Title StyleWomen and WaterPerspectives on EmpowermentPresented by MalaikaCheney-CokerWomen for WaterWebinarDecember 5, 2012
Title StyleAbout Water+ at CARE• In 2011 CARE helped 27 million women and menin 50 countries develop sustainable watermana...
Title Style4/30/2013 3Our Theory of ChangeSecure andsustainableaccess toWATER+servicesGender-sensitiveWATER+policies,insti...
Title Style4/30/2013CARE (Main Title from Title Page) 4Gender-sensitiveWASH+ healthpolicies,institutions,& socialnormsGirl...
Title StyleKey Question• If women are disproportionately affected by inadequatewater and sanitation facilities to what ext...
Title StyleThe Study• The Women’s Experience Snapshot Tool wasadministered to 191 women in GWI EA WASHintervention areas o...
Title StyleImproved Health• 95 % felt the project had resulted in improvements in theirhealth, and 92% in improvement for ...
Title StyleReduced Stress• 82% of women reported that the project had positiveimpacts on them in term of reduced stress (3...
Title StyleIncreased Respect/dignity• Availability of water and household sanitation hadbrought about an improvement in th...
Title StyleImproved Gender Equality• 80 % of the women interviewed felt the program hadcontributed to greater gender equal...
Title StyleImproved Finances• 72 % of women reported being in an improved financialsituation (15% reported no difference, ...
Title StyleDifferences in Women’s Experiences• Wives of heads of households and female heads ofhouseholds are more likely ...
Title StyleMy Voice as a Woman• “Through training my capacity to raise my opinion hasincreased”• “It is better than before...
Title StyleConclusions• WASH programming does support women’sempowerment through increased health, dignity, genderequality...
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Women and Water Webinar

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In December, Malaika Cheney-Coker, Learning and Influencing Advisor for the CARE Water Team presented findings from the GWI East Africa Women’s Experiences Snapshot study. Watch the video here: http://www.womenforwater.com/news/webinar-recap

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  • The issue of increased respect/dignity is one where there is some statistically relevant disaggregation of experience that emerges, as it was wives of heads of households rather than old parents or other relatives living in the house, or young dependents who were disproportionately more likely to report this benefit (and other adults in the households more likely to report improvement compared to young dependents. For example:*Wives of heads of households are 5.4 times more likely than young dependents of the head of household to report improvement in changes in respect/dignity after the intervention (1.55, 18.813).*Wives of heads of households are 4.2 times more likely than old parents/relatives living within the household to report improvement in changes in respect/dignity after the intervention (1.236, 13.96).*Other adults within the households are 10.8 times more likely than young dependents of the head of household to report improvement in changes in respect/dignity after the intervention (1.13, 102.849).
  • Similarly, 72 percent of women reported being in an improved financial situation thanks to the GWI initiative, see Figure X. This is further explained in terms of a combination of factors that included: i) the reduced cost of water for those who used to pay more – e.g. a halving of costs for many in Tanzania for example; ii) having more time for economic activities e.g. women reporting more time to sell products at the market/kiosk or start new businesses such as selling milk, setting up a bakery selling doughnuts, or being a hotelier; and iii) the changes to household health resulting in fewer costs relating to illness. The situation is however reported as not being any different for 15 percent of the women and 3 percent indicate that it is worse because they now pay for water and previously didn’t.
  • Although the data on who reported financial benefits do not generate statistically relevant differences, the issue of involvement in income generation activities (IGA) does suggest that age and position within the household are relevant. The main findings are that wives of heads of households and female heads of households were more likely to report IGA benefits and young dependents and older parents/relativesless likely to do so,. Also, women with no kids were less likely to report IGA benefits than those with older kids.    Are they not likely to be single women? Usually in marital terms but might have kids and also possible, though unlikely that there is a husband who isn’t head of household somehow (e.g. younger, second husband) Note have edited the paragraph a bit in line with changes to the main document For these and the correlations that follow, it would be useful to have some conjecture about these relationships or else it’s hard to get them to stick or create meaning.  My main point really is that women experience things differently and that we need to look at household position and composition if we really want to ensure that all women can benefit, rather than just assuming that they all have the same chances of uptake/benefit – it could lead to much better targeting. I have some better words to this effect in the revised document I think but not sure that this is the place to talk about this. The issue of increased respect/dignity is also one where there is some statistically relevant disaggregation of experience that emerges, as it was head’s of households rather than elderly relatives, young dependents or other adults in the household who were disproportionately more likely to report this benefit, for example, an old person/relative living in the household had an 86% less chance of improvement in terms of level of respect/dignity after intervention compared to the wife of head of household. OR=0.241; confidence interval 0.0702, 0.809. Also Young dependant has a 81% less chance of improved respect/dignity than wife of head of household. OR=0.185 (0.053, 0.645); Other adult in household has 91% less chance of improved respect/dignity than young dependent. OR=0.093 (0.01 0.882)
  • Women and Water Webinar

    1. 1. Title StyleWomen and WaterPerspectives on EmpowermentPresented by MalaikaCheney-CokerWomen for WaterWebinarDecember 5, 2012
    2. 2. Title StyleAbout Water+ at CARE• In 2011 CARE helped 27 million women and menin 50 countries develop sustainable watermanagement practices and improve communityhygiene and sanitation• Water Team has developed a Theory of Changethat seeks to prioritize impact on women and girls
    3. 3. Title Style4/30/2013 3Our Theory of ChangeSecure andsustainableaccess toWATER+servicesGender-sensitiveWATER+policies,institutions, &social normsGender-equitable controlover WATER+servicesPoor women &school-agedgirls improvetheir lives+ x =Catalyst*Sustainability &Appropriateness of ServicesEnabler*GovernanceDriver*Women’s and GirlsAgencyGoal
    4. 4. Title Style4/30/2013CARE (Main Title from Title Page) 4Gender-sensitiveWASH+ healthpolicies,institutions,& socialnormsGirls’ & women’shealth needs arevoiced with impacton policy &servicesSecure andsustainableaccess toWATER+servicesGender-sensitiveWATER+policies,institutions, &social normsGender-equitablecontrol overWATER+servicesPoor women &school-agedgirls improvetheir lives+ x =WASH accessfor householduseAccess to WASHservices includingmenstrualmanagement inschoolsPolicies, institutions,& social normssupport gender-sensitive schoolWASH provisionBuilding confidenceand leadership inschoolsPolicies, institutions, &social norms supportecologicallysustainable waterresources resilient toclimate changeGender-equitablecontrol ofmaintenance ofwater resourcesGender-sensitivemaintenance ofwater resources &adaptations toclimate changeAccess to waterfor productiveuses with a focuson women’slivelihoodsPolicies, institutions,& social norms thatsupport women’swater dependentlivelihoodsGirls’ & women’slivelihood needs &interests are heard& addressed
    5. 5. Title StyleKey Question• If women are disproportionately affected by inadequatewater and sanitation facilities to what extent do womenfeel that access to clean water and sanitationtransforms their lives?
    6. 6. Title StyleThe Study• The Women’s Experience Snapshot Tool wasadministered to 191 women in GWI EA WASHintervention areas of Ethiopia (49) , Kenya (45), Tanzania(45) and Uganda (52) in 2012.• Primarily a quantitative feedback mechanism butallows for additional comments• The majority of the women were married (53 % ), 22 %were single, 18 % widowed and 7 % divorced.10%29%43%10%9%Old parent/relativeliving in the householdHead ofhousehold, (e.g.…Wife of head ofhouseholdOther adult within thehousehold (over…Young dependant ofhead of household…
    7. 7. Title StyleImproved Health• 95 % felt the project had resulted in improvements in theirhealth, and 92% in improvement for other members ofthe household
    8. 8. Title StyleReduced Stress• 82% of women reported that the project had positiveimpacts on them in term of reduced stress (32 % reportedsignificant improvements).• Reasons included:• Girls no longer being late for school, women being morerelaxed due to more time, more water for different needs, notbeing as tired due to long journeys; being able to spend moretime on other activities for themselves and less tension withhusbands.
    9. 9. Title StyleIncreased Respect/dignity• Availability of water and household sanitation hadbrought about an improvement in the dignity ofthe women due to the privacy of latrines andclean clothes – this is confirmed by 86% of therespondents.
    10. 10. Title StyleImproved Gender Equality• 80 % of the women interviewed felt the program hadcontributed to greater gender equality (10 % noresponse, 9 % no change and 2 % feedback that it hadgotten worse). Reasons include more women in keypositions on water user committees, greaterunderstanding of hygiene and sanitation• Only 69 % of women, however, felt the project hadincreased their sense of empowerment, (13 % didn’trespond, 16 % said there was no change and 2 %reported decreases).
    11. 11. Title StyleImproved Finances• 72 % of women reported being in an improved financialsituation (15% reported no difference, 3% reportedworsening). Reasons include:• the reduced cost of water for those who used to paymore• having more time for economic activities e.g. sellingproducts at the market/kiosk setting up a bakeryselling doughnuts, or being a hotelier• the changes to household health resulting in fewercosts relating to illness
    12. 12. Title StyleDifferences in Women’s Experiences• Wives of heads of households and female heads ofhouseholds are more likely to report income generationactivity benefits; young dependents and olderparents/relatives less likely to do so.• Wives of head’s of households were disproportionatelymore likely to report increased respect/dignity, (e.g.wives of heads of households are 5.4 times more likelythan young dependents of the head of household toreport improvement).• Middle income women were less likely to have improvedtime for socializing after intervention compared to womenin the both upper and lower income brackets.•
    13. 13. Title StyleMy Voice as a Woman• “Through training my capacity to raise my opinion hasincreased”• “It is better than before as women now get chances to airout their views in village meetings.”• “Women are involved in making community decisions”• “Women can now be elected to lead groups andcommunity social groups like the water managementcommittee and their opinions are more considered unlikebefore the intervention”• “Before GWI the man (head of household) questionedeverything in terms of development but currently they arepositive on the activities, carried out by women.”
    14. 14. Title StyleConclusions• WASH programming does support women’sempowerment through increased health, dignity, genderequality and financial security and reduced stress.• However, women’s experiences are nothomogeneous. Programming needs to be sensitive toand – wherever possible - take into account not justdifferences in relative wealth and disabilities, but alsoissues around position in and composition of households.

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