Cell Organelles


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Cell Organelles

  1. 1. Main Cytoplams Organelles -nucleus -cytoplasm -cell membrane -vacuole -mitochondria -chloroplast -golgi Apparatus -lysosomes -ribosomes -endoplasmic reticulum(ER) *Rough ER & Smooth ER
  2. 2. Nucleus <ul><li>The “brain” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Controls all of the </li></ul><ul><li>cellular activities </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is inside the nucleus </li></ul>
  3. 3. CHROMOSOMES - Chromosomes – carry the information that determines what traits a living thing will have are found inside the nucleus Nucleus
  4. 4. CELL MEMBRANE <ul><li>holds the cell together </li></ul><ul><li>keeps all of the pieces (like the organelles and the cytoplasm) inside the cell </li></ul><ul><li>controls what goes in and out of the cell </li></ul>Example: like a big plastic bag with tiny holes in it
  5. 5. How does the cell membrane work? <ul><li>Has 2 layers of MOLECULES = BILAYER </li></ul><ul><li>Bi means two </li></ul><ul><li>The layers are made up of molecules called phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>**THINK OF a sandwich with two pieces of bread and some stuffing on the inside </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cell Membrane
  7. 7. M i t o c h o n d r i a <ul><li>Mito = Mighty / Power </li></ul><ul><li>The Power-House of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>They break down food molecules so the cell has the energy to live </li></ul><ul><li>If a cell needs a lot of energy…it will have more mitochondria </li></ul>
  8. 8. So… the more space it has the more energy it can create The Mitochondria structure has three main parts: OUTER MEMBRANE: covers the mitochondria INNER MEMBRANE: folds many times to increase the surface area because chemical reactions (glycolysis) occur here
  9. 9. <ul><li>The proteins </li></ul><ul><li>take the food molecules in and combine them with Oxygen to release the energy </li></ul>
  10. 10. E n d o p l a s m i c R e t i c u l u m <ul><li>also known as the “ER” </li></ul><ul><li>it is an organelle inside the cell that is </li></ul><ul><li>made up of membranes that are in the CYTOPLASM of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>There are two different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>Main function is to collect, maintain & transport things </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped slightly tubular </li></ul><ul><li>Creates steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Stores Ions for the cell to keep nutrients balanced </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>It has bumps all over it giving it a “rough” appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Bumps are called RIBOSOMES </li></ul><ul><li>ER collects the proteins (built by the ribosomes) and creates a bubble around them </li></ul><ul><li>VESICLE- is formed when the ER pinches off a part of its membrane </li></ul>
  13. 13. **The vesicle can then move to the Golgi apparatus or the cell membrane 1) If the vesicle floats to the cell membrane, the proteins are going to be sent out of the cell……or (exocytosis) 2) If they move to the Golgi Apparatus, the proteins will be used inside the cell MOVEMENT of VESICLES
  14. 14. Smooth ER vs. Rough ER
  15. 16. GOLGI APPARATUS <ul><li>WHAT DOES IT DO? </li></ul>1) it takes simple molecules and combines them to make larger molecules. 2) takes those larger molecules and puts them into packs called GOLGI VESICLES <ul><li>Also called the Golgi Complex </li></ul><ul><li>It is made up of a stack of flattened out sacs …like a loose stack of pancakes </li></ul>
  16. 17. GOLGI APPARATUS Think about building a model of a ship (that's the molecule). Then take that model and put it in a bottle (that's the vesicle).
  17. 18. Golgi apparatus
  18. 19. LYSOSOMES (primarily animal) <ul><li>Next…smaller molecules are released which are absorbed by the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>They combine with the food taken in by the cell </li></ul><ul><li>The enzymes in the lysosome bond to food & digest it (acidic interior) </li></ul>
  19. 20. LYSOSOMES <ul><li>When an organelle no longer works, the lysosome will attach itself to it and break it down like food (kind of like a cannibal) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals can then be reabsorbed or excreted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes can also destroy the cell if it breaks open accidentally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Suicide Sacs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV light damages lysosome membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The enzymes inside the lysosome spread throughout the cell and digest it </li></ul>
  20. 21. LYSOSOMES
  21. 22. Lysosome Animation
  22. 23. CYTOPLASM <ul><li>Cytoplasm - everything inside the cell membrane & outside of the nucleus except the cell’s nucleus </li></ul>
  23. 24. CYTOPLASM cytoplasm
  24. 25. VACUOLE <ul><li>Vacuoles are “bubbles” that float in the cell  </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles are more important to the survival of plant cells than they are to animal cells </li></ul>
  25. 26. VACUOLE: STORAGE IN PLANT CELLS <ul><li>Vacuoles in plants support structure </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles hold onto things that the cell might need…like a backpack </li></ul><ul><li>There are some vacuoles that hold onto waste products, similar to having a big septic tank </li></ul><ul><li>Storing waste products protects the cell from contamination </li></ul>
  26. 27. VACUOLE CONT’D <ul><li>So, when there is no water…the vacuole shrinks and the cell wall is the only thing holding the plant together. </li></ul>
  27. 28. You will know that a plant's vacuoles are shrinking when you see the plant begin to droop over HOLDING UP THE WALLS
  28. 29. <ul><li>Turgor Pressure - force exerted by the water entering (osmosis) the vacuole, which then swells exerting internal force on the cell wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes “rigidity” so the plant my increase by stacking cells </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Chloroplast
  30. 31. <ul><li>the site of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>disk-like structures </li></ul><ul><li>composed of a single membrane </li></ul><ul><li>surrounding a fluid containing stacks of membranous disks </li></ul>Chloroplast
  31. 32. <ul><li>SOLAR energy radiated from the sun is captured by plants( chloroplast ) </li></ul><ul><li>Then it is instant aneously changed into ELECTRICAL energy </li></ul><ul><li>Then packaged as CHEMICAL energy </li></ul>Chloroplast
  32. 33. Chloroplast <ul><li>photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplast </li></ul>Photosynthesis- the process in which plant use water, carbon dioxide, and energy form the sun to make food
  33. 34. <ul><li>No energy transformation is 100% efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Not all the solar energy captured is converted to electrical and then chemical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of it gets lost as heat or other forms of energy (light) </li></ul>Chloroplast
  34. 35. <ul><li>small dot-like structures in cells </li></ul><ul><li>they are often associated with forming </li></ul><ul><li>rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis in cells </li></ul><ul><li>they are made in the nucleus of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>A ribosome can make the average protein in about one minute </li></ul>Ribosomes
  35. 36. <ul><li>Ribosomes are made up of proteins and ribonucleic acid(RNA) </li></ul><ul><li>These molecules are arranged into two subunits </li></ul><ul><li>These subunits are attached to each other and together form the entire ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>When viewed through a light microscope the ribosomes appear as dots </li></ul>Ribosome Structure
  36. 37. <ul><li>Types of Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>There are two kinds of ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>1) Attached to the rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>2) floating in the cell cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Attached ribosomes make proteins that are used in the ER or transported within the ER </li></ul><ul><li>Free ribosomes make proteins that are used in the cytoplasm </li></ul>