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# Physics fluids - glencoe 13.3

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• Freedom of the Seas debuted in 2006 as the worlds largest cruise ship: a fast, fabulous floating city with nearly 6000 people on board almost every day.Read more: http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/man-made/4163/Overview#ixzz1FWtrpDVF
• ### Physics fluids - glencoe 13.3

1. 1. 3 Fluid Principles<br />Glencoe 13.3<br />
2. 2. P = F/A<br />P = ρgh<br />Derive the relationship between these two pressure equations.<br />Verify both yield Pascals for units.<br />Pressure<br />
3. 3. Pascal’s Principle = Hydraulics<br />
4. 4. Pressure is consistent throughout a fluid.<br />Liquids are dense and incompressible.<br />P1 = F1/A1<br />P2 = F2/A2<br />P1=P2<br />Therefore F2 = F1(A2/A1)<br />Force is multiplied as a ratio of piston areas.<br />NOTE: Trade-off is the distance pistons travel. The small piston has to move the greater distance, because work (energy) is conserved.<br />Pascal’s Principle<br />Image source: How Stuff Works –<br />Hydraulics<br />
5. 5. Archimedes found that an object displaces its own volume of the fluid it is in. Another way of saying this is…<br />Fbuoy = weight of fluid displaced<br />The buoyant force affects the object’s weight. The apparent weight = weight – buoyant force<br />Archimedes Principle<br />
6. 6. A cube of aluminum (10E-3 m3) is submerged in water.<br />ρAl = 2.7E3 kg/m3<br />ρH2O = 1E3 kg/m3<br />What is the buoyant force?<br />What is the apparent weight?<br />Sample Problem<br />
7. 7. A cube of aluminum (1E-3 m3) is submerged in water.<br />ρAl = 2.7E3 kg/m3<br />ρH2O = 1E3 kg/m3<br />What is the buoyant force? 9.8N<br />What is the apparent weight? 2.7*9.8 – 9.8 = 16.7 N<br />Sample Problem<br />
8. 8. As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases.<br />Bernoulli’s Principle<br />
9. 9. Lift:To maintain equilibrium in a straight and level flight, pilots must monitor the aircraft's speed and pitch angle. Those variables along with other factors are used in a formula to determine an aircraft's lift. <br />Lift=(1/2)(air density)(velocity)(aircraft's wing area)(coefficent of lift) <br />Air density decreases with altitude.<br />The coefficent of lift varies with the aircraft's type of airfoil. <br />Bernoulli’s Principle<br />
10. 10. When fluid moves through constriction, velocity increases so same amount of mass can move through at same time.<br />A1v1 = A2v2 EQUATION OF CONTINUITY<br />See ThinkQuest animation: http://library.thinkquest.org/27948/bernoulli.html<br />Bernoulli’s Principle<br />
11. 11. Ideal fluids are continuous, incompressible (therefore, not gases) and have laminar (smooth) flow.<br />Real fluids are turbulent, experience friction, and have viscosity variation.<br />Ideal Fluids<br />Image source: <br />answers.com<br />