From Minuteman to the Global Strategic Warrior Evolution and Trends of Teaching and Training Freedom’s Guardian Army Apprenticeship & OJT Clay Reynolds Clemson University Masters in Human Resource Development HRD 830 Dr. Stephen Bronack
Who am I
Career Army Officer and ROTC Professor
Concerned with development of our forces
at the Individual and Collective levels
Why am I researching this topic
From Recruit to Warrior
One Station Unit Training (OSUT) is the Army’s way of saving money logistically, while still making the grade in output.
This format is only for select occupational specialties, and those that are within the combat arms, or actual war fighter, arena. Under this concept developed during the World War I era but termed OSUT during the Vietnam era; Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Combat Engineer, Artillery, and a few other combat arms and support recruits will most likely attend one military post and stay in the same unit for the duration of basic training, or initial entry training (IET) and advanced individual training (AIT).
This program allows a recruit to be fully trained and ready for operational assignment within 16 weeks, without breaks in the training pipeline for out-processing one site, transportation to the next, then in-processing again.
These Soldiers learn and grow in the cohesive environment that OSUT promotes, allowing them to work with the same peers and trainers for the whole cycle. They will continue to get this type of tutelage, albeit starting over with new peers and superiors, when they move to their first operational assignment
Monetarily and logistically, there is money to be saved when a Soldier does not have to travel from base to base just for training
MODERN TRAINING: MY PREFERED METHOD
The United States Navy was the pioneers of apprenticing in our young nation’s military. As a seaman apprentice, so many jobs in respect to sailing took years to master, such as craftsmanship and navigation. This holds true in today’s Navy as many of the lower enlisted ranks even still carry the title of “apprentice” with the military occupational specialty .
The United States Army also had registered apprenticeships for numerous years, heaviest during World War I until it’s abolishment in the late 1980s. Cooks, mechanics, metalworkers, seamstresses, and gunsmiths (modern: armorers) were just a few occupational specialties that the primary education was conducted under apprenticeships.
PIONEERS IN MILITARY PRACTICE ARMY
Just like most civilian skill laborers from centuries past to present, apprenticeships were the focal part of the education system for a specific job. The military was no different, having job specific apprenticeships for most military occupational specialties. Metalworkers, gunsmiths, steam engine operators, combustion engine operators and mechanics
Tradesmen followed the traditional education of craft apprenticing under a master craftsman, then graduated to journeyman status, and if lucky, were able to reach master craftsman status by having their own shops; or if in the military, were in a shop foreman capacity
Transformation to an Objective Force
Former Army Chief of Staff, retired General Eric Shinseki championed what we now know as “Transformation”, scaling down the size a little, and becoming more mobile, agile, and lethal.
Academic initiative of this program was the establishment of the Total Army School System, a fully funded, higher learning accredited, and force integrated system of MOS and combat skill centric schools around the nation and abroad for servicemen to gain credit for military experience and to make their skill sets careers; also bringing an influx of civilian colleges and universities to begin programs on bases.
TRADOC implemented both senior (officer and NCO) and tactical leadership courses to address the transition from a linear focus to a full-spectrum focus, increasing our ability to fight our battles Jointly with our sister services, and Combined, using all service internal assets such as task organizing armor, engineers, and infantry together to better meet the new complex missions.
Forces Command (FORSCOM) created 12 new maneuver brigades, the Army recruited more Soldiers to man them, and the maneuver elements got lighter.
Introduction of the Stryker Combat Vehicle, a lightweight medium armored vehicle with lots of speed and maneuverability to reduce the slow bulky need for Bradley Fighting Vehicles; essentially the move from tracked vehicle to wheeled vehicles has increased our strategic mobility and responsiveness.
On The Job Training
In many technical fields in the army, On the Job Training resembles apprenticeship training
The system sponsored by the Army leadership is modeled after Job Instruction Training (JIT) requiring a trainer to formally present instructional material on a subject followed by trainee performance of the tasks.
Structured OJT is very similar as well, where a trainee goes through structured training and activities then performs them himself under strict supervision of the trainer.
Parachute Riggers, due to the critical performance needs within the occupational safety nature of jumping out of airplanes, are closely watched and inspected for potentially dangerous flaws
The Problem Our Footprint
The United States Military is undermanned in the contemporary operating environment (COE)
Our operational footprint spans the globe conducting security and stability operations
We are currently fighting a two-front war in the Global War on Terror (GWoT); could expand to more
fronts at any moment
We also fight the ongoing drug war under the guise of foreign interdiction and allied forces troop training
Our allies contribute what they can afford monetarily, and politically; we pay them for troops to be
deployed under the “Coalition of the Willing”
There are few allies who share any real burden in this GLOBAL War on Terror
We are the WORLD’S Police Force
Current U.S. Demographics For Military Service USAF NAVY ARMY Military age 17–45 years old  Available for military service 72,715,332 males, age 18–49 (2008 est.), 71,638,785 females, age 18–49 (2008 est.) Fit for military service 59,413,358 males, age 18–49 (2008 est.), 59,187,183 females, age 18–49 (2008 est.) Reaching military age annually 2,186,440 males (2008 est.), 2,079,688 females (2008 est.) Active personnel 1,436,642  (ranked 2nd) Reserve personnel 1,458,500 
Force Expansion Issues Base Closures
Social Acceptance and Support
Domestic and International Economy
Initiated in 1988, BRAC Commissions, congressional sub-committees who seek to save money in the defense budget, have also inadvertently affected the current structure. The 1991, 1993, and 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Acts (BRAC) were the heaviest blows to the force structure of the 5 BRACs so far, with numerous large bases closing and now greatly impacting the U.S. from dramatically increasing our current structure. Under these BRAC Acts military bases worldwide were shut down, sold to states and foreign nations for any use, or converted to use for Other Governmental Organizations (OGO’s) such as the new Federal law Enforcement Training Course (FLETC) at the old Charleston Naval Base in South Carolina NO WHERE TO GO
What Would Clay Do
Concentrate on revamping the occupational education system for enlisted and officer corps’
Continue to improve civilian education system; work to continue improvement in benefits and collegiate academic programs on bases
Bring back apprenticeship program for technical occupational specialties
Re-instate technical/specialist ranks for this reason; not all non-commissioned officer are leader material, but are still solid trainers and instructors
Increase OJT programs; and concentrate on MOS cross training army wide
Re-open bases throughout the Continental United States
Buy back army installations in California (Ord), Virginia (Pickett), and Arkansas (Chaffee) from the states and Other Governmental Organizations currently in possession
Put 3 maneuver brigades at Fort Ord, and 1 each at Pickett and Chaffee
This is an increase of approximately 25,000 combat forces
Will take huge recruiting effort to increase army strength additional 25-30K
Incentives would need to continue to grow in order to do so
I like Marines too, and I think we need up to 50,000 more of them
Make Initial Entry Training more combat skills focused for all MOS’; maybe even longer
Our military could win most battles with any single branch of military; Boots on the ground free the oppressed and win wars.
Minuteman Photos: Wikipedia Search of “Minuteman”
Modern “Strategic” Soldiers: 1-16 Cavalry Website at Fort Knox
Paintings: Don Stivers Gallery [www.donstivers.com]
WW II Industrial Pictures: US Army Ordnance Corps History [www.apg.army.mil]
Tank and Automotive Command (TACOM) History [www.tacom.army.mil]
Parachute Rigger, Airborne Pictures: US Army Quartermaster History [qmfound.com/history]
Calhoun, Mark T.(2004). Complexity and Army Transformation. Fort Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies Howard, A. H. (1996). The ASTD Training and Development Handbook , Apprenticeship , Chapter 38. New York: McGraw Hill, New York Lilly, Carol (2003). Transforming the Army, TRADOC’S First Thirty Years (1973-2003). Fort Monroe, VA: U.S. Army Murray, Margo (2006). Handbook of Human Performance Technology , Innovations in Performance Improvement with Mentoring , Chapter 19. San Francisco: Pfieffer Nolan, Michael (1996). The ASTD Training and Development Handbook , Job Training , Chapter 36. New York: McGraw Hill American Institute of Baking, History, http://www.aibinternational.com/about/history/ Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Charleston, http://www.fletc.gov/about-fletc/locations/ charleston Army Publication (1979, August 1). Army Skill Development Programs , ARMY DA PAM 621-10. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Research Sources