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Nutritional Therapists of Ireland, Health Impacts of Water Fluoridation May 2014

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Health Impacts of Water Fluoridation. Presentation includes data on the contrubution of fluoride to pulmonary disease, metabolic disorders, neurological disorders and cancer.

Health Impacts of Water Fluoridation. Presentation includes data on the contrubution of fluoride to pulmonary disease, metabolic disorders, neurological disorders and cancer.

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  • 1. Presentation on the Health Effects of Fluoridation of Drinking Water May 2014 By Declan Waugh Environmental Scientist and Fluoride Researcher For more information visit: www.enviro.ie https://www.facebook.com/declan.waugh
  • 2. Contrary to what some Health Authorities and Health professionals believe Fluoride is NOT a nutrient.
  • 3. According to the European Food Safety Authority (2013) “Fluoride has NO KNOWN ESSENTIAL FUNCTION IN HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT and no signs of fluoride deficiency have been identified in humans.” Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), EFSA Journal 20 13;11 (8):3332
  • 4. Currently, only about 5% of the world’s population—350 million people—consume artificially fluoridated water globally , of which the vast majority are Americans (204 million) , followed by Brazilians (74 million). Only in a few countries globally are more than 50% of public water supplies artificially fluoridated including Australia, the Republic of Ireland, USA, New Zealand and Singapore.
  • 5. Fluoride is a major contributor to Respiratory Disease
  • 6. Asthma and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are amongst the two commonest chronic conditions in the world today. An estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma with 250,000 premature deaths annually attributed to the disease. Almost all of these deaths are avoidable.
  • 7. In addition to respiratory functions the lung can also concentrate, inactivate , activate , modify or produce a wide range of bioactive substances. It is now recognised that the lung is also an organ of metabolism. Fluoride as a metabolic inhibitor and enzymatic poison seriously impairs lung health.
  • 8. The adult human lung has a profuse blood supply. As such, the lungs are systemically exposed to many toxic compounds that enter through the gastrointestinal route. For infants the highest exposure to a toxin in early years is from fluoride ingestion through consumption of contaminated infant formula made with fluoridated tap water.
  • 9. Fluoride exposure alters the lung in five key ways. Firstly, fluoride impairs the development of healthy lung structure through inhibition of key enzymes. Secondly, Fluoride and silicafluoride complexes stimulates inflammatory responses in lung tissue contributing to pulmonary disease Thirdly, Fluoride impairs immunity by inhibiting antioxidant defence mechanisms in the body. Fourthly, Fluoride increases mucus production by altering key enzymatic pathways. Increased mucus production increases risk of infectious disease. Lastly, Fluoride alters lung microbial ecology selectively encouraging fluoride resistant microbes
  • 10. HEXAFLUOROSILICIC ACID THE CHEMICAL ADDED TO IRISH DRINKING WATER
  • 11. No toxicological information available on the human health effects or ecotoxicological effects of this chemical
  • 12. The European Commission (2010) and the U.S. National Academies of Medicine and Science (2006) have reported that there is incomplete toxicological data available on Hexafluorosilicic Acid
  • 13. A full dossier of toxicological information was requested by the EU Commission from the manafacturer of this chemical including toxicological and metabolic studies, ecotoxicological studies, reproductive toxicity, medical data including medical surveillance data, epidemiological studies on general population, skin sensitivity studies and allergenicity studies, carcinogenicity studies, mutagenicity studies, sub chronic toxicity studies and measures to protect humans, animals and the environment. A full list of the assessment procedures are provided in pages 33 to 179 of the risk assessment for biocidal products published by the EU. No data was provided.
  • 14. In a controlled experiment Feeney et al. (2006) demonstrated that the addition of hexafluorosilicic acid to drinking water creates ultra fine silica particles Finney, et al., "Re-examination of Hexafluorosilicate Hydrolysis by 19F NMR and pH Measurement," Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 2572-2577.
  • 15. Silica nanoparticles are toxic Napierska et al. (2010) The Nanosilica Hazard: another variable entity. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010, 7:39
  • 16. Synthetic silica nanoparticles when ingested with water can pass into the bloodstream, interact with lung bronchial tissue contributing to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and pulmonary toxicity
  • 17. SO WHAT HAPPENED AFTER IRELAND COMMENCED FLUORIDATION OF PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES.
  • 18. Fluoridation of Drinking Water commenced in Dublin in 1964 and Cork City in 1967. By mid 1970’s all cities and major towns in Ireland were fluoridated And more than 50% of Population consuming artificially fluoridated water
  • 19. In 1974, more than 50% of the population in NZ and Republic Of Ireland were provided with Artificially fluoridated water. In 1974, 47% of population in USA were provided with fluoridated Drinking water. However , unlike the RoI, many large cities and population centres In the USA had been fluoridated for decades. In 1974, less than 50% of population In Canada and Australia were Provided with artificially fluoridated water.
  • 20. In every fluoridated country mortality from respiratory disease increased while mortality rates declined in non fluoridated countries
  • 21. FACT The countries with the highest burdens of pulmonary respiratory disease globally, at levels significantly above the global averages, are all countries with advanced artificial fluoridation programmes.
  • 22. Pre and Post Fluoridation Basque Region of Spain Fluoridation of community water supplies commenced in regions of Spain in 1988. The Basque region of Spain is the most heavily fluoridated geographic area of Spain. A recent study by Benito et al (1995). investigating the changes in epidemiology of acute asthma in children in the Basque region, reported that between 1987 and 1992 hospital admission rates for asthma in children aged 2-14 years rose from 298/100,000 to 405/100,000.
  • 23. The most recent Epidemiological data on childhood asthma Reported the exact same prevalence of Asthma in fluoridated Regions of Spain and Ireland.
  • 24. This compares to a prevalence of > 20% in the fluoridated cities. The lowest prevalence of ‘asthma ever’ recorded in the among the participating cities in the ISAAC study was in Curitba at 8.6%. Curitba is non fluoridated. As of 2008, the number of Brazilians receiving artificially fluoridated water was over 73 million in over 3350 communities. Most of the major cities in Brazil including Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Recife and Manaus are fluoridated
  • 25. Australia 26% of 6-7 year olds diagnosed with asthma 37% of 13-14 year old diagnosed with asthma. Children born in Australia have a two fold greater risk of developing Asthma than children living in Australia but born elsewhere.
  • 26. New Zealand 20% of 7 year olds diagnosed with asthma, 30% of 13-14 yr olds diagnosed with asthma
  • 27. For 2004 the Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population from diseases of the respiratory system for EU, Europe, UK and Ireland were 52, 57, 86 and 101 respectively. Ireland had a 17% increased mortality compared to UK and approximately 100% higher mortality compared to the European region
  • 28. Salt Fluoridation also contributes to pulmonary disease through increasing dietary fluoride intake. The effect is most pronounced in countries with poor nutrition. When Mexico commenced a national policy of mandatory salt fluoridation there was immediate increases in pulmonary disease.
  • 29. Asthma incidence increased five fold following mandatory Fluoridation of salt in Mexico.
  • 30. Similarly immediately post implementation of the national salt fluoridation programme in Mexico the incidence of acute respiratory infections almost doubled from 50,000 to 90,000 and continues to rise Salt fluoridation commenced
  • 31. The U.S. Centres for Disease Control (CDC) have also reported that asthma cost the US about $56 billion in 2007.
  • 32. INFANT EXPOSURE
  • 33. In countries that practice artificial fluoridation of public water bottle fed infants are chronically overexposed to fluoride at levels that are detrimental to their health and wellbeing.
  • 34. In a European study of infants and children from birth to 3 years of age conducted at 22 European Centres the lowest level of breast feeding was recorded in the RoI. The Euro-Growth Study: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000; 31 Suppl 1:S3-13.
  • 35. In a European study measuring the fluoride concentration in urine excreted from preschool children aged 1.5-3.5 years, the highest infant exposure to fluoride was measured among infants living in the fluoridated City of Cork in the RoI. Source: Ketley C E, Cochran J, Holbrook W P, Sanches L, Van L Overenc, Oila A-M, O’Mullane D M: Urinary fluoride excretion by preschool children in six European countries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 32: 62–68 (2004).
  • 36. Fluoride damages the Brain
  • 37. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER It is important to note that the developing brain is exposed to fluoride as the Blood Brain barrier is not developed in a new born child and is not fully developed till after two years of age. Hence the developing brains of infants exposed to fluoride in infant formula will be exposed to very high levels of fluoride which the Lancet Neurologogy Journal (2014) reported was a developmental neurotoxin.
  • 38. The NRC (2006) reported that fluoride concentration in the brain are thought to be 20 per cent of plasma concentration. Furthermore it is important to acknowledge that the NRC (2006) scientific committee noted that; fluorides inhibit the activity of cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase, which is important for mental health, fluorides complexes diminish the energy essential for brain function, fluorides create free radicals in the brain through several different biological pathways fluorides have the ability to interfere with the functions of the brain and the body by direct and indirect means.
  • 39. Reduced levels of acetylcholine over expression of dopamine and homocysteine have been identified as risk factors in Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
  • 40. Tsunoda et al. (2005) in a study examining the neurotoxic effects of fluoride determined that 1ppm fluoride in drinking water increased the concentration of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in the hypothalamus of the brain. Fluoride reduces acetylcholine levels in humans and increases homocysteine levels by inhibition of folic acid.
  • 41. The major increases in childhood respiratory disease occurred in the USA between 1980 and 1995. During this period early infant exposure to fluoride increased to unprecedented levels. In 1980 approx 5% of infants were consuming powered infant formula. By 1995, this had increased to 70% with approximately 60% of US population Consuming artificially fluoridated water. Powered infant formula requires water and Public health authorities recommended fluoridated tap water to reconstitute infant formula. This short period represented on a population level the single greatest change in infant exposure to a toxin in the history of humanity.
  • 42. Unprecedented increase in infant exposure to fluoride between 1980 and 2000 as powered infant formula sales increased and community fluoridation reached more than 60% of US population. This is the period of major change in infant exposure to fluoride.
  • 43. During this period of rapid increase in fluoride exposure the prevalence of childhood metabolic disorders increased to unprecedented levels as well as childhood cancers and neurological disorders. Research has demonstrated that fluoride has an associated with each of these childhood chronic diseases.
  • 44. During this period of rapid increase in fluoride exposure the prevalence of certain childhood cancers increased dramatically; in particularly, cancers of the central nervous system, liver cancer, ovarian cancer and cancers of the blood and bone such as leukaemia.
  • 45. The steep rise in autism reported in the USA is illustrated in figure 4 and mirrors the dramatic changes in infant exposure to fluoride which occurred during the same time period. Between 1975 and 1985 the prevalence of autism doubled. From 1985 the prevalence rates increased alarming as did the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children. The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) reported that the cumulative incidence in autism rose 600% in the USA between 1990 with and 2001.
  • 46. Influence of Blood Group on Sensitivity to Fluoride intoxication The blood groups observed with the most sensitivity to fluoride intoxication were blood Group O and B . These findings are potentially significant considering the high prevalence of blood group O among populations particularly in Republic of Ireland (52%), UK(47%) USA (44%) and Brazil (47%) where artificial fluoridation of water is practised.
  • 47. Studies have reported that acid secretion tends to be higher among individuals with blood Group O and increased gastric acidity increases fluoride absorption. Furthermore individuals with blood group O and B have higher levels of the protein serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) than in A- and AB-individuals. Alkaline phosphatase has been used as a measure of the degree of inflammatory response in humans.
  • 48. Fluoride inhibits Periostin Periostin is a protein that plays an active role in tissue repair following injury in both the skin and heart. Bonnett et al.(2013) reported that periostin deficiency increases bone damage and the propensity to fatigue fractures.
  • 49. Brodarac (2006) reported that periostin deficiency was found to cause defects in the teeth affecting the morphology and quality of both, molars and incisors. In addition perostin deficiency was associated with greater wear and fractures in incisors and molars. A further observation in the study was the significantly reduced fertility among offspring of periostin deficiency animals.
  • 50. Drózdz et al. (1980) reported that pre and post natal exposure to fluoride in drinking water resulted in a decrease of soluble and insoluble collagen in skin and lungs of exposed animals.
  • 51. Wurtz et al. (2008) reported that fluoride at non toxic doses resulted in significant inhibition (ten fold) of periostin. Periostin is a protein involved in the genesis of collagen fibers.
  • 52. Periostin deficiency was also observed to induce lethality in embryonic development increasing postnatal mortality. A possible reason for the lethality was the affect of under-expression of periostin on the developing heart.
  • 53. Snider et al.(2008) also reported that periostin deficiency is associated with cardiac aortic valve abnormalities and enhanced neonatal lethality.
  • 54. Fluoride stimulates Neopterin Production enhancing inflammatory responses.
  • 55. Neopterin is a marker associated with cell- mediated immunity. It is excreted in an unchanged form via the kidneys. High neopterin production is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species and with low serum concentrations of antioxidants.
  • 56. Murr et al. (2002) reported that increased neopterin production is found in a range of diseases including autoimmune disorders, neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Murr et al. Neopterin as a marker for immune system activation. Curr Drug Metab. 2002 Apr;3(2):175-87
  • 57. Varol et al. (2012) demonstrated that plasma neopterin levels are positively correlated with fluoride exposure and urine fluoride levels in humans.
  • 58. Fluoride stimulates Arachidonic Acid Production
  • 59. Bonney et al (1991) who reported that fluoride exposure at 10 μM (0.19ppm) also stimulated a significant release of arachidonic acid from human cells. Gutowska et al.(2011) in a controlled study demonstrated using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that fluoride at low concentrations ranging from 1- 10 μM (0.02 - 0.19ppm) significantly increased the synthesis of arachidonic acid
  • 60. A statistically significant increase in arachidonic acid concentration was observed for all concentrations. At 0.02ppm fluoride arachidonic acid increased by 21% , 0.05ppm (47%), 0.11ppm (50%) and 0.19ppm (65%).
  • 61. Fluoride stimulates catecholamine release.
  • 62. Catecholamines are hormones made by the adrenal glands. Catecholamines are known to be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory functions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that fluoride induces catecholamine release. Niloufer et al.(1996) noted that the greatest effect of fluoridein stimulating calcholamine levels occurred when exposure continued beyond 30 days with 110% increase in catecholamine levels recorded after 60days
  • 63. A large number of studies have reported that elevated catecholamine contributes to hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia.
  • 64. Catecholamines are involved in metabolic functions through regulation of carbohydrate and fatty acid mobilization. As a consequence of enhanced catecholamines, carbohydrate metabolism will also be affected. even in the resting state.
  • 65. Elevated catecholamine stimulate glucose production in humans and elevated catecholamine has been documented to induced a transient 120% rise in free fatty acid (FFA) levels, contribute to hyperglycemia. and an inhibition of metabolic clearance of glucose.
  • 66. Fluoride stimulates Insulin Like Growth Factor
  • 67. Numerous studies have demonstrated that fluoride exposure stimulates Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. IGF-I is a potent mitogen and exerts its mitogenic action by increasing DNA synthesis and by stimulating the expression of cyclin D1.
  • 68. High levels of circulating IGF-I are associated with increased risk of several common cancers, including those of the prostate, breast, colorectum, and lung.
  • 69. Fluoride stimulates Lipid Peroxidation
  • 70. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) product accumulation in human tissues is a major cause of tissular and cellular dysfunction that plays a major role oxidative stress- related diseases.
  • 71. A large number of Human and animal studies have also observed increased lipid peroxidation and a decrease in antioxidants from fluoride exposure. Impairment of antioxidant status is associated with elevated plasma levels of lipid peroxidation
  • 72. Fluoride has been demonstrated, both in vivo and in vitro, to increase lipid peroxidation in human cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated that low dose fluoride of human cells exposure ranging from 0.1-0.45ppm induced a 40% increase in lipid peroxidation.
  • 73. Lipid peroxidation is causally involved in many diseases and disorders including atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease,, diabetes, chronic renal failure, irritable bowel disease retinopathy of prematurity, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, obsessive compulsion disorders, Autism,, Down syndrome, preeclampsia,, carcinogenesis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
  • 74. Fluoride inhibits Leptin secretion
  • 75. Leptin plays important roles in the regulation of food intake and body weight through its receptor in the hypothalamus. Under-expression of leptin has been identified as a contributory factor in obesity.
  • 76. Fluoride promotes growth hormores associated with cancer cell growth Under-expression of leptin results in overexpression of ghrelin in plasma. Ghrelin is an amino acid peptide hormone that stimulates growth hormone release and has been documented to promote cancer cell growth in endocrine cancers including breast cancer , prostate cancer, testicular tumours and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cancer.
  • 77. Fluoride alters Calcium and Magnesium homeostasis Altered calcium and magnesium homeostatis had wide ranging implications for public health including increased risk of osteoporosis, thyroid disorders, obesity, hypertension and colon cancer.
  • 78. Colon Cancer and Hypertension ion are major public health problems in the Republic of Ireland According to the National Cancer Registry Ireland the incidence of colon cancer in the RoI is higher than the European average for both males and females. In 2010, according to the Institute of Public Health (IPH), more than 950,000 (62.2%) adults aged 45+ years in RoI have hypertension
  • 79. By 2020 the IPH reported that the number of adults aged 45+ years with hypertension is expected to rise by 28% to more than 1,220,000. The differences in prevalence rates in the Island of Ireland are remarkable, with more than 75% of adults aged 65 years or over in the RoI clinically diagnosed with hypertension compared to 48% in non-fluoridated Northern Ireland.
  • 80. Similar regional differences have been reported for prevalence rates of osteoporosis, with prevalence rates in the RoI twice that reported for the UK. In addition, the estimated prevalence of overweight in adults in the RoI is 37%, with 24% documented as obese.
  • 81. A recent study reported that 68% of Americans in 2005 were deficient in magnesium.
  • 82. Magnesium deficiency contributes to depression and anxiety, cardiovascular disease, increased risk of myocardial infarction,sudden death, higher rates of spontaneous abortions, and premature births, hypertension, chronic fatiguesyndrome, increased susceptibility to infections and migraine and osteoporosis.
  • 83. Magnesium deficiency inhibits the insulin release in response to a glucose challengeand is associated with insulin resistance. Magnesium deficiency has been found to be a key factor with metabolic syndrome.
  • 84. Fluoride increases sequestion of magnesium into the skeleton thereby making magnesium less biologically available. Once bound to bone fluoride magnesium complexes retard the mobilization of skeletal magnesium.
  • 85. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ingested fluoride forms insoluble complexes with magnesium in the intestinal tract increasing faecal excretion
  • 86. Further studies have demonstrated that urinary excretion of magnesium significantly increased with increasing fluoride exposure
  • 87. A vast number of studies have demonstrated that fluoride is a competitive inhibitor of magnesium in biological processes. This competitive inhibition further reduces Mg availability.
  • 88. Finally the transcellular absorption of magnesium ions in the paracellular pathway is regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Research has demonstrated that exposure to fluoride inhibits EGF expression.
  • 89. Fluoride is a pro-inflammatory agent which increases the inflammatory response in humans. Chronic and low grade inflammation forms the basis of many human diseases ranging from type 2 diabetes and depression to heart disease, endocrine disorders, metabolic diseases, respiratory and musculoskeletal disease, many forms of cancer, and neurological diseases such as dementia.
  • 90. Fluoride, Inflammation and Metabolic Disorders Increasing proinflammatory status is a recognised causal factor in developing hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Maternal hyperglycemia has a causal relationship with increasing fetal growth and pregnancy complications including caesarean section, in addition to contributing to increased childhood obesity.
  • 91. Fluoride inhibits normal carbohydrate metabolism through inhibition of key enzymes, this results in elevated glucose and insulin resistance and an accumulation of fatty acids, all of which contribute to obesity and diabetes.
  • 92. Fluoride impairs glucose tolerance and causes decreased insulin expression and increased insulin resistance. Glucose intolerance is a gateway to developing type 2 diabetes. Incidence rates for diabetes in the RoI are significantly above those for Northern Ireland or the European region.
  • 93. Increased insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are established risk factors in depressive disorders. The RoI has one of the highest incidence rates for depressive disorders in the world.
  • 94. Fluoride as a metabolic inhibitor increases risk of Obesity The highest rates of adult obesity among OECD countries are reported in countries with artificial fluoridation, including the U.S.A, New Zealand, Australia and the RoI. Among European countries the RoI has one of the highest prevalences of overweight and obese children. The prevalence of overweight in adults is 37%, with a further 24% meeting current body mass index (BMI) criteria for obesity.
  • 95. Fluoride inhibits enolase. In addition to its innate glycolytic function enolase plays an important role in several biological and pathophysiological processes including autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular health, inflammatory respiratory disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and general disease prevention.
  • 96. Fluoride alters normal endocrine function. Altered endocrine function is associated with increased cholesterol concentrations, increased incidence of depression, diminished response to standard psychiatric treatment, cognitive dysfunction, and, in pregnant women, decreased IQ of their offspring.
  • 97. For individuals with iodine deficiency a total dietary intake of 0.7 – 3.6mg per day is known to adversely affect thyroid function, up to 50% of European population are deficient in iodine. The European Food Safety Authority has established that total daily dietary fluoride intakes, excluding medicine and toothpaste, for individuals living in countries with artificial fluoridation may exceed 6.5mg per day.
  • 98. Consequently it can be stated with absolute certainty, that artificial fluoridation of public water is contributing to disruption of healthy endocrine function and diseases associated with altered endocrine function
  • 99. Fluoride stimulates free radicals & causes oxidative stress Free radical and oxidative stress are causal factors in cancer. According to the World Health organisation (2013) the Republic of Ireland has the highest incidence of cancer in Western Europe, almost TWICE that of the mean incidence of entire European Region.
  • 100. According to the National Cancer Registry of Ireland, the risk of developing cancers including leukaemia, bladder, prostate, oesophagus, cervix pancreas and brain/central nervous system cancers was significantlyhigher in RoI than in NI. NI is non-fluoridated.
  • 101. Free radicals have an established causal role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis leading to vascular diseases. Oxidative stress plays a causal role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
  • 102. Fluoride Stimulates Calcitonin Fluoride increases the production of calcitonin at dietary intake levels less than those reported for individuals living in fluoridated communities. Increased calcitonin levels are associated with coronary artery disease, inflammatory lung disease, major depressive disorders, and migraine and play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.
  • 103. Elevated calcitonin is also associated with a wide range of cancers including leukaemia, thyroid, lung, ovarian, pancreatic and breast cancer. The prevalence of depressive disorders, heart disease and cancer in the RoI are significantly above the European region and amongst the highest reported internationally. The European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2012) determined that calcitonin increases cancer risk and have advised that calcitonin medications no longer be prescribed by medical physicians.
  • 104. Fluoride stimulates Haptoglobin. Fluoride increases the production of haptoglobin, a plasma glycoprotein. Increased haptoglobin is associated with a variety of human diseases including breast, cervical, ovarian and prostate cancer in addition to acute and chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphoid leukemia. Elevated hapotglobin is also a recognised risk factor in epilepsy, schizophrenia, coronary artery disease, alcholol and drug abuse, sleep apnea, hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
  • 105. Infant exposure to fluoridated infant formula has been documented to significantly increase the risk of developing leukaemia. As previously noted, elevated levels of calcitonin have been identified as a risk factor in leukaemia. Fluoride is known to increase calcitonin levels in humans. Fluoride also inhibits the enzyme arginase. The arginase enzyme metabolizes L-arginine, and L-arginine deficiency has been reported to cause immunosuppression and increase the proliferation of lymphoma cells. Fluoride inhibits folate metabolism and folate deficiencies have been established as a risk factor in leukaemia and other cancers.
  • 106. The highest incidence rates for male leukaemia globally are to be found in fluoridated countries including New Zealand, USA, Australia, Canada and the Republic of Ireland. Childhood leukaemia incidence rates have been increasing alarming in each of these countries since the mid to late 1980s. This rapid increase has occurred in parallel with changing infant feeding practices which saw a dramatic decrease in cows milk being consumed among infants 6-12 months of age and older being replaced by increased use of infant formula consitituted with fluoridated tap water.
  • 107. Fluoride contributes to childhood neurological disorders. The alarming increase in childhood neurological disorders documented in fluoridated countries, which are significantly above the global average, coincide with the period of increased fluoride exposure in infants due to changes in infant feeding patterns. The populations with the highest burdens of Autism and ADHD internationally are to be found in artfificially fluoridated countries.
  • 108. Fluoride is a significant contributor to depression and anxiety disorders There are at least 12 mechanisms by which fluoride contributes to mental disease that I have document in my forthcoming report with appropriate scientific references. 1. Fluoride increases calcitonin levels. 2. Fluoride causes impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. 3. Fluoride inhibits Magnesium absorption and bioavailability. 4. Fluoride inhibits calcium absorption and bioavailability altering Reelin signalling. 5. Fluoride stimulates dopamine release. 6. Fluoride inhibits Tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin and alters serotonin signalling. 7. Fluoride stimulates lipid peroxidation. 8. Fluoride exposure causes oxidative stress. 9. Fluoride activates g proteins. 10. Fluoride impairs melatonin production. 11. Fluoride contributes to folate deficiency. 12. Fluoride impares Homocysteine metabolism.
  • 109. Fluoride causes oxidative stress in brain tissue. It is an established medical fact that oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment contributing to schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels.
  • 110. Ireland has the highest prevalence of depressive disorders in Europe. In addition, anxiety disorders are also the most common class of psychiatric disorders in the US, the country with the longest period of artificial fluoridation, affecting approximately 28.8% of the US population. In stark contrast the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (2004) reported a prevalence rate for anxiety disorders among six European countries of 6.8%.
  • 111. Fluoride stimulates activation of G proteins. G proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology several diseases including, inflammation, neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and endocrine disorders
  • 112. Fluoride is documented to cause coronary vasospasms by stimulating G-proteins to release EDRF (endothelium-derived relaxing factor). Vasospasms are known to be a major risk factor in ischemia and strokes. The Republic of Ireland has the second highest mortality rate from ischaemic heart disease in the Western Europe and premature deaths for individuals below 65 yrs of age from ischaemic heart disease are above the EU15 and EU27.
  • 113. Fluoride is a cholinesterase inhibitor. There is a recognised causal relationship between cholinesterase inhibitors and pulmonary disorders including pneumonia, persistent cough, bronchitis, and asthma.
  • 114. Not surprisingly, within Europe the RoI also has the highest prevalence of adult and childhood asthma. Death rates from diseases of the respiratory system in Ireland are almost double the EU average and the RoI also has the highest hospitalization of 0-14 yrs.’ olds for asthma among European counties.
  • 115. Fluoride inhibits Lipase. Among individuals with conditions that can contribute to a lipase deficiency, there is the potential for problems to develop, such as prostate disorders, high cholesterol, an increased risk for diabetes, and difficulty losing weight, decreased lipase activity is a primary risk factor in obesity. Inhibition of lipase also results in an accumulation of higher fatty acids which contribute to cardiovascular disease
  • 116. Individuals with cystic fibrosis, Crohn’s disease, and celiac disease are a particular high risk group for deficiencies in lipase. Their risk is confounded by exposure to artificially fluoridated water. The RoI one of the highest incidences rates for cystic fibrosis, Crohn’s and celiacs disease in the world.
  • 117. Fluoride inhibits cellular production of lactate. Lactate plays a crucial role in protecting the central nervous systems including neurobiology. The RoI has one of the highest incidence rates for neurological disorders in the world.
  • 118. Fluoride inhibits Arginase. It has been established that arginase inhibitors increase the risk of inflammatory diseases and cancers in humans. The RoI has one of the highest incidences rates for inflammatory diseases and cancer in the world.
  • 119. Fluoride inhibits Folate Fluoride inhibits folate contributing to increased homocysteine levels. Folate is important for the functioning of the central nervous system at all ages of development. Folate deficiency induces neurotoxicity due to accumulation of homocysteine.
  • 120. Homocysteine is implicated in many pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases, neural tube defects, and is now recognised as a risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia. There is also growing evidence that homocysteine plays a role in alcoholism, depression and anorexia nervosa. Homocysteine metabolism has been documented as a risk factor of Down’s syndrome (DS).
  • 121. Research has demonstrated a positive relationship between homocysteine levels and increased hostile behaviour in schizophrenia. Homocysteine may also be an important factor in Parkinson‘s disease. Furthermore, it has been found that a high plasma concentration of homocysteine may contribute to epilepsy. The RoI has one of the highest incidence rates for neural tube defects, Down’s syndrome, cardiovascular disease, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy and alcoholism in the world.
  • 122. Fluoride damages Collagen Fluoride has been found to adversely affect collagen and contribute to inflammatory skin diseases. The RoI has one of the highest prevalences of skin diseases significantly above European prevalence rates. Skin conditions are the fourth most common reason for GP visits in Ireland. Today, between 25% and 33% of the Irish population suffer from a dermatological condition at any one time. Elevated prevalences of skin diseases significantly above the global average are also prominent in other countries with artificial fluoridation
  • 123. Fluoride exposure increases risk of Epilepsy Fluoride exposure increases the risk of epilepsy through reducing melatonin and increased homocysteine levels. Epilepsy is the second most commonly seen neurological condition in primary care worldwide; the adult prevalence rates of epilepsy in the RoI are almost twice the European prevalence rates and are also significantly higher than the prevalence rates reported for Northern Ireland, Scotland, England and Wales.
  • 124. Fluoride contributes to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Fluoride as an inflammatory agent contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence rates for IBD in the RoI are twice that of non- fluoridated Northern Ireland and the highest incidences of this disease internationally are to be found in countries with artificial fluoridation programmes.
  • 125. ADULT EXPOSURE
  • 126. In a UK study (2010) examining the fluoride intake of 1373 adults living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated regions of the UK it was established that 65%of adults in fluoridated regions exceeded the recommended UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Maximum Safe Intake Level. For non fluoridated regions 21.8% of adults exceeded the NDNS level.
  • 127. Fluoride consumption for 73% of the subjects tested in three fluoridated neighbourhoods of County Donegal was at or above the recommended UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Maximum Safe Intake Level. Source: Mansfield, Fluoride Consumption: The effect of Water Fluoridation, Research Report, Fluoride 43 (4) 223-231, Oct-December 2010
  • 128. Chronic overexposure to fluoride also exists in the adult population in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated countries from consumption of tea and use of fluoridated medications. The exposure increases when tea is constituted with fluoridated water.
  • 129. A recent 2013 study determined that the mean concentration of fluoride measured in UK teas was 4.95mg/L According to the Irish Food Safety Authority the Fluoride concentration of tea is 0.49mg/L That’s a 1000% difference.
  • 130. Mean Fluoride Concentration in mg/L in Tea Infusions Black blends 2 min 30 min PG Tips bags 4.98 6.45 PG Tips decaffeinated bags 4.97 5.35 PG Tips leaf 3.88 5.26 Twinings Everyday bags 3.04 4.05 Typhoo bags 2.82 3.63 Yorkshire bags 2.53 3.23 Green blends Clipper Organic leaf 4.32 6.41 Famous Green 1.62 2.22 Green Twinings bags 4.43 5.96 PG Tips Green bags 3.63 6.67 Tetley Green bags 2.73 3.67 Xiamen Green 3.9 5.57 Economy blends Asda Smartprice bags 7.14 7.72 Asda Smartprice bags 5.63 7.17 Asda Smartprice bags 6.73 6.93 Euroshopper bags 6.85 7.99 Morrisons Value bags 1 6.73 8.8 Morrisons Value bags 6.73 8.6 Morrisons Value bags 2 5.87 6.87 Sainsbury Basics bags 3 6.13 7.4 Sainsbury Basics bags 4 4.37 6.6 Sainsbury Basics bags 5.2 6.2 Tesco Value bags 1 7.96 8.85 Tesco Value bags 2 5.57 6.23 Tesco Value bags 3 5.4 6.3 Tesco Value bags 4 6.26 7.25 Waitrose Essential bags 3.6 3.9 Mean 4.9mg/L 6.1mg/L
  • 131. Fluoridation and Cancer In 2001, researchers at the University of Tokyo, published findings in the Journal of Epidemiology which reported a significant association between water fluoridation and cancer. Research undertook detailed statistical analysis of cancer incidence rates and water fluoridation in the USA, comparing fluoridated and non fluoridated states. Of the 36 cancer sites in males and females examined 23 (69%) were significantly associated with water fluoridation. The reason given by the authors for the higher cancer incidence rates in fluoridated communities was the extended presence of fluoride in plasma and urine and the infusion of fluoride into the brain and other organs. Ref: Takahashi K, Akiniwa K, Narita K. Regression analysis of cancer incidence rates and water fluoride in the U.S.A. based on IACR/IARC (WHO) data (1978-1992). International Agency for Research on Cancer. J Epidemiol. 2001 Jul;11(4):170-9
  • 132. Comparison of Cancer incidence for RoI and European Region
  • 133. FLUORIDE and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer the Republic of Ireland has the highest prevalence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in all 27 EU Member States. The aged standardised incidence of non-hodgins lymphoma in the RoI is more than DOUBLE the global incidence rate for both males and females. Similar incidence rates are reported for New Zealand, Australia, the USA, Canada, the Basque region of Spain and Singapore (All fluoridated).
  • 134. THE HIGHEST INCIDENCE OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE WORLD ARE TO BE FOUND IN FLUORIDATED COUNTRIES. In non fluoridated countries the highest incidence is to be found in regions with The highest level of naturally occuring fluoride in drinking water
  • 135. Impaired melatonin, elevated haptoglobin, calcitonin, insulin like growth factor and prostatic acid phosphatase are all established risk factors in prostate cancer. Each of these mechanism are altered by fluoride. Fluoride impairs melatonin production and stimulates haptoglobin, calcitonin, insulin like growth factor and prostatic acid phosphatase production.
  • 136. Ferlay et al. (2007) reported that the incidence of prostate cancer in the RoI was the highest of all 30 European countries, with incidence rates 75% above the European Union.
  • 137. Furthermore, Ferlay et al. (2010) reported that there was a 4-5 fold difference in incidence rates of prostate cancer in the RoI, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA compared to the global incidence rate. All of these countries have artificial fluoridation of public water supplies
  • 138. Prostate Cancer and Fluoride exposure Comparison of Island of Ireland and Finland
  • 139. Global incidence of Cancer