This presentation outlines a watershed protection approach that applies eight tools to protect or restore aquatic resources in a subwatershed. It describes the nature and purpose of the eight watershed protection tools, outlines some specific techniques for applying the tools, and highlights some key choices a watershed manager should consider when applying or adapting the tools within a given subwatershed.
Introduction to the Eight Tools of Watershed Protection Presented by:
When preparing a land use plan, a watershed manager needs to:
Predict what will happen to water resources with future land use changes.
Obtain consensus on the most important water resource goals in the watershed.
Develop a future land use pattern for the subwatersheds that can meet those goals.
Select the most acceptable and effective land use planning techniques to reduce or shift impervious cover.
Select the most appropriate combination of other watershed protection tools to apply to individual subwatersheds.
Devise an ongoing management structure to adopt and implement the watershed plan.
Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection This graph illustrates the relationship between impervious cover and stream quality, information that can be used to categorize streams as sensitive , impacted , or non-supporting .
This is an example of a Montgomery County, MD land use planning map that classifies subwatersheds based on an impervious cover model.
The aquatic corridor is comprised of the stream and its rights-of-way. Healthy stream channels diverge, converge, and meander along the natural stream path. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Description: Areas that provide a sense of our place in the landscape:
Historic and archaeological sites
Conservation Area: Cultural Areas
Historic sites such as the one shown here in historic Ellicott City, MD are not only aesthetic and educational but provide a sense of community as well. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Pullovers are provided off the George Washington Parkway so that the public can enjoy the scenic overlook. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This trail which runs alongside the Choptank River in Maryland provides the public with a form of recreation and access to the water. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
The numerous docks in Annapolis provide recreational access to the water, which can promote public appreciation for water resources. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This buffer was reestablished with great success in Anacostia near Washington, DC. After only two growing seasons, the vegetation showed dramatic recovery growth. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This development in Howard County, MD illustrates a buffer. The outer zones consist of backyards where usage is unrestricted and the vegetative target can be turf grass. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This tree preservation area is clearly marked throughout the construction stage to prevent clearing. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
A typical conventional site contains huge areas of impervious cover that can potentially be reduced. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Typical streets are often excessively wide, increasing traffic speeds and making streets unfriendly to pedestrians. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Typical cul-de-sacs are often large enough to double as spaceship landing pads. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This conceptual plan utilizes several better site design techniques, including a vegetated island that allows stormwater filtration, shorter driveways, narrow streets, and alternate pavement for overflow parking.
Clearing and grading of the entire site, and all at once, is a common construction practice. Some state regulations require exposed soils to be stabilized within 7 - 10 days. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Ten Elements of an Effective ESC Plan 1. Minimize Needless Clearing and Grading 2. Protect Waterways and Stabilize Drainage Ways 3. Phase Construction to Limit Soil Exposure 4. Stabilize Exposed Soils Immediately 5. Protect Steep Slopes and Cuts 6. Install Perimeter Controls to Filter Sediments 7. Employ Advanced Sediment Settling Controls 8. Certify Contractors on ESC Plan Implementation 9. Adjust ESC Plan at Construction Site 10. Assess ESC Practices After Storms
The use of straw is one technique for stabilizing soils. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This sedimentation basin was constructed to treat the erosion from the construction right in the background. However, the basin is not being maintained properly and the heavy sedimentation is a sign of failure. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Silt fences are another ESC measure, but are worthless without proper installation and maintenance. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Key Erosion and Sediment Control Choices for the Watershed Manager
Is a higher level of ESC practice or more frequent
The Adopt-A-Stream program provides an excellent opportunity for active public participation and education. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
These citizen volunteers are planting trees to help reforest a buffer. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Assessing the quality and quantity of aquatic biota is one way to monitor the health of a watershed. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Hydrologic gauging stations compute stream velocity and measure pollutant levels. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This stream restoration project included building log drops to provide spawning habitat for salmon. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Key Stewardship Choices for the Watershed Manager
Is my community ready to undertake restoration?
Which mix of stewardship programs is best?
Who are the best targets for watershed education?
How am I going to pay for a stewardship program?
Summary This presentation provides a simple introduction to the eight basic watershed protection tools essential to the protection, preservation, and restoration of our lakes, streams, and estuaries. For more information on the watershed protection tools, please consult the Rapid Watershed Planning Handbook , 1998.
Are You an Expert on the Eight Tools of Watershed Protection?
Simply use your mouse to click on the correct answer for each multiple choice question. If you are correct, you will immediately advance to the next slide. Good luck!
What is the single most important tool of watershed protection?
At what scale is watershed planning most effective? Largest scale possible Subwatershed scale Stream level
What is the disadvantage of using large lot zoning as a land use planning tool? Large lots spread out development, resulting in sprawl Large lots are often economically unfeasible Large lots mean longer driveways
What is an aquatic buffer? An area of trees that blocks noise pollution Tool designed to polish rough, polluted areas Area adjacent to a shoreline, wetland or stream where development is restricted or prohibited
What is cluster development? Development that groups economically similar groups together Development that reduces individual lot size and creates more open space Development designed to concentrate pollutants in one small area
What is the most destructive stage of the development cycle? Clearing & grading Installation of underground pipes & lines Structure erection
What is the most effective technique for providing erosion and sediment control? Wetting down building sites Increasing cleared areas Minimizing clearing
What is NOT a structural stormwater practice? Ponds Wetlands Infiltration Filtering Systems Buffer clearing Open channels
What non-stormwater discharge is not regulated by the NPDES? Factory discharge Septic systems Farm discharge
What is the primary goal of watershed stewardship programs? Increase public awareness & participation Save money Preserve non-profit status
What is a conservation easement? A practice used to apply and enforce restrictions to preserve natural resources An amendment relaxing conservation restrictions A special dispensation to deputize conservation officers
What are stormwater hotspots? Urban areas that contribute 5-10 times higher pollutant levels in stormwater runoff Areas of increased water temperature that destroy habitat Areas that are 5-10 times more likely to experience flooding
Congratulations! You’re familiar with the eight tools of watershed protection! Contact the Center for Watershed Protection if you’re interested in learning more.
Areas of land and water that are important to the integrity and quality of a stream, river, or other body of water. An aquatic corridor usually consists of the actual stream or river, the aquatic buffer, and other areas which are part of the stream’s right-of-way.
A practice used to apply and enforce restrictions to preserve natural resources. Typically, a landowner will grant a parcel of land to a qualified recipient (e.g. public agency or non profit land conservancy organization). The easement gives the recipient the right to enforce the restrictions. The recipient does not assume ownership but does assume long-term responsibility for enforcement and stewardship of the easement.
Areas adjacent to a stream or river that are subjected to flooding or inundation during severe storm events (often called a 100 year floodplain, it would include the area or flooding that occurs, on average, once every 100 years).
A portion of a development site that is permanently set aside for public or private use and will not be developed with homes. The space may be used for passive or active recreation, or may be reserved to protect or buffer natural areas.
A smaller geographic section of a larger watershed unit with a drainage area between 2 to 15 square miles and whose boundaries include all the land area draining to a point where two second order streams combine to form a third order stream.
A form of incentive for developers in which the developer purchases the rights to an undeveloped piece of property in exchange for the right to increase the number of dwelling units on another site. Often used to concentrate development density in certain land areas.