Shea improvement, management and exploitation strategies needed for the rapid transformation of the shea industry
Shea improvement, management and exploitation strategies needed for the rapid transformation of the shea industry PRESENTATION BY E. C. Okolo, Okwuagwu, C.O., Aisueni, N. O., Enaberue, L. O., Okolo, C. C and M. Koloche NIGERIAN INSTITUTE FOR OIL PALM RESEARCH (NIFOR). AT THE SHEA 2013 GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES CONFERENCE HELD AT ABUJA ON THE 4TH – 6TH MARCH, 2013
INTRODUCTION The development of the shea industry in Nigeria is burdened with numerous problems.
Introd… Cont… The long gestation period of the tree Picking of fruits from the wild Inadequate butter processing methods Frequent cutting of branches of the tree for charcoal and firewood
Introd… Cont… Annual bush fires Unorganized marketing strategies for butter Exploitation of woodland resources
NIFOR Experience Studies on distribution, density and variation of Shea trees in Nigeria Vegetative propagation of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn Shea Seedling establishment
Table 1: THE DISTRIBUTION OF SHEA IN THE ECOLOGICAL BELTS OF NIGERIA Coastal MangroveS/No. swamp/Rain Forest Derived/Southern Guinea Northern Guinea Sahel Surface Area Km21. Rivers Savannah Savannah 11,0772. Bayelsa 10,7733/ Lagos 3,3454. Delta 17,6985. Ondo 15,5006. Akwa Ibom 7,0817. Cross River 20,1568. Ogun 16,7629. Edo N. Edo 17,80210. Imo 5,10011. Abia 6,32012. Ebonyi N. Ebonyi 5,67013. Enugu N. Enugu 7,16114. Oyo N. Oyo 128,45415. Osun` N. Ogun 9,25116. Ekiti N. Ekiti 6,35317. Benue 34,05918. Kogi 29,83319. Kwara 136,82520. Niger 76,31521. FCT 7,31522. Nasarawa 27,11723. Plateau 30,91324. Taraba 54,47325. Adamawa 45,85726. Bauchi 36,91727. Gombe 18,76828. S. Kaduna N. Kaduna 46,05829. Kebbi 36,80030. S. Born N. Borno 70,89831. Yobe 45,50232. Kano 20,13133. Jigawa 23,15434. Katsina 24,19235. Zamfara 39,76236. S. Sokoto N. Sokoto 25,973Rainfall 2,500– 3,500 1,500 1,000 500mm/yr.Shea tree NIL V. High High Lowdensity
Table 2: Area of parcels, densities (shea trees and saplings) and mean girth, between trees of Vitellaria paradoxa in Northern and Southern Guinea Savannah in Nigeria• Northern Guinea Savannah Southern Guinea Savannah• ________________________________________ __________________________________• Land Girth Density Saplings Area Girth Density Saplings Area• Uses (cm) (ha-1) (m2) (cm) (ha-1) (m2)• ________________________________________________________________________________•• Cultivated 164 25 6 4.5 198 42 13 4.5•• Fallow 154 44 10 6.4 162 109 32 6.5•• Forest 62 54 38 8.8 116 200 80 8.9• ________________________________________________________________________________ _
Vegetative propagation of Vitellaria paradoxa Shea fruit production encounters a number of difficulties particularly in relation to ageing, slow growth, long juvenile phase The juvenile phase of the naturally regenerated shea varies between 15 and 20 years
Vegetative Propagation One of such strategies for the domestication and genetic improvement of shea tree is by vegetative propagation (grafting) Four grafting methods (Splice, Side veneer, Whip and Tongue and Bench) were tested. It was observed that grafting carried out in the dry season, were more successful compared to grafting during the rainy season.
Table 4: Effects of season of grafting and grafting method on survival of Vitellaria paradoxa three and six months after graft in NigeriaSeason Grafting Total no of % graft shea % graft shea methods grafts after 3 months after 6 monthsDry Splice 25 32 0 Side veneer 25 8 0 Bench 130 57.6 32.3 Whip/Tongue 30 30 6.6Rain Splice 15 26.6 0 Side veneer 20 40 0 Bench 40 37.5 2.5 Whip/Tongue 20 40 0
Table 5: Effects of grafting methods on leaf phenology of Vitellaria paradoxa graft in NigeriaGrafting Total no Days to first Days to Days to Days to Ave. No ofmethod of grafts foliar bud first leaf first green maximum no mature leaves formation formation leaf of mature produced formation leavesSplice 25 45 88 113 170 11Side veneer 25 49 90 129 169 12Bench 130 39 85 118 158 14Whip/Tong 30 41 97 131 168 10ue
It has been thirty six months after grafting was carried out on the shea sapling, yet no flowering has occurred.
Shea Seedling establishment Putting barrier under polybags for easy transplanting Building of shade in the nursery Mulching Building small shade on the transplanted grafted shea.
Strategies for the genetic improvement of shea in Nigeria Characterization of the shea population in Nigeria Knowledge of the biology of the crop Introduction of selected provenances Mastery grafting method; and Protection and improvement of natural regeneration of shea
CONCLUSION Shea tree improvement is a very long-term activity, necessarily inclusive of a wide variety of interventions, from the immediate and local to the large- scale, regional and international.
Conclusion cont… Management studies on the juvenile and mature shea trees should continue for the purpose of an increased fruit production and control of the parasites which affect productivity.