The Core Periphery Relationship
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The Core Periphery Relationship



A Level AQA Geography

A Level AQA Geography



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    The Core Periphery Relationship The Core Periphery Relationship Presentation Transcript

    • The Core-Periphery Relationship
    • The Core-Periphery Relationship
      • What is the core & periphery?
      • Understand the models of economic development
    • Definitions
      • Core: part of a country with most economic activity and development and therefore is the most prosperous
      • Periphery: area of low or declining economic development within a country. Some refer to all areas outside the core as the periphery
    • Rostow’s Model of development
    • Friedmann’s Stages of growth Model
      • Stage 1: Preindustrial Economy. country has a number of relatively independent local centres, each serving a small region. No hierarchy
      • Stage 2: Transitional Economy. Single core develops during initial industrialisation, underdeveloped periphery makes up reminder of the country
      • Stage 3: Industrial Economy. The core-periphery becomes transformed into multi-nuclear structure with a national core and a number of sub-cores. Upward spiral in core, downward in periphery
      • Stage 4: Post-Industrial Economy. Functional interdependent system of cities develops, resulting in national integration and maximum growth potential. Friedmann believes USA reached this stage but with peripheral areas such as Alaska.
    • Friedmann’s model
    • Myrdal’s Cumulative Causation
      • This was to explain regional differences. A reverse flow of selective migration from rural to urban areas causes greater regional inequalities.
      • Successful growing areas attract more economic activity causing even greater disparity. This economic concentration in core areas is called backwash or polarisation. The core has a cumulative & growing advantage over the periphery. These areas can use economies of scale, better technology etc.
      • Some areas will have upward spirals & some will have downward spirals due to the multiplier effect.
      • Growth will slowly spread to periphery areas as greater food & the core needs resources.
      • Land prices in the core rise & so some companies will decentralise to the periphery.
      • The gap between core & periphery depends on the relative rates of backwash & spread. If backwash dominates there is an increasing gap; if spread dominates there is a decreasing gap.