Before books, writing or even the alphabet there was Art. What does art tell us?
Art tells us history. -Previous customs -clothing -food they ate -how they lived -religion, traditions
The Beginning: Prehistoric Art 30,000-10,000 B.C. People were strictly hunter- gatherers Did not have permanent dwellings (caves or tents) Humans made a gigantic leap in abstract thinking and began creating art.
It took a few million years before people began to start expressing themselves through art Cave paintings, of Lascaux, France Paint, Limestone 10,000-15,000 bc
“Art for the Dead” 3200-1340 BC - Egypt - Art in ancient Egypt was art for the dead. Egyptian art was created for their journey to afterlife In order for a Pharaoh to become a “god” they had to create temples for worshiping the gods, massive tombs for afterlife, defend Egypt, and keep Upper and Lower Egypt united.
The Pyramids of Giza also known as “The Great Pyramids” One of the seven wonders of the world 3 different pyramids Khafre, Khufu, and Menkaure Giza a suburb of Cairo The pyramids served as tombs for Pharaohs. Each Pyramid is slightly different, Khufu is the largest Several smaller tombs for members of the royal family in front
Decorated tombs with colorful pictures of the gods they believed ruled in the afterlife. Tombs also possessed many statues and sculptures Tombs took thousands of slaves to build. (average age of slaves life 30-35) Used wood, stone, and mud to create ramps with rope to move the massive stones Not built in one pharaohs lifetime.
Pyramids show that egyptian were efficient with geometry and pythagorean theorem Each stone was cut square and placed to keep perfect symmetric slope
Over 2 million blocks used on Khufu’s pyramids On average each block weighed 2.5 tons Base is the size of 7 city blocks Total weight 6.5 million tons
The Great Sphinx, 2500 B.C. Carved from a single block of limestone leftover from the pyramids Pharaoh Khafre ordered the construction of the Sphinx Half human half lion 240 feet long and 66 feet tall
Characteristics of Egyptian Art Faces looked generic, cartoonish Unnatural poses Stiff Figures Not very realistic
Mycerinus and his Queen Both have left foot forward but no sense of movement The queen is as tall as Mycerinus Queen sculpture is not very feminine Two left feet, not in proportion
Funerary Mask A sculpture masterpiece Made of gold and jewels More realistic then most Egyptian sculpture Great detail with design
Ancient Egyptian ArtCreated for: The dead pharaohs and rulers (after life) Art was also created for the gods
Greek Era 900 B.C. - 200 B.C. Greece -As a society they were the most artistic all around. Excelled in all of the “Arts” drama, literature, music, painting, sculpture, poetry, architecture. Ceramics, painting, architecture and sculpture all glorified the greatest creation of all: humans. Greeks were heavily influenced by Mythology
Greek Art gave us Realistic Sculpture Aesthetics/Human Body Architecture/Columns
What was going on in Greece? 776 Olympics Alphabetic/ Writing Coins Socrates, Plato, Aristotle/Philosophy Music/Drama Human Body Perfection Mathematics Mythology
Acropolis (650-480 B.C.) Greek city on a hill Hill was a extremely rocky, called “Sacred Rock” Acropolis was where many architecture advances were made City was full of many different art forms: sculptures, vases, architecture
Three major temples were created on the Acropolis: The Parthenon Erechtheion Temple of Nike Temples were dedicated to the different Gods
Parthenon (447-438 B.C.) Most important monument of Greek civilization It was dedicated to Athena, goddess of Athens
Made mostly of marble, 8 columns on one side and 17 on long side Central part of the temple is the cella where the statue of Athena is Many renowned Greek sculptures sculpted pieces in the Parthenon
Compare and ContrastEarly Greek sculptures to Egyptian sculptures
(Standing Youth) Kouros 600 B.C. Marble Early Greek Sculptures Very comparable to Egypt sculptures Block looking Hands in a fist, same posture First true “Freestanding” sculpture Sculptures are separated from stone
Kroisos, 525 B.C. marble, 6’4” Many of these sculptures were created during this time period Used as gifts, offerings, placed on graves
Sculptures pulled away from Egyptian style and became very realistic. Greeks strived for the perfect body Sculptures very life-like Muscle tones created Faces look realistic/different not generic Created first free- standing sculptures Sculptures based on the gods and mythology
Doryphorus, 450-440 B.C. Classical ideal of the human body Realistic pose Relaxed pose
Discobolos, 450 B.C. Sculpted by Myron One of the most famous sculpture Gives us a sense of movement First sculpture to do this
Roman Era 500 B.C. - 300 A.D. The Romans conquered their world with a great efficiency that remains unmatched. They spread their power across many civilizations. Romans created their own style, but were heavily influenced by the Greeks.
What was going on in Rome? Law Plumbing Julius Caesar dictator Invention of paper Water mills Cement Roads Invention of glass blowing Architecture/Engineering
Roman art stood for power. Architecture became monumental, beginning of arches and use of concrete Sculptures depicted re-named gods, goddesses and prominent Citizens/Leaders Painting, the landscape was introduced and frescos became enormous.
Arches Perfected by Romans and allowed them to create monumental-spacious buildings
Pont du Gard, Nimes Early first century, Southern France Aqueduct carried water hundreds of miles Arches
The Colosseum In the center of Rome In terms of mass one of largest single buildings in the world
Builders of the Colosseum. The Coliseum’s main purpose was for a main gathering place. Drama, gladiators, town meetings Starting of “arches” Seat over 50,000 people Practical and efficient organization could handle large crowds (80 entrances and exits)
*Below the wooden arena floor,there was complex set of roomsand passageways for wildbeasts and other provisions forstaging the spectacles*Eighty walls radiate from thearena and support vaults forpassageways, stairways and thetiers of seats
The Pantheon is a Roman Law Building with a big dome and very thick walls.
Vaulted roof Very large round temple Stood the test of time Very large dome, opening is 143 feet tall Hemispherical dome Proportional circle
Julius Caesar The great emperor of Rome Began as a general and through many victories worked himself to the dictator of Rome
Augustus, 20 B.C. 6’ 8” Sculpture of the emperor Augustus Augustus was the adopted son of Julius Caesar Made to look god-like Hand up to show authority
Wearing the uniform of a Roman general, depicting he is a great warrior Holding staff, shows his power
Toga Party Formal garment of Ancient Rome Symbol of citizenship Worn only for formal occasions
Gothic Era 200 A.D. - 1300 A.D. The artwork in this era was dark. This was due to barbarians taking over, conquering the empire of Rome. Artwork took a step back. It reversed. "Gothic" was first coined to (derogatorily) describe this eras style- Goths a term for barbarians The artwork was so dreadful that only barbarians could create this work
Notre Dame de Paris, 1163-1285 A.D. One of the most famous/historic gothic churches Took over 100 years to complete Unique square shapes on towers
Consists of rose windows of stained glass, ornately crafted spires, and the guardians of the cathedral, the Gargoyles. Vaulted roofs surpassed previous cathedrals, used triangular ribs and transverse arches Three different portals or entrances contained different sculptures of bible scenes
Entrance Relief sculptures of the Saints from the Bible Sculptures almost come alive Each sculpture tells a story from the Bible
Paris Rose Contains nearly all of the original stain glass Much of the stained glass in churches were destroyed during the middle ages/war The light from the Paris Rose shined down on a sculpture of Mary
What was Gothic art based heavily on? Churches/Architecture Bible/Manuscripts Stained Glass Art was more symbolic than realistic
Renaissance Era 1,200 A.D. - 1,700 A.D. Renaissance means rebirth. Revival of cultural awareness and learning Renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman art and design Emphasis on human beings, their environment, science, and philosophy. Artwork was done on walls and ceilings of churches, public buildings, and private dwellings.
Artistic Advancements Invention of oil paints Discovery of perspective drawing and painting Beginning of printmaking
Invention of Oil Paint Tempera paint was made by mixing pigment powder with egg yolks or gum VERY RESTRICTIVE. Oil paint was invented by mixing pigments with linseed oil Oil paint was easily blended, long lasting, slow drying, many different colors
Invention of Perspective Perspective techniques give the illusion of depth Objects that are closer are larger and objects that are further away are smaller Invention of the laws and mathematics of perspective was by Brunelleschi Using vanishing points and receding lines realism was achieved QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Invention of Printmaking It enabled the transmission and communication of ideas Only place you could QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor see artwork was in are needed to see this picture. churches (just the privileged/rich) Wood block prints, copper engraving,
Which of the three new inventionsdo you feel impacted art the most, oil paint, perspective, or printmaking? Why?
Florence, Italy Florence was the center of technological, scientific, and artistic discovery Many advances in architecture, mathematics, medicine, and engineering take place in Florence
Four Major Artists of the Era: Turtle Power: Donatello, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael
Donatello di Niccolo Bardi (1386-1466) Donatello is known for his sculpture. Acquired great fame in his lifetime and was called to many Italian cities to share his gift of sculpture
David, 1425 A.D. First free-standing nude sculpture in a 1000 years Church was finally less restrictive Depicts David slaying the Goliath The sculpture of David became a symbol for Florence
St George 1415-1416 Commissioned sculpture for the outside of a Florentine church Very realistic, broke away from typical Gothic sculptures Also broke away from Roman and Greek sculptures Used live models to created piece
He shows emotion with his face Has an attitude This was new and fresh
Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519"Obstacles cannot crush me. Every obstacle yields to stern resolve. He who is fixed to a star does not change his mind." Trained in Florence, Italy as a painter and sculptor not a scholar Was a genius both scientifically and artistically Was not interested in books and what scholars had to say-he was interested in his own explorations and ideas Always had to prove everything Struggle to work for commission and finish work Did drawings and sculptures on his own terms.
Was a pioneer in the study of human anatomy Dissected over thirty bodies Almost 2,500 drawings and studies of his ideas left in notebooks Most of his notes and drawings were kept-people knew of the importance of them and the genius of Leonardo
Leonardo was left handed He took all of his notes from right to left Need a mirror to read his notes
Inventor Created many drawings of machines and different items of functions Examples of war machines: armored car, ladder for besieging walls, rock thrower
Located on end wall of the refectory of Santa Maria delle in Millan One of the most renowned paintings of the Renaissance Painting depicts the scene Jesus and the apostles at the last supper, when Jesus tells the apostles that one of them will betray him
Leonardo painted himself Controversial Mary Magdalene
Painting demonstrates one point perspective Jesus head is the vanishing point Leonardo would spend a full day just looking at the painting-studying
“Mona Lisa” Most famous portrait of all time Painting is the wife, Lisa, of Francesco del Giocondo Painting has no hard lines or contours, technique called sfumato Painting leaves us something to guess Most striking is her ambiguous half smile
First portrait in which awoman looked straight intothe viewer.Portrait suggests a history,personality, mood, andfeeling.First recognized for itsbackground.
Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) Trained in Florence, Italy Dissected humans and drew the human body in many different positions Influenced by Greek and Roman Sculptures Sculpture was his true love, he hated to paint
Michelangelo was a prickly-tempered, mistrusting and lonely man, lacking in both interpersonal skills and confidence in his physical appearance. Was often hated by other artists because of his supreme talent and he often told you about how good he was His conceit and arrogance cost him many friends and found himself working alone Nobody could argue his brilliance and geniuses
The statue of “David” Stands over 14’ tall carved of marble Three long years to complete the sculpture
The Statue of “David”“A civic hero, he was awarning...whoever governed Florenceshould govern justly and defend itbravely. Eyes watchful...the neck of abull...hands of a killer...the body, areservoir of energy. He stands poised tostrike." -MichelangeloCombined beauty with powerfulmeaningStatue stood Palazzo Vecchio, as asymbol of our RepublicStatue took 40 men 5 days to move itin place
Sistine Chapel How it began: Michelangelo, while working on what he loves most (sculpture), is summoned to The Vatican by Pope Julius II to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Bramante, persuaded the Pope to commission Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Bramnate did not want Michelangelo involved in the construction of the St. Peters Cathedral Bramante knew that Michelangelo was a self-proclaimed “terrible painter” Hoping he would “screw” up the paintings and the Pope would have him killed and Raphael (his friend) would take the paintings over. Plan did not succeed
Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel “Genius is Internal Patience” Commissioned by Julius II Began creating drawings and studies in 1508 Him and a team of artist starting painting in the fall of 1508 1509, Michelangelo fired all of his assistants and removed all paintings and took the job over himself Kept his work hidden to all except the Pope He painted high on scaffolding on his back
Much pressure was put on the artist to complete the paintings In 1511, as a result of the pressure, the paintings were uncovered even though they were not completely finished In 1512 he finally completed the Sistine Chapel Many artists were influenced by Michelangelo’s unique style of paintings
"After four tortured years, more than 400over life-sized figures, Ifelt as old and as wearyas Jeremiah. I was only 37, yet friends did notrecognize the old man I had become." -Michelangelo
Nine scenes from the Book of Genesis, beginning with God Separating Light from Darkness and including the Creation of Adam and Eve, the Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve, and the Flood. In order to prepare for this enormous work, Michelangelo drew numerous figure studies and cartoons, devising scores of figure types and poses. These awesome, mighty images, demonstrating Michelangelos masterly understanding of human anatomy and movement, changed the course of painting in the West.
Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) Raphael was strictly a painter Raphael was well liked with an easy going attitude Had a tough artistic reputation to live up with Leonardo (31 years older) and Michelangelo (8 years older) Heavily influenced by both Had a short career
Plato and Aristotle in the middle of painting and Greek philosophers, poets, mathematicians congregate around them The Classical architecture acts as a backdrop, pulling the viewer into the work by means of 1 point perspective. The figures are highly sculptural, twisting and turning with high movement, influenced by Michelangelo
Galatea 1513 B.C. Light and playful theme.. The movement, the twisting and turning of the figures is reminisce of The Sistine Chapel Painting has a triangular composition, a circular movement and rhythm.
Madonna with a Goldfinch The Madonna shows us all the gentle tenderness of a Leonardo and the sculptural presence of a Michelangelo. Notice the triangular composition
Romanticism Era 1,600 A.D. - 1,850 A.D. Romanticism rebelled against classical forms and rules 1)Paintings were given personality 2)Emotional/dramatic paintings 3)Landscapes Paintings 4)Very Realistic
Small pox vaccine Steam Engine Patent American Revolution French Revolution Artists: Rembrandt, Goya, Hogarth, Halls, Rubens.
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) Very talented painter Great at organizing figures in a painting Paintings had great detail and very life-like
Rembrandt Van Rijn (1606-1669) Dutch painter, draftsmen, and etcher Greatest artist of the 17th century His paintings are characterized by luxuriant brushwork, rich color, and a mastery of chiaroscuro.
Numerous portraits and self-portraits exhibit a profound penetration of character. His drawings constitute a vivid record of contemporary Amsterdam life. The greatest artist of the Dutch school, he was a master of light and shadow whose paintings, drawings, and etchings made him a giant in the history of art. Could bring the “personality” alive in paintings