for Orinoco.................................................................................................73 5.3.7 Implementation Plan for Marshall Point ....................................................................................73 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  10. 10. - viii - 5.4 Corn Island 74 5.4.1 Community Summary ......................................................................................................................74 5.4.2 Project Outlines - Corn Island .......................................................................................................74 5.4.3 Implementation Plan.......................................................................................................................76 5.5 Wasakin 77 5.5.1 Community Summary ......................................................................................................................77 5.5.2 Project Outlines - Wasakin.............................................................................................................78 5.5.3 Implementation Plan.......................................................................................................................80 5.6 Francia Sirpi 81 5.6.1 Community Summary ......................................................................................................................81 5.6.2 Project Outlines - Francia Sirpi ....................................................................................................82 5.6.3 Implementation Plan.......................................................................................................................84 5.7 Project Integration Framework 85 5.7.1 Pearl Lagoon Basin Agricultural Initiatives Inter-Project Coordination Framework .....866 PROJECT PROTOTYPES ....................................................................................................... 88 6.1 Introduction 88 6.2 Atlantic Coast Region 91 6.2.1 Agricultural Extension Services for Atlantic Coast..................................................................91 6.3 Pearl Lagoon Basin 94 6.3.1 Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities Agricultural Reactivation Project..................................94 6.3.2 Development of Value-Added Agricultural Processing Industry in the Pearl Lagoon Basin ..................................................................................................................................................99 6.3.3 Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing Fleet in Pearl Lagoon Basin.................................... 102 6.4 Corn Island 106 6.4.1 Agriculture Rehabilitation Program for Corn Island............................................................ 106 6.4.2 Capacity Development of Asociación de Pescadores Miskitos de Corn Island................ 110 6.4.3 Upgrading of Local Artisan Fishing Fleet Through the Corn Island Artisanal Fishermen’s Union................................................................................................................................... 113 6.5 Wasakin 116 6.5.1 Wasakin Agricultural Support Project...................................................................................... 116 6.5.2 Wasakin Agro Forestry Development ....................................................................................... 120 6.5.3 Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-Forestry Products in Wasakin........................................................................................................ 124 6.6 Francia Sirpi (Tasba Raya) 128 6.6.1 Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agricultural Support Project...................................................... 128 6.6.2 Francia Sirpi/Tasba Raya Agro Forestry Development........................................................ 131 6.6.3 Development of Value-Added Processing Options for Agricultural and Agro-Forestry Products in Francia Sirpi................................................................................................ 135 6.7 Summary of Recommended Project Prototypes 139 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  11. 11. - ix -7 SUCCESS FACTORS AND ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS ....................................................145 7.1 Institutional Collaboration 145 7.2 Project Implementation 145 7.3 IDR Project Coordinator for Atlantic Coast Initiatives 146 7.4 Community Relations 147 7.5 Institutional Strengthening of Regional Universities 148 7.6 Launching of POSAF on Atlantic Coast 148 7.7 Support to Donor Collaboration 149 7.8 Collaboration with Centros de Desarrollo Empresarial 149 7.9 Access to Credit 149 7.10 Focus on Community Organizations 1498 CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................................................150LIST OF FIGURES AND M APSFigure 2-1 Graphical Representation of Methodological Approach................................................................................. 4Figure 2-2: Community Selection Analytical Framework................................................................................................ 8Figure 4-1: Map of Selected Communities ........................................................................................................................ 19Figure 4-2: Location of Pearl Lagoon Basin Communities ............................................................................................ 20Figure 4-3: Location of Corn Island.................................................................................................................................... 33Figure 4-4: Location of Wasakin ......................................................................................................................................... 47Figure 4-5: Location of Francia Sirpi................................................................................................................................. 57APPENDICESAppendix I – List of Information Sources ......................................................................................................................... A1Appendix II – Community Consultations.......................................................................................................................... A4Appendix III – List of Meetings and Consultations ....................................................................................................... A14Appendix IV – Prototypes Requiring Further Development ........................................................................................ A27Appendix V - Organizations and Institutions .................................................................................................................. A51Appendix VI - Past and Current IDB and other Multi-Lateral Interventions on the Atlantic Coast...................... A85Appendix VII – Key Bilateral and Other Prominent Development Agencies ........................................................... A98Appendix VII – Detailed Methodological Approach...................................................................................................A107Appendix IX – Suggested Actions to Improve Success and Sustainability of Project Prototypes.......................A116 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  12. 12. PAGE 11 INTRODUCTIONEarly in 2002, The Social Development Division of the Sustainable Development Departmentof the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) contracted Wayne Dunn and Associates, Ltd.(WDA) under Technical Cooperation Number ATN-CT 7634-NI to assess economicdevelopment opportunities for Afro- Latin and Indigenous Communities located in theAtlantic Coast Region of Nicaragua. The contract was won under a competitive bid, withfunding provided by the Canadian Technical Assistance Program at the IDB (CANTAP).The objective of this assessment is:To develop project models of viable income-generating activities for specific Atlantic coast communities of Nicaragua in consultation with these communities.This (Draft) Final Assessment Report and Community Action Plans builds upon the InterimReport submitted in June of 2002, which outlined the six communities selected to be part ofthe final assessment. The Interim Report also outlined the detailed methodological approachutilized by the consultants on this assignment.This study is not an exhaustive review of projects or communities, nor a definitive socio-economic analysis of the region. It builds upon the myriad of studies and assessmentsundertaken in recent years, and provides concrete steps to be taken to focus integratedproductive development support in the communities in question.The assessment includes the identification of pilot communities and elaboration of productionproject prototypes to be recommended to the IDB. The thirteen project prototypes provided inthis report illustrate viable income-generating enterprises for the selected communities andtarget populations. They were decided upon consultation with the productive and politicalleaders within the communities – men and women, municipal, regional and national publicsector organizations, civil society and private investors, as well as other stakeholders from theDonor and Development community. Extensive collaboration was established with andbetween these groups, providing the consultants with an understanding of lessons learnedfrom past initiatives, as well as a perspective on current and future interventions.Following this Introduction, the report is organized into seven (7) sections, supported byseveral appendices: o Section 2 provides a brief explanation of the methodological approach utilized to gather and analyze the information supporting the project prototypes; o Section 3 provides a basic socio-economic overview of the Atlantic Coastal region of Nicaragua; o Section 4 introduces the six communities around which the project prototypes are based. It includes an assessment of each community, an introduction to the various community-based organizations, and a Dev-SCOT (Development Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis for each community; o Section 5 presents the community action plans and o Section 6 details thirteen specific project prototypes; ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  13. 13. PAGE 2 o Section 7 presents a brief set of general comments and suggestions specific to the rollout of the Bank’s NI-0159 Rural Agricultural Rehabilitation initiative on the coast; o The Conclusion is presented in Section 8.Attached to the report are various appendices as follows: o Appendix I provides a listing of all information sources, including reports, proposals, documents, websites and other media; o Appendix II details the community consultation process for this assessment o Appendix III provides a partial list of individuals and organizations consulted during the initial project mission in April and May of 2002 and during the follow-up and feedback mission in June and the community debriefing mission in July of 2002; o Appendix IV outlines project prototypes requiring further development ; o Appendix V contains organizational assessments for key national and regional civil society, public sector and universities; o Appendix VI provides an summary analysis of selected past and current development interventions along the coast; o Appendix VII details the focus areas, projects and budgets of key bilateral agencies active on the Atlantic coast. o Appendix VIII outlines the detailed methodological approach utilized within this assessment; o Appendix IX presents an interesting paper on community development in the Atlantic Coast that we feel could help to inform development stakeholders in the region. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  14. 14. PAGE 32 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHIn order to achieve the primary objective of this Consultancy - “To develop project models ofviable income-generating activities for specific Atlantic coast communities of Nicaragua” -the consulting team utilized a variety of tools and methods to gather, analyze and presentinformation in a logical, value-added way.Building upon the experience of local and Canadian project team members in developmentinitiatives along the coast, a methodology was developed to enable a systematic, thorough andparticipative approach to the preparation of Community Action Plans and Project Prototypes.The activities of this technical cooperation were undertaken under the following principles: o Participative People Centered Process; o Knowledge Exists In The People; o Respect for Traditional Community Structures and Organizations; o Open and Honest Communications; o Frequent Consultation with and Feedback to Clients, Communities and Stakeholders;A detailed description of the methodological approach was provided in the Interim Report,and is reproduced in Appendix VIII at the end of this report. The following section willsummarize the key aspects of the methodology, highlighting the use of analytical frameworksand the major activities undertaken in the development of the community action plans andproject prototypes.Figure 2-1 below illustrates the overall methodological and analytical approach utilized by theconsultants. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  15. 15. PAGE 4Figure 2-1 Graphical Representation of Methodological Approach External Analysis Prior Programs - Program Sponsor COMMUNITY ACTION PLANS - Timeframe/Status Integrated Development Opportunities Analysis - Budget - Implementing Agency Bi-Lateral Agencies - Other Stakeholders - Name - Geographic Focus - Focus/Priorities Development of Project Prototypes - Major Objectives - Current Projects - Major Accomplishments - Annual Budget - Major Challenges (for area) (efforts to overcome) - Afro-Latin/Indigenous Impact - Lessons Learned - Other Community Data Organizational Data - Population & Demographics - Name Project Data - Local Government - Contact Information - Proponent Community Analysis - Community Description - Objective & Mandate - Sector - Community Infrastructure - Membership - Objectives - Educational Infrastructure - Leadership - Narrative Description - Major Industries & Resources - Background & History - Background/History - Other Business/Economic info - Finance - Partners & Collaboration - Development Constraints - Governance - Metrics - Interaction with Nat. Govt. Programs - Project Experience - Budget/Financing - Community Organizations - Current Projects - Market Information - NGO & other International Activity - Infrastructure - Production Information - Productive Opportunities - Partners - Geograpic/Infrastructure Issues - Other Information - Potential Projects Project Analysis Organizational Analysis - Previous Experience - Major Strengths of Proponents - Critical Challenges - Capacity Analysis (proponent) - Project Opportunities - Main Threats - Major Strengths - Major Risks & Mitigation plans - Training and Development Needs - Technical Assistance Needs - Next Steps ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  16. 16. PAGE 52.1 Major ActivitiesFollowing is a brief description of the principal missions and activities involved in thepreparation of this assessment: 1. Two missions to IDB headquarters in Washington for meetings with key IDB personnel o Mr. Wayne Dunn in April 2002; o Mr. Wayne Dunn and Mr. Andrew Grant in May 2002 2. Initial Mission to Nicaragua, including visits to several Creole, Garifuna, Rama and Miskito communities in the Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN) and the Southern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS). o Mr. Wayne Dunn, Mr. Andrew Grant and Mr. Samuel Mercado in April & May 2002 3. Follow- up mission to each of the six selected communities for further data gathering, clarification and initial community feedback of project prototypes o Mr. Samuel Mercado and Mr. Jorge Quintana in June 2002 4. Community debriefing mission with seminars held in each of the six communities to review project prototypes and discussions around implementation and organization of community groups. o Mr. Andrew Grant, Mr. David Kattenburg and Mr. Samuel Mercado in July 2002 5. Regular consultation wit h non-traveling members of project team Dr. Joseph Palacio, Dr. Bernard Dasah and Ms. Gifty Serbeh-Dunn.2.2 Data Gathering and ResearchData gathering and research included the following activities: o Desktop research; o Review of relevant and available IDB and other documents; o Meeting with key IDB personnel in Washington, Managua and Bluefields; o Meeting with other donors, multi- lateral and bi- lateral stakeholders in Nicaragua, Washington and Canada; o Meetings and consultations with key Atlantic Coast development stakeholders including regional civil society organizations, private sector, municipalities and regional governments; o Meetings and consultations with community leaders, community organizations and community members in focus communities o Meetings with key personnel from the Rural Development Institute (IDR), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAG-FOR), Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (MARENA) and other national and regional Departments and Ministries o Review of other multi- lateral and bi- lateral projects focused on Atlantic Coast ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  17. 17. PAGE 6 o Review of project documents o Where possible, interviews with 2 or more project stakeholders o Sustained community and stakeholder feedback through meetings, telephone/fax communications and email;In total the Consulting team met with well over 500 individuals plus interacted with anotherseveral hundred local residents at community and village meetings. Many individuals weremet with several times. Additionally information was gathered from a variety of sources,including published documents, draft reports, and interviews undertaken from April to August2002. All information sources are listed in Appendix I, while a comprehensive list ofinterviewees is included in Appendix III.2.3 Use of Analytical FrameworksIn order to ensure systematic gathering and management of information in support of theidentification and development of project opportunities for Afro-Latin and IndigenousCommunities, the Consultants developed a series of analytical frameworks. Following arebrief descriptions of each of these frameworks. Examples of each are included in the InterimReport submitted in June 2002.2.3.1 Multi-Lateral and Bi-Lateral Program Review FrameworkIn order to better advise on methodologies and approaches for enhancing the inclusion ofAfro-Latin and Indigenous Peoples in activities financed by IDB Loan NI-0159 and otherinitiatives, the Consultants undertook a summary review of several other Multi-Lateral andBi-Lateral Development projects on the Atlantic Coast. Some of these projects wereidentified by the IDB and others were identified during the initial data gathering stage of theproject. The intent was not to undertake an exhaustive or comprehensive review of previousprojects but to simply develop a basic understanding of the extent of previous developmentefforts and the lessons learned. The framework was developed to ensure consistency in thereview of various programs. It should be noted that, as the intent of the current assignment isnot to undertake a full project assessment, the Consultants limited themselves to readilyavailable data and information. Efforts were made to reference at least two data sources foreach project.2.3.2 Summary of Key Bi-Lateral Development AgenciesIn order to better understand the overall development landscape and easily identify potentialco-financiers or collaborative opportunities for projects, the Consultants prepared a summaryof key Bi- Lateral Development Agencies operating in the Atlantic Region of Nicaragua. Theinformation gathered included priority focus areas for each bi- lateral agency, a listing of theircurrent projects, approximate annual budgets and other pertinent information such as contactinformation. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  18. 18. PAGE 72.3.3 Community SelectionWhile the primary objective of this assignment was to elaborate specific project prototypes,we recognized that the projects themselves would emanate from a community base. Wetherefore initiated our investigation at the community level, visiting seventeen communities intotal. Our intention was not to compile an exhaustive ranking of potential communities but tosimply ensure that we selected communities that met the stated criteria (Afro-Latin orIndigenous populations and potential productive projects).In both the RAAN and the RAAS the Consulting team made a preliminary list of potentialcommunities based upon our experiences in the area and supplemented by consultations withkey IDB and other stakeholders. The team then made initial visits to the selectedcommunities in order to gain first hand information and meet with community stakeholders.In cases where initial visits were not possible or practical we made a thorough review ofavailable material and gathered supplemental information through interviews. In all cases, atleast one project team member had made a prior visit to the community.The information gained from these community visits was supplemented through desktopresearch and, where possible, with further interviews with external stakeholders. Informationon the selected communities was reviewed and analyzed using the Community SelectionAnalytical Framework outlined in Figure 2.2 below. This provided an overview of thestrengths, weaknesses and potential projects from each community. A review of thisframework enabled us to identify 6 communities that will become the focus of projectprototypes and community action plans. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  19. 19. PAGE 8 Figure 2-2: Community Selection Analytical FrameworkCOMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTSAuhya Pinhi § Predominantly Miskitu population § Weak community level organization § Wood processing & furniture making § Small project infrastructure established § Agricultural development requires 20km of § Agricultural production § Good access road travel and river crossing to access land § Sand for glass making § Health Center § Rocks for construction § Access to construction materials to market locally § Nature reserve / ecotourism or regionally § Technical craftsman in wood working availabilityBluefields § Presence of government, private sector and NGOs § No road access to Managua – only aerial and § Co-op group (UPGRAAS) processing, § Commercial hub for dozens of surrounding maritime access storage and commercialization of communities § 65% Mestizo population agricultural commodities for export § Electricity & communications § High probability of duplication with BICU § Tourism and eco-tourism opportunities § Port with access to Caribbean research efforts for IDR / NI-0159 § Offshore fishery for scale, shrimps and lobsters § Two universities and other technical schools § Agriculture and sea food processing § Capital of the RAAS region § Easy access to agricultural landBrown Bank § Predominantly Creole population § Agricultural potential § Fishery potential § Forestry potentialCorn Island § Creole / Miskitu / Mestizo population § Isolated § Tourism Development § Good support from municipality § Massive population growth § Artisanal Fisheries support § Good community level organization § Abandoned subsistence and commercial § Agricultural reactivation § Excellent tourism potential agriculture since Hurricane Joan § Availability of professionals for development project capacity. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  20. 20. PAGE 9COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTS § Availability of infrastructure to promote tourism and eco-tourismKukra Hill § Predominantly Creole population § Reticence on the part of private sector to § Sugarcane factory § Road in development to Pearl Lagoon contribute to effective maintenance of § African palm (oil) production community resources § Presence of private sectorKum § Predominantly Miskitu population § Agricultural projects tend to get washed out § Agricultural renewal § Existing rice thresher, dryer and silo in floods § Threshing and storage infrastructure § Access to Wangki § Access road to Waspam is very poor § Cattle raising § Central to several communities § Extremely dependent upon downriver communities § Periodic flooding & devastation of crops § Very isolated during flood times § No electricity § Lack of education § Community has no concept of value of previously donated infrastructureKururia § Predominantly Miskitu population § Weak community level organization § Agricultural development § Access road to highway is good § Very little infrastructure § Forestry management § Previous infrastructure – community meeting area. § Poor access to water § Availability of and access to agriculture land § No electricity § Pine forest for commercial use § Forestry development is limited because of neighboring communities’ efforts § Small land base ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  21. 21. PAGE 10COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTSMarshall Point § Predominantly Garifuna population § Power plant doesn’t work in Marshall Point § Pineapple development/ Orinoco § Has power plant (currently inoperable) § Population base very small to manage large § Dashin plantation § FADCANIC training center nearby; projects and maintain infrastructure § Eco-tourism development § Previous project infrastructure – basketball and § Community-level organization is relatively community house weak § Studies recently done on pineapple production § Good inter-community relationsMuelle de los § Strong local organization through § Predominantly Mestizo population (does notBueyes ACOMODEBUEY meet afro/latin or indigenous criterion) § Experience with USAID § Agriculture potential § Cattle raising potential § Project proposals already developedPearl Lagoon § Creole / Garifuna / Mestizo / Miskitu population § Municipality has not maintained roads well § Bluefields Municipality § Many projects already underway § Strengthening needed at level of municipality (Creole/Garifuna) § Hub for all communities in the basin § Agricultural potential § Recent infrastructure projects undertaken and more § Pineapple processing plant planned (wharf & road to Kukra Hill) § Electricity § Water access to Bluefields by large boats § FADCANIC agro-forestry project § Christian community org in PL – managing funds from wharf use (Not Municipality) § Abundance of community-based groupsPuerto § Predominantly Miskitu population (74%) § Fishing in region is exhausted § Support to Artisanal Divers UnionCabezas § Home of two universities and other technical § Lack of constructive engagement between § Support to revolving cash and in-kind(Bilwi) schools. municipality and regional government micro -credit initiatives to local businesses ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  22. 22. PAGE 11COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTS § Capital of the RAAN § Hub for several community-based organizations § RAAN Regional Government § Municipality of Bilwi § Large population – center for commercial activityRama Cay § Predominantly Rama population § Limited physical space for development of § Coconut production § Small history of projects/intervention infrastructure on island § Cattle raising (women’s organization) § Electricity § Subsistence attitude § Rice production § Experience of working with NGOs and the local § Reticence to leave Rama Cay (island) which § Wood processing municipal government limits potential for development § Artisan fishery § Limited capacity to maintain infrastructure § Major transportation challenges § Lack of food to feed workersTasba § Predominantly Miskitu population § No electricity § Agricultural reactivationRaya/Francia § WB interested in doing electrical energy § Relatively little community infrastructure § Rice, mucácias, beans, root cropsSirpi infrastructure and productive activities (cassava) pineapple, vegetables § Large land base with forests § Cattle raising § Year-round road access to Puerto Cabezas § Forestry 5,000 hectare land base of ex- § Production potential in various products combatants– POSAF II § Good number of educated individuals in § Wood processing and commercialization community § Area to grow cacao for exportation § Easy support access from either Waspam or PC § Possible Eco-Tourism project in the area § No flooding threat of BOSAWAS. § Presence of NGOs § Small medical center § Close to BOSAWAS reserve § 7 communities within 50 km perimeter for any sustainable agriculture project for export ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  23. 23. PAGE 12COMMUNITY STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES POTENTIAL P ROJECTSTortuguero § Excellent agricultural potential § Predominantly Mestizo population (does not meet afro/latin or indigenous criterion)Wasakin § Predominantly Sumo (Mayangna) population § Traditional isolation from government § Cattle raising § Close to city of Rosita interventions – has been a low priority § Agriculture – upper part of river is § Close to main road linking PC to Managua – easy § River occasionally floods excellent for bean production access to move goods § Lack of electrical capacity § Forestry Management – POSAF § 12 km of gravel road from Rosita with no major § Weak communication infrastructure Growing collaboration bridges – only ‘cajas’ which are easily maintained problem with alcoholism in community § Eco-tourism – living near a river where § IDB interest as focus community amongst youth downriver is the biggest wetland (delta of Prinzapolka and Banbana river – § Center (capital) for Mayangna/Sumo culture 200,000 hectares of land) in Nicaragua § Save the Children (Canada) has expressed interest where there is a variety of pristine flora in water and sanitation and fauna. § Contigo International has targeted community for § Can be a pilot for future investment in crop storage building construction government/municipality/community through CIDA relations § FISE may be doing infrastructure in future if there is a partner § RAAN Governor very interested in supporting § 36,000 hectares of land – lots of opportunities for forestry and agriculture § INTA working on processing bean seeds “semilla mejorada” in nearby Siuna § MEDA – Mennonite business group wants to exploit potential market for black beans to CR, Mexico, Canada § People are open and willing to participate in community efforts. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  24. 24. PAGE 13Waspam § Predominantly Miskitu population § History of failed projects on large scale § Thresher & dryer reactivation § Good infrastructure & linkages to markets § Several organizations fighting for dollars and § Infrastructure for commercialization & § Presence of public sector, private sector and NGOs support production hub § Good base of technical professionals § Limited productive capacities – more in line § Micro-credit support with processing and commercialization § Integration of POSAF § Focus for development activities § Transportation hub for more than 40 communities to other parts of the RAAN and NicaraguaWawa § Predominantly Miskitu population § Lack of independence because of proximity § Eco-tourism development § Project history with AMICA to Puerto Cabezas § Artisanal Fisheries § Close to Puerto Cabezas – good transport by boat § Maritime access only – no road § Good eco-tourism potential § Fisheries have been over-exploited and are exhausted § Attractive community § Limited development opportunities § Strong Miskitu cultural center ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  25. 25. PAGE 142.3.4 Community Assessment FrameworkThe Consultants prepared comprehensive community assessments to provide a snapshot ofeach community to inform and illuminate project prototypes. The following information wasgathered for each community: o General Description Of Micro-Region/Community o Population and Demographics o Community Infrastructure o Educational Infrastructure o Role of Municipal Government o Economic Activity o Development Constraints o Key Locally-Based Organizations and Institutions o NGO and other International Activity o Community-Based Organizations2.3.5 Organizational Assessment FrameworkTo enhance the community level information collected, the consultants identified keydevelopment organizations and institutions for further review. The organizational assessmentframework developed for civil sector, public sector, universities and community levelorganizations enabled a systematic review of each organization’s capacity and projectpriorities. It must be noted that many organizations – especially community-based - are at anincipient level and some of the information was not available.2.3.6 Dev-SCOT AnalysisThe consultants have prepared a comprehensive DEVSCOT™ Analytical Framework for eachAfro-Latin and Indigenous community considered in this assessment. The framework enablesa methodical approach to identifying and assessing project opportunities, especially thoseproposed by socially and economically marginalized groups.2.3.7 Project Prototype Assessment FrameworkPotential projects identified through the assessment are presented using the ProjectAssessment Framework. It was designed to provide a consistent method of providing anoverview of each prototype and to assist the IDB and other development stakeholders todetermine how (or if) to best support individual initiatives. Where applicable, projectinformation should be considered in conjunction with the information prepared on theorganization(s) promoting the project and the community profiles. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  26. 26. PAGE 153 O VERVIEW OF SOCIO-E CONOMIC C ONDITIONS AND P RODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES ON THE ATLANTIC C OASTSix communities that contain significant populations of Afro-Latin and Indigenous Peopleswere selected as the target communities for this study. With the exception of Corn Island,each community represents a micro-regional hub around which project prototypes can be builtfor the benefit of surrounding smaller communities. The following section will provide asnapshot of the region and the specific communities, with a focus on data that supports aneffective socio-economic and productive analysis of the communities in question.3.1 Historical and Socio-Economic Overview of Atlantic CoastThe Atlantic coast has a rich multi-ethnic history, punctuated with occasional violent conflictand a history of challenging relations and political incongruence with Managua. Despite thevast natural resources of the region, Afro-Latin and Indigenous communities along the coastare mired in extreme poverty and facing major social and economic challenges.According to a recent UNDP evaluation report, the region is vulnerable environmentally,socially, economically and institutionally. This vulnerability is fostered by several factors,including the fragility of the region’s eco-systems, the advance of the agricultural frontierfrom the West, the impact of cyclical natural disasters (droughts, forest fires, hurricanes andfloods), the growing influence of drug-trafficking, the fragile nature of human security, thedisconnect between Mestizo and indigenous cultures in the region, the stagnant socio-economic nature of the region, institutional paralysis, and the lack of ‘de- facto’ autonomy asmanifested by the obstruction in the management of community, municipal and regionalauthorities at the hands of the central government. 1Statistical information for the region is generally inconsistent and unreliable. The most recentnational census was taken in 2000, though the data has not yet been analyzed anddisseminated to the general public. The region has experienced high levels of immigration inrecent years, reflecting the increasing pressures on agricultural land from Mestizo cattlemenexpanding their operations eastward, and threatening the already heavily burdened andinadequate social infrastructure.HistoryAtlantic coast communities – historically populated by Miskito Indians and Creoledescendents of former slaves from other areas of the Caribbean - fell under the protection ofthe British crown until the late 19th Century, when the region was officially re- incorporatedinto Nicaragua. The distinct history of governance structures, languages and ethnicities lies atthe root of many of the present day differences between the coast and the rest of Nicaragua,and is reflected in the cultural and political mosaic we see today.The economic foundations of the region reflect a history of resource extraction by outsiders –both foreign companies and Nicaraguan organizations from the Pacific coast. Prevailingactivities included large-scale mining, logging, agriculture and fishing - producing gold,chicle, rubber, and lobster for the export market. Anecdotal history suggests that these1 Informe de Evaluación Final, ProRAAS II. Bluefields, RAAS, June 2001, page 3 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  27. 27. PAGE 16activities were largely unsustainable, environmentally devastating, and gave littleconsideration for local communities. This paradigm continues to this day with logging andfishery activities, often dominated by foreign companies operating in a weak legislativeenvironment, whose activities are not subject to adequate monitoring. Much of the localeconomies and infrastructure in the region were severely jeopardized or destroyed outrightthrough the tumultuous revolution years in the 1980s, and have not yet returned to theirformer state.PoliticalPolitically, the Nicaraguan Atlantic Coast is divided into two regions: The Northern AtlanticAutonomous Region (RAAN) with its headquarters in Puerto Cabezas, and the SouthernAtlantic Autonomous Region (RAAS) based in Bluefields. These regions arose out of theAutonomy Law of 1987, which recognized the distinct cultural and economic makeup of theAtlantic Coast, and which ceded much administrative authority from the Central Governmentto the two regional councils. Each Region is divided into municipalities – 12 in the RAASand 6 in the RAAN. In general terms, these municipalities are severely under-resourced andhave limited capacity to support and manage development. The two regional governments arecurrently in the process of institutional strengthening with the support of the United NationsDevelopment Programme, the IDB and the Swedish Development Agency (ASDI).Municipalities are also being supported by two major institutional strengthening initiatives:RAAN/ASDI/RAAS, promoted by the BID/ASDI partnership, and DANIDA’s ProdemuDecentralization program.Demographics and Ethnic DiversityThe RAAN’s 7 municipalities have an estimated total population of over 185,000 people,whose roots are multi-ethnic in nature. Estimates suggest that Miskito families make up 44%of the population, Mestizos 38%, Creoles 14% and Mayangna/Sumo 4%. The SouthernAutonomous Region is divided into 12 municipalities, with a total population ofapproximately 322,844. 2 . The population density of the RAAS is estimated to be 11.72individuals/km². The rural population is dispersed throughout over 250 communities, with anestimated population density of 1.65 individuals/km². The Ministry of Agriculture andForestry (MAG-FOR) estimates suggest that over 72% of the population of the RAAS isMestizo, while 18% is Miskito and 7% are Creole/Garifuna.InfrastructureMost communities are situated far from regional centers and are difficult to reach, manyaccessible only by water or by air. The region has few roads, and the existing ones tend to bepoorly maintained, with many becoming impassable during the rainy season. This presents amajor challenge to developing productive economic initiatives. There is also a lack ofinfrastructure to preserve and store crops, resulting in many farmers and fishermen having tosell most if not all of their production at very low prices during peak harvest season, and oftenthe remains are lost to rot or infestation by pests.Social and economic infrastructure within most coastal communities is deficient, and manylack basic services such as potable water, electricity, sewage system, solid waste disposaldumpsites and treatment facilities. Most communities have little access to communication2 Plan Estratégico del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal para la RAAS. MAGFOR, Bluefields, November 2002 ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  28. 28. PAGE 17infrastructure such as CB radio, telephone, or even local radio stations. While a fewcommunities have a clinic for medical attention, most lack permanent staff, and all suffermajor shortages of medicine. Almost all communities have a partial or complete elementaryschool, though most have no secondary school. With the exception of Corn Island, none ofthe pilot communities selected as part of this assessment have access to a technical school toprovide extension programs to farmers or fishermen. The few students that have theopportunity to continue their studies are forced to go to urban centers far from theircommunities. The cost to maintain a student outside the community is usually out of reach formost of the local families.Economic ActivityEstimates for regional unemployment vary, but it “The Atlantic Coast has its ownis generally accepted that over 90% of the agricultural production logic”region’s residents lack formal employment.Outside of urban centers formal employment is Albert Sinclair, URACCANscarce, and the princ ipal employers in the regionare government (particularly in the educationsector), private fishing companies, and the services sector. The principal productive activitiesin the region, in order of importance, are: fisheries, agriculture and forestry. In most cases,production is maintained at the craft level and products are sold, mostly as raw material, toprivate industries owned by individuals outside the communities.Indications suggest that Creole, Rama and Miskito residents are the most active in thefisheries. Craft or ‘Artisanal” fishermen compete with several industrial boats for diminishingstocks of lobster, shrimp and a variety of finfish. Lack of regulation and enforcement in theindustry is fostering increasing exploitation, degradation of fishing grounds, and ethnictensions in the communities as more and more fishermen chase smaller and smaller catches.Seafood processing plants exist in Bluefields, Bluff and Corn Island, though at the time thisassessment was published only the two plants in Corn Island were in operation.Agricultural activity consists mainly of production of basic grains, cattle, milk products,vegetables and fruit. MAG-FOR estimates that agricultural cultivation comprises only 8.28%of the total area available in the RAAS. Farmers and producers in the region have little or noaccess to improved seed, market information, and technical assistance in crop management,seeding, harvesting, and post-harvest management of crops. There is little or no value-addedprocessing in the region, and most production is exported raw.Agro- forestry activity along the coast is principally landowners clearing land to make roomfor the planting of crops. There is some secondary industry in the form of wood processingplants in Bluefields, and a lumber market in Puerto Cabezas.While private industry in wood manufacturing, fishing and mining does exist, the economicand development benefits to the region of this activity in recent years have been minimal. Anarea of growth in the region is seen in tertiary economic activity, as restaurant/bars, eateries,restaurants and small stores or “pulperías” are opening up, though mostly the urban areas ofBluefields, Puerto Cabezas, Waspam and Corn Island.A reflection of the current economic reality of the region is that family members living andworking abroad support family incomes to a large degree. The Diaspora population ofNicaragua plays a strong role in the socio-economic well-being of coast communities, andaccording to Miguel Gonzá lez Perez’ March 2001 Socio-Economic and Political Analysis of ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  29. 29. PAGE 18the Autonomous Regions, a full 20% of households along the Atlantic Coast receiveremittances from family and friends. It has been suggested to the authors that the actualnumbers in some areas along the coast range from 40-70% and MAG-FOR estimates that inthe RAAS alone, more than 5,000 families benefit directly from over US$3,200,000 inremittances annually.The region faces serious socio-economic and political challenges as it strives to develop in aninclusive and sustainable manner. The Community Action Plans and Project Prototypesoutlined in Sections 5 and 6 can become part of an integrated solution as stakeholders strive tosupport the region’s development.3.2 General Comments on Atlantic Coast Development Challenges o Services – The lack of basic services (potable water, electricity, sewage disposal), as well as the deficiencies in social services such as health and education is an increasing threat to the health and viability of many communities on the coast; o Communication Challenges. Communications between Atlantic Coast communities, especially those outside of the Regional Capitals is generally difficult and can often take several days; o Community Capacity – All of the communities we visited had extremely limited capacity to effectively manage projects themselves, highlighting the need for community-level organizational strengthening and capacity building; o Community Consultation – Development initiatives along the coast must reinforce community values with productive structures that build upon and strengthen traditional community organizations; o Cost Sharing – Successful regional organizations counsel for the need to break the cycle of dependence and paternalism in the region by establishing mechanisms wherein communities and individuals repay in-kind for goods and services provided, while reinforcing the value of donated infrastructure; o Isolation – Many communities lack basic road access or have roads that are in such a state of disrepair that they are impassable much of the year. In many communities radio is the only means of direct communication. There are no postal or telephone services; o Lack of Resources – Municipalities and local government structures are severely under- financed and often cannot even pay basic staff or other costs; o Land Demarcation – In each of the communities we visited along the coast, land demarcation was a prevalent issue which is being discussed at the community, regional and national level; o Lessons Learned – Many community leaders explained that past development interventions reflected a lack of true ‘partnership’ with the communities, with activities and results being largely transitory, and means for sustainability largely ignored; o Lack of Value -Added Processing – At present, there exists little or no value-added to agricultural, seafood or agro-forestry products in the region (outside of facilities in Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas; o Social Capital – In general terms, racial groups (Mestizo, Miskitu, Creole, Garifuna, Rama, etc.) have a reasonable level of economic and social interaction in the region. In specific terms on Corn Island, however, the consulting team noticed a level of racial tensions arising between the Creole and Miskitu fishermen specifically as a result of decreasing fishing stocks and land pressures on the islands. ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA
  30. 30. PAGE 194 SELECTED COMMUNITIES4.1 IntroductionThis section provides profiles of the six communities selected as pilot communities for pilotprototypes of economic development in the region. Four of the communities are located in theSouthern Region (RAAS) and two in the North (RAAN). The RAAS communities includethree predominantly Garifuna and Creole communities (Pearl Lagoon, Orinoco and MarshallPoint) located in the Pearl Lagoon basin, as well as Corn Island off the coast near Bluefields.Two of the communities selected are located in the RAAN: Wasakin, a Sumo indigenouscommunity on the shores of the Bambana River, 12 km from the city of Rosita, and FranciaSirpi, a predominantly Miskito community in the Tasba Raya region, 70 km southwest of thecity of Waspam. The locations of these communities are represented by green dots in Figure4.1 below.The following sub-sections provide detailed assessments of each of the selected communities. Figure 4-1: Map of Selected Communities ASSESSMENT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT O PPORTUNITIES FOR AFRO-LATIN AND INDIGENOUS C OMMUNITIES ON THE A TLANTIC C OAST OF N ICARAGUA

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