I N T R O D U C T I O N TO EMULSIONSHow to Make Body Lotions & Creams By Shola Alabi Shea Radiance
W H AT I S A N E M U L S I O N ?✳An emulsion is the process of mixing two or more liquids that are naturally not mixable.✳When the emulsion is done correctly, the two or more liquids are not separable.✳There can be oil in water emulsion- where oil is dispersed in water.✳There can also be water in oil – where water is dispersed in oil.
THE BASICS PHASES EMULSION✳Water✳Oil✳Emulsifier✳Humectant✳Thickener✳Heat & Agitation✳Preservatives
WAT E R P H A S E✳Water is a diluent and a carrier of other ingredients✳Use only Distilled Water or De-ionized Water. Tap Water or Pure Water is not recommended✳Pure or Tap water contains dissolved minerals that cause the lotion to go bad
OIL PHASEOils and butters allow your formulation to haverichness. The type of oil used can affect thefeel, spread and viscosity of your lotion.✳Recommended usage rate of oil can be up to25%✳ Select oils based on what is available to you.Example: Shea Butter; Cocoa Butter; Olive oil;Coconut oil; Soy Bean oil; Sweet Almond oil
BUFFERSUsed to adjust pH level of Creams and lotions✳If emulsion is acidic, use an alkaline solution tobring up pH. Levels of (2-3) can cause skinirritation✳Ideal pH should be between 5.5 and 7✳If pH is too high, it can burn skin✳Certain preservatives may not work in high pHcream or low pH✳Common buffers are citric acid or SodiumHydroxide to adjust up or down.
EMULSIFIERSEmulsifiers allow oil and water to mix togetherand not separate.✳Recommended usage rate of an emulsifiercan be 3% - 5%✳The HLB value of the emulsifier should matchthe HLB requirement of the oil.✳O/W emulsion: use high HLB emulsifier✳W/O emulsion: use low HLB emulsifier✳You can also use a co-emulsifier
L O T I O N M A K I N G TO O L S✳Scale✳Heat✳Emulsifier✳Agitation or Mixer(Rotor/Stator), anchor impeller✳At least two Stainless Steel Pots✳Thermometer✳pH Reader (Litmus paper)✳Buffers: Acid or Alkaline
OTHER COMPONENTS✳Buffers: Citric Acid or Sodium Hydroxide solution✳Chelating Agents (Sodium Phytate, EDTA)✳Solubulizers (Polysorbate 20,Peg40 Hydrogenated Castor oil)✳Emulsion Stability-resist change in its properties over time✳Shelf life Prediction – Thermal & Freeze methods
P R E S E R VAT I V E S✳Preservatives are needed to ensure that your cream does not go bad.✳Bacteria grows in the presence of water and food.✳Preservative will make your cream to last more than one week to years and not grow mold or yeast which can cause cancer.
MORE ABOUT P R E S E R VAT I V E SStrongly recommend broad spectrum preservativesespecially in this tropical environment. Thesepreservatives work against bacteria, yeast andmold✳Phenoxyethanol✳Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate✳Methylparaben/Propylparaben (note concerns)✳Optiphen Plus✳And others
LABELS AND INCI✳Design your label to be attractive.✳List your ingredients in order of percentages used (high to low)✳Only list ingredients by INCI :-✳The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients