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Study guide

  1. 1. Study Guide Suicide-is defined as intentionally destroying yourself. Ex: a soldier trying to protect his platoon. It’s not suicide. He was protecting. Heroic sacrifice- giving your life for someone else’s. Ex: if a guy sees a 18 wheeler coming and he is driving and the impact is going to kill his wife. He intentionally turned the wheel so that his wife could live. Doctrine of double effect- 2 different effects. Difference b/w foresee and intend… know its going to happen….not good enough, wasn’t intent Kant: Sacrifice is always wrong, but being a hero is okay. PHILOSOPHICAL: life is very valuable and shouldn’t be done. Logical contradiction using free will to eliminate your free will. Unnatural, b/c naturally you’re supposed to love yourself (self-preservation). Dehumanizing (thought of as a thing) lower than animal. Not entitiled to happiness RELIGIOUS: you belong to God. You’re God’s property; a soldier AWOL; death; you have a divine purpose. It’s not universal. Ex: kamikaze or terrorism now SOCIAL CONSEQUENCE: everyone else around you. You don’t experience your own impacts. other people do. Ex: when you die, your family feels the pain and mourns over your death. Ex: Cato killed himself. Heroic sacrifice? Kant thinks he is a coward. Brandt: Not always irrational-reasons matter A LOT!!!!! Not always unnatural. avoid pain. God? How do you know God’s will? Worried about autonomy-human beings discount the future. Blinded by present pain; distorted judgment. Blinded by present pain. Conventional doctrine- active euthanasia (lethal injection) is murder given by doctors. Passive-let them die
  2. 2. Rachels: Active is better. Either they are the same (same outcome, dead either way; maybe the same motive). If there is a difference, passive is worst, b/c you are watching that person suffer. Make decisions on morally irrelevant grounds. Stated reason (reason we claim to have) vs. the real reason are different Rationalization Smith: Same motive; same outcome; kid Jones: Doctors don’t inherit; consent; adults Callahan: Physical (stuff outside my control) causality vs. moral responsibility (personal responsibility in my control) Ex: Katrina Cancer is like a hurricane. Can’t blame anyone for that. Doctors responsible for active euthanasia Illegal and immoral –doctors not supposed to kill, they are supposed to heal Self-deception Rachael’s –one is worse than the other. Letting someone die is worse than helping Callahan- saying they are both the same. When they are w/ nature. Trick ourselves into thinking we control more than we really do. Doctors can’t control cancer. Difference b/w self/ world. Self-shooting up to kill you. World- hurricane Equal protection-have to be alike to be treated the same.
  3. 3. PAS dangerous for society b/c you lose relationship w/ trust w/ patients/ doctors -pressure ex: old; vulnerable people O’Connor- leave stuff up to the states. Terminal sedation- treatment refusal & good drugs -slow euthanasia -patient autonomy Refuse treatment or no good drugs OR Get drugs but you don’t refuse drugs. Gronigen protocol-kill justifying anfantacide -terminal ill -ICU –nonintentional -unbearable suffering ex spina bifida. – Children unbearable suffering Criticism -can you measure if someone is suffering. –heartbeat; vital signs, blood pressure Bearable- subjective; depends how much pain a person can take -blinded by present pain -blinded by future discrimination Future autonomy, patient’s goals? Will to live-how much of a fighter this person is. Non arbitrary for human life?Conception? -what are we going to call it. Biological human being rational, moral -viability- baby can survive outside the womb.
  4. 4. Pope: -he thinks it’s a person w/ moral status from the start. Network of complicity- blaming you. You know it’s wrong, but you go along w/ it. -men pressure them as well.-presumption argument- if you don’t know, presume it does. 50/50 In your heart if you don’t know if it’s a baby and you kill it you committed murder. Don’t treat it as a clump of cells. G.P: ―unbearable suffering‖- cannot measure Parent’s motives- don’t want to see them suffer. Ex: spina bifida suffering -paralytic agent -Presumption argument- if you don’t know if fetus is a person, assume it does. If it has moral status, and you kill it, you’ve committed murder. Already believe murder is bad.- universal standard Warren: Biological/ moral; interests/rights; personhood; no right to life, b/c its not a person; fetus are potential people’ mother is a person Rights of any actual person outweigh the rights of a potential person have a right to health, happiness (w/e makes mom happy, she can do) and freedom Indecent not moral Indecent-not appropriate bizarre decision ex. littering Not moral- baby doesn’t have rights Interests to a potential person Infanticide:
  5. 5. 7 months not immoral; are newborns persons?; more developed?; no one excepts infanticide Newborns are outside of the body different from fetus -not directly attached to mom; no longer a danger to mother; closer to being like us. 9 months aren’t magic, but 7 months isn’t enough time. Marquis: Abortion is general moral; the same as killing an adult, taking away someone’s future; murder is wrong of an adult; taking future away—plans, projects, hopes and dreams Murder is wrong- why is it wrong? – why? Take away future -abortion is wrong for the same reason It has to be potential Not based on right to life -abortion is the same as logic Takes away ―future like ours‖ Potential people mean a lot to him -do not have a right to life Future: - does not mean time or happiness It means you have plans Fetus:potential in the same sense as an adult JJT: Abortion is permissible or acceptable; right to life, no life to your body; violinistindecent not immoral a need doesn’t equal right A box of chocolates- immoral; the mother’s body
  6. 6. Fetus has a right to life; a need does not imply a right; indecent but not immoral, b/c it was done w/o consent -failed contraception -----not fully responsible ---tried your best not to have it -right comes into world if you willingly did it It’s when you give it the right. The box of chocolates- given to 1-greedy, but not a thief Henry Fonda-being a good Samaritan: doesn’t have to do I; indecent, but not immoral Criticize JJT- right to be in wound comes from mom -where do rights come from? Government or other people can abuse people can abuse authority Right to life, but can’t live w/o the wound Warren: A fetus is a human in a biological sense, but not in a moral sense; potential people; not member of the moral community; infanticide is wrong but abortion is okay; doesn’t have moral rights; real people have interests; indecent but permissible, inappropriate ex 7 month pregnant lady wanting to get an abortion just to go to Hawaii 1st objection infanticide-she believes in abortion in the late stage is wrong. Infanticide is wrong but abortion is okay. Newborns are outside the body, not attached or threat to mother. Closer to being like us. -criticize Warren- eventually potential people will be people. Little: Abortion is up to mother; unique irreplaceable, no rights/ interests; wrong to destroy it; wrong to destroy it; but indecent; that’s why it’s a comparison to Da Vinci painting; motherhood
  7. 7. Abortion is up to the mother; cares about motherhood- supposed to change you as a person; practical identity; some people may not be ready for that change (if ---then) If you accept responsibility, then abortion is wrong, but if she isn’t ready, then it’s acceptable If you can’t raise kid (―refusal to create‖) -she doesn’t need any reason, all she needs is to say I’m not ready Indecent but not immoral Fetus is like a Da Vinci painting -destroying the value, not hurting the painting itself. It has no right, it has no interest; value not based on potential b/c it’s unique; one of a kind, origin of human life; indecent, not immoral As long as you abort in serious fashion -defends female autonomy not biology Roe vs. Wade: Abortion is a right to privacy; Texas wanted to make it illegal to have an abortion; states cannot band, they can only regulate abortion. It’s implied in the constitution, it’s not explicitly in there; defer to legislature; a right against unlaw search & seizure 1.) Strict constructionism- no implied rights; super clear & simple ----rights are not implied hard to debate; danger of interpretation-judges could be bias; consistency? Maybe judges are biased-they are human---legislation from the bench;closer to people; legislative process; judicial activism; let states decide abortion 2.) Living constitution-interpretation is necessary b/c time and society change; update constitution, evolve over time ---put judges in charge of making these interpretations; want judges to decide; danger of letting court decide; didn’t vote for 9 unelected people; swing vote-tie breaker on supreme court
  8. 8. (Anthony Kennedy); 5-4 vote for something; like a right to privacy; one final authority Ex: speeding down airline, friend is hurt in passenger seat trying to get to the hospital. McMahan: Embryos are like us; embryos are not human organisms; embryos are cells growing; marble in a sack. – a bunch of individual cells -not organism-not killing anything when you harvest stem cells; we are not humans, we are persons (higher brain); start out as a clump of cells----organisms--person (develop to become Higher Brain)----organism (can die and keep on machine---cells; only have moral status until you become a person; you were never an embryo PCOB: Disrespectful to embryo; wrong to create in order to destroy; disrespecting human life; do not agree w/ McMahan; do not agree w/ stages, it’s you all the way; ―single personal history‖; not denying the steps but you don’t become you until you become a person Ex: bone marrow; spinal cord; cure disease like paralysis -ends justify means? ; no guarantee it will cure; other options; do bad stuff in short term; ―immanent potentially‖-pop it in mama, let it cook for 9 months, you get a baby; question of environment; potential-can do it, but not yet vs. has the ability; already there Kass: Genetic info; second class citizens; us viewing baby as having a disease; disease is no longer a trait—ex: view as downs baby instead of down-syndrome; language of identity; personality disorder Purdy:
  9. 9. Minimal satisfy life; don’t give Huntington’s disease- shows up later; 50% you may pass it down or not; give basics; presumption argument- duty to genetically abort IVF: Singer: Worried about use of resources; worried about how it affects women; go adopt if can’t have one naturally; worried about money used for this; use money for curing other diseases. i.e cancer, AIDS; shouldn’t expect infertile couples to give up their dream to have kids; too morally demanding; spend money frivously; women are used for reproductive control; male dominated field; outside the womb-gives women freedom Ideal world; want people to adopt, but it won’t work b/c people want children -he takes it seriously, but doesn’t accept it; putting the burden on infertile couples is not fair; reduces status of women Sherwin: Morally problematic; reinforces bad social norms; women are viewed as breeding and children as commodities; no excuse in a world of IVF to not have kids, b/c we can fix you; view infertility as a ―disease‖ b/c they can’t have children Medicalization of Pregnancy: Don’t worry about women; there are lady scientists who are working on technology; reinforces bad social norms; view kids as being bought & sold; women are seen as breeders Go to a hospital to give birth---that’s where sick people go; impersonal; all about the procedure; IVF takes it ti an extreme; loss of reproductive control convenient for women…….BUT, you won’t need women anymore; loss of bond b/w mother & child. Not about mom all about procedure Artificial womb-slippery slope…. argument bad for women Child/heir
  10. 10. -child is biological Heir is a ―dependent‖ have to exist to be a dependent; someone who gets money when you die -change nature of pregnancy -no need for women anymore Murray: Gift surrogacy Woman carrying a child for her sister; strengthens bond (family bond), thinks commercial surrogacy is slavelike; being treated like a commodity; woman carrying a child is being used; used-selling; the fetus is being ―bought & sold‖ Commercial: Market values ruins family values/ market values Market value- getting paid- personal preference, subjective preference---w/e I want -freedom control -consumer sovereignty Family Values -relationship, unchosen obligations, doesn’t choose family; it’s your blood, don’t choose obligations; acceptance not controlled; you can work w/ it, but can’t control it; harm kids you determine families; it’s by chance not by choice; kid already exist---won’t understand ―no baby bump‖ how do you explain that to a 4 year old; violates shared cultural values -more than 1 culture & don’t share the same values. –family/market values A family is not like going to the grocery store.
  11. 11. Steinbock: Regulate, don’t band; don’t band, leave up to states to decide -paternalism!!!! - should not band for this reason -consenting adults, voluntary transaction 1. 1 adult wants money 2. 1 adult wants womb -dangerous for government to tell women that can’t do this….—view as adoptioncommercial surrogacy as prenatal adoption -adoption is great; baby selling is horrible, but prenatal adoption is great; is the harm worse than not existing at all? – no obviously not ( for surrogate kid); no unique harm hurts kids ex: divorcel moving away, therefore you don’t band, regulate, make sure it’s done right ( for surrogate kid) Leads to good consequesnce -fair compensation; huge time investment, health risk.