European Exploration And Colonization

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European Exploration And Colonization

  1. 1. By: slideshare.net The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests
  2. 2. Earlier Explorations <ul><li>Islam & the Spice Trade  Malacca </li></ul><ul><li>A New Player  Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion becomes a state enterprise  monarchs had the authority & the resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better seaworthy ships. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming “Treasure Fleet” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Admiral Zheng He 1371-1435 <ul><ul><li>Each ship was 400’ long and 160’ wide! </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Map of the Known World, pre- 1492
  5. 5. Motives for European Exploration <ul><li>Crusades  by-pass intermediaries to get to Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance  curiosity about other lands and peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Reformation  refugees & missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advances. </li></ul><ul><li>Fame and fortune. </li></ul>
  6. 6. New Maritime Technologies <ul><ul><li>Hartman Astrolabe (1532)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Maps [Portulan] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sextant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mariner’s Compass </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. New Weapons Technology
  8. 8. Prince Henry, the Navigator <ul><ul><li>School for Navigation, 1419 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Museum of Navigation in Lisbon
  10. 10. Portuguese Maritime Empire <ul><li>Exploring the west coast of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartolomeo Dias, 1487. </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama, 1498. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calicut. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Zheng He’s Voyages <ul><ul><li>In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Christofo Colon [1451-1506]
  13. 13. Columbus’ Four Voyages
  14. 14. Other Voyages of Exploration
  15. 15. Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c
  16. 16. Atlantic Explorations Looking for “El Dorado”
  17. 17. Fernando Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs.
  18. 18. The Death of Montezuma II
  19. 19. Mexico Surrenders to Cortez
  20. 20. Francisco Pizarro The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs.
  21. 21. Slaves Working in a Brazilian Sugar Mill
  22. 22. Why would the 'Columbian Exchange' be considered the tsunami of unintentional &quot;bio-terrorism&quot;??
  23. 23. The “Columbian Exchange” <ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>MAIZE </li></ul><ul><li>Vanilla </li></ul><ul><li>TOMATO </li></ul><ul><li>Peanut </li></ul><ul><li>POTATO </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava </li></ul><ul><li>Pineapple </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa </li></ul><ul><li>Quinine </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Pumpkin </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Peppers </li></ul><ul><li>Avocado </li></ul><ul><li>Squash </li></ul><ul><li>Whooping Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Diptheria </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul><ul><li>Typhus </li></ul><ul><li>Flu </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>HORSE </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Citrus Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Oats </li></ul><ul><li>SUGAR CANE </li></ul><ul><li>Peach </li></ul><ul><li>Grape </li></ul><ul><li>Barley </li></ul><ul><li>Honeybee </li></ul><ul><li>Turnip </li></ul><ul><li>Onion </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Banana </li></ul><ul><li>COFFEE BEAN </li></ul><ul><li>Olive </li></ul><ul><li>GUNS </li></ul><ul><li>Liquor </li></ul><ul><li>Trinkets </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores Missionaries Permanent Settlers Official European Colony!
  25. 25. Treasures from the Americas!
  26. 26. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
  27. 27. The Slave Trade <ul><li>Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar cane & sugar plantations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between 16 c & 19 c , about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Slave Ship “ Middle Passage”
  29. 29. “ Coffin” Position Below Deck
  30. 30. African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships!
  31. 31. European Empires in the Americas
  32. 32. The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Native Indians Black Slaves
  33. 33. Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World <ul><li>Encomienda or forced labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Council of the Indies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viceroy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Spain and Peru. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Papal agreement. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission
  35. 35. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 & The Pope’s Line of Demarcation
  36. 36. Father Bartolome de Las Casas <ul><li>New Laws  1542 </li></ul>
  37. 37. New Colonial Rivals <ul><li>Portugal lacked the numbers and wealth to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain in Asia  consolidated its holdings in the Philippines. </li></ul><ul><li>First English expedition to the Indies in 1591. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surat in NW India in 1608. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dutch arrive in India in 1595. </li></ul>
  38. 38. New Colonial Rivals
  39. 39. Impact of European Expansion <ul><li>Native populations ravaged by disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [ “Price Revolution” ] </li></ul><ul><li>New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”]. </li></ul><ul><li>Deepened colonial rivalries. </li></ul>
  40. 40. 5. New Patterns of World Trade

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