Contextual references

3,082 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,082
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
145
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
53
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Contextual references

  1. 1. English for Graduate Study (LA 501) Contextual Reference Reference Words/ Transitional Markers Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 1
  2. 2. Contextual ReferencesThis lesson will show you how to: Recognize and identify different types of contextual reference Read and connect the contextual reference to the word that it refers toContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 2
  3. 3. Contextual ReferencesRead the passage and identify what each underlined word refersto:A computer, like any other machine, is used because it does certain jobs betterand more efficiently than humans. It can receive more information and process itfaster than any human. The speed at which a computer works means it canreplace weeks or even months of pencil-and-paper work. Therefore, computersare used when the time saved offsets their cost, which is one of the manyreasons they are used so much in business industry, andresearch. Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 3
  4. 4. Contextual ReferencesContextualare words which substitute for other words (to avoid using the sameReferencesword over and over).They refer back to words that have been used. Alsothey may refer forward to ideas that will be stated. A computer , like any other machine, is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than humansContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 4
  5. 5. Contextual ReferencesContextualReferencesrecognize and passagecontextualreading. Being able to will help you understand the identify you are references You must pay attention to reference words when they occur in the text you are reading You can find the meaning of references by searching the text and using your common sense and knowledge of the text.Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 5
  6. 6. Contextual ReferencesPronouns & PossessiveAdjectives Pronouns Subject Pronouns Object Possessive Pronouns Possessive Adjectives I me mine my you you yours your We us ours our they them theirs their He him his his she her hers her it it its itsContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 6
  7. 7. Contextual ReferencesPronouns & PossessiveAdjectivesExample Animation is a component of multimedia; it is used in online video game as well as in moving banners displaying sports scores or stock prices. Even though an optical fibre is as thin as hair, its signal carrying capacity is higher than copper wire.Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 7
  8. 8. Contextual ReferencesPronouns & PossessiveAdjectivesExample As companies unify their networks and systems, they must merge new technologies and legacy systems. companies their : _____________________________ companies they: _____________________________Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 8
  9. 9. Contextual ReferencesPronouns & PossessiveAdjectivesExample Bill Gates knew that PCs would be big business and he imagined Microsoft playing a center role in this industry. Bill Gates he : _____________________________Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 9
  10. 10. Contextual ReferencesRelative = give extra informationPronouns that which who whom whose where when whyExample Today, telecommunication is widespread and devices that assist the process, such as the television, radio and telephone, are common in many parts of the world. ‘that’ refers to ‘a devices’ Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 10
  11. 11. Contextual ReferencesRelative give extra informationPronouns that which who whom whose where when whyExample An operating system is a master control program which controls the functions of the computer system as a whole and the running of application programs. ‘which’ refers to ‘master control program’ Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 11
  12. 12. Contextual ReferencesContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 12
  13. 13. Contextual ReferencesContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 13
  14. 14. Contextual ReferencesDeleted Noun leave out the nouns which have already to been mentioned.one another the other otherssome these those allExampleThere is no best answer to the question which onlineservice is the best. Rating a particular online serviceover another is entirely subjective. Price is importantto some people, while the number of files availablefor download is important to others.another : _____________________________ Another online serviceothers: other people _____________________________Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 14
  15. 15. Contextual ReferencesDeleted Noun leave out the nouns which have already to been mentioned.one another the other otherssome these those allExampleMost programs are user-friendly but some are verycomplicated. some programssome : _____________________________Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 15
  16. 16. Contextual ReferencesDeleted Noun leave out the nouns which have already to been mentioned.one another the other otherssome these those allExampleDELPHIE’s Hobby Shop is an online service whichhas two special-interest areas: one on classicvehicles and one on new cars and technology. one areaone : _____________________________Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 16
  17. 17. Contextual ReferencesDeleted Noun leave out the nouns which have already to been mentioned. one another the other others some these those allOptical fibers give very clear telephone conversationswhich are free from signal interference because lightsignals from one fibre do not interfere with those ofothers in the same cable. those light signalsthose : _____________________________ other fibresothers: _____________________________ Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 17
  18. 18. Contextual ReferencesDeleted Noun leave out the nouns which have already to been mentioned.one another the other otherssome these those allThere are two technologies at work in a clipboardPC: one allows raw data to get into the computerand the other allows the computer to figure outwhat that data mean.one : one technology _____________________________ the other technologythe other: _____________________________Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 18
  19. 19. Contextual ReferencesSpecific Words specific words that give specific meanings. useExampleEverybody uses computers for many different purposes. Thesesmart machines make their lives easier and more pleasant.‘these smart machines’ refers to computersContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 19
  20. 20. Contextual ReferencesSpecific Words specific words that give specific meanings. useTelecommunications is the transmission of signals over a distance forthe purpose of communication. In modern times, this process almostalways involves the sending of electromagnetic wavesby electronic transmitters but in early years it may haveinvolved the use of smoke signals, drums or semaphore.‘this process’ refers toThe transmission of signals over a distance for thepurpose of communicationContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 20
  21. 21. Contextual ReferencesPro-Clausebegins a sentence with ‘that, it, this, or which’ to refer to the idea in the previous sentence .ExampleMultimedia combines text with sound, video, animation and graphic.This greatly enhances the interaction between user and machine‘this’ refers tothe fact that multimedia combines text with sound,video, animation and graphic’Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 21
  22. 22. Contextual ReferencesPro-Clausebegins a sentence with ‘that, it, this, or which’ to refer to the idea in the previous sentence• When Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) was first introduced, the connection had to be made between PCs online at the same time. This is no longer necessary. ‘this’ refers to the connection had to be made between PCs online at the same time Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 22
  23. 23. Contextual ReferencesPro-Clausebegins a sentence with ‘that, it, this, or which’ to refer to the idea in the previous sentenceTechnology has been developed increasingly, which makes our livesmore convenient.‘which’ refers toTechnology has been developed increasinglyContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 23
  24. 24. Contextual ReferencesSequence of Two words that show the order of situations and eventsItemsthe former the latterExampleSome students read slowly and know it; others readslowly and don’t know it. The former can be helpedmore easily than the latter. ‘the former’ refers to ‘students who read slowly and know it’ ‘the latter’ refers to ‘students who read slowly and don’t know’Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 24
  25. 25. Contextual ReferencesSequence of Two words that show the order of situations and eventsItemsthe former the latterExampleThere is a struggle between "Web Services" and the "Semantic Web".The former was thought to be rooted in the W3C and academia, thelatter in IBM-Microsoft-Sun and industry. Web Services ‘the former’ refers to ________________________________ ‘the latter’ refers to Semantic Web ________________________________Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 25
  26. 26. Contextual ReferencesGrammatical Subject &Object “it” writer might use ‘it’ to refer to the subject orIn the passage, thethe object of a sentence ExampleIt is easy to install new programs. to install new programsContextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 26
  27. 27. Contextual ReferencesGrammatical Subject &Object “it” writer might use ‘it’ to refer to the subject orIn the passage, thethe object of a sentence ExampleAll computers do not use the same operating systems. Therefore,it is important to assess the operating system used on a particularmodel before initial commitment because some software is onlydesigned to run under the control of specific operating systems.Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 27
  28. 28. Contextual ReferencesGrammatical Subject &Object “it” writer might use ‘it’ to refer to the subject orIn the passage, thethe object of a sentenceIt must be taken into account that printersvary in cost, speed, print quality and otherfactors such as noise or compatibility.Contextual References PowerPoint by Aj. Sorada Wattana 28

×