Eight Tools of Watershed ProtectionPresentation Transcript
Introduction to the Eight Tools of Watershed Protection Presented by:
1. Land Use
Preparing a Land Use Plan
When preparing a land use plan, a watershed manager needs to:
Predict what will happen to water resources with future land use changes.
Obtain consensus on the most important water resource goals in the watershed.
Develop a future land use pattern for the subwatersheds that can meet those goals.
Select the most acceptable and effective land use planning techniques to reduce or shift impervious cover.
Select the most appropriate combination of other watershed protection tools to apply to individual subwatersheds.
Devise an ongoing management structure to adopt and implement the watershed plan.
Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection This graph illustrates the relationship between impervious cover and stream quality, information that can be used to categorize streams as sensitive , impacted , or non-supporting .
This is an example of a Montgomery County, MD land use planning map that classifies subwatersheds based on an impervious cover model.
Land Use Planning Techniques
Watershed Base Zoning
Urban Growth Boundaries
Large Lot Zoning
Infill Community Redevelopment
Transfer of Development Rights
This is another example of a watershed-based zoning map that uses impervious cover to categorize subwatersheds in Montgomery County, MD. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Watershed-based Zoning 1. Stream Inventory 2. Measure impervious cover 3. Verify impervious cover/ stream quality relationships 4. Project future levels of impervious cover 5. Classify subwatersheds 6. Modify master plans/zoning to correspond 7. Incorporate management priorities from larger watershed units 8. Adopt specific watershed protection strategies 9. Long term monitoring
This is a map of a barrier island which would benefit from zoning measures to protect its resources.
By using overlay zoning, the same barrier island and its resources can be protected.
Criteria for Urban Growth Boundaries
Provide nearby public facilities and services
Provide a sufficient amount of land to meet projected
Provide a mix of land uses
Analyze the impact of growth on natural resources
Boundary criteria should be fair and include natural
Other Land Use Planning Techniques
Large Lot Zoning
Transfer of Development Rights ( TDRs )
Key Land Use Planning Choices for the Watershed Manager
What are the most acceptable land use planning
techniques that can be used to shift/reduce
How accurate are the estimates of future impervious
What are the future impacts of impervious cover ?
Which subwatersheds are capable of absorbing future
Tool #2: Land Conservation
Five types of land may need to be conserved in a subwatershed:
Hydrologic reserve area
Water pollution hazards
Conservation Area: Critical Habitat
Description: essential spaces for plant and animal communities
Large forest clumps
Habitat for rare or endangered species
Potential restoration sites
Native vegetation areas
Tidal wetland s are considered critical habitat and provide essential spaces for plant and animal communities. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Freshwater areas like this are also considered critical habitat since they provide spawning areas for trout. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Conservation Area: Aquatic Corridor
Description: Area where land and water interact
Springs and seeps
Small estuarine coves
The aquatic corridor is comprised of the stream and its rights-of-way. Healthy stream channels diverge, converge, and meander along the natural stream path. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Description: Undeveloped areas that maintain the pre-development hydrologic response of a subwatershed:
Conservation Area: Hydrologic Reserve
This aerial photo shows several types of land uses, including crops, forests, and pastures, that can function as hydrologic reserves. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Forests are important conservation areas because they can help maintain the pre-development hydrologic response of a subwatershed. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Hazardous waste generators
Above/below ground tanks
Surface/subsurface discharge of wastewater effluent
Conservation Area: Water Pollution Hazard
Land application sites
Stormwater “hotspots ”
Pesticide application areas
Road salt storage areas
Water supply intakes
Description: Land use or activity that creates a greater risk of potential water pollution
Hazardous wastes left in areas not designated for proper collection can create “stormwater hotspots.” Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Facilities that may be potential pollutant sources are often kept a designated distance away from streams, rivers, and other water bodies. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Description: Areas that provide a sense of our place in the landscape:
Historic and archaeological sites
Conservation Area: Cultural Areas
Historic sites such as the one shown here in historic Ellicott City, MD are not only aesthetic and educational but provide a sense of community as well. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Pullovers are provided off the George Washington Parkway so that the public can enjoy the scenic overlook. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This trail which runs alongside the Choptank River in Maryland provides the public with a form of recreation and access to the water. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
The numerous docks in Annapolis provide recreational access to the water, which can promote public appreciation for water resources. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Regulation of Land Alteration
Exclusion or Setbacks of Water Pollution Hazards
Protection Within Open Space Designs
Public Sector Stewardship
Land Conservation Techniques
Key Land Conservation Choices for the Watershed Manager
What fraction of the watershed needs to be conserved?
What are the highest priorities for land conservation?
How will long-term management be handled?
What incentives can be used to encourage stewardship of
Does a land trust exist to accept and manage conservation
What are the most appropriate techniques to conserve
How should conservation areas be delineated?
This buffer was reestablished with great success in Anacostia near Washington, DC. After only two growing seasons, the vegetation showed dramatic recovery growth. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Benefits of Aquatic Buffers
Regulates light and temperature conditions, improving the habitat for aquatic plants and animals
Effective in removing sediment, nutrients, and bacteria from stormwater and groundwater
Helps to stabilize and protect the streambank
This development in Howard County, MD illustrates a buffer. The outer zones consist of backyards where usage is unrestricted and the vegetative target can be turf grass. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This tree preservation area is clearly marked throughout the construction stage to prevent clearing. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Key Buffer Choices for the Watershed Manager
How much of the aquatic corridor can be
protected by buffers?
How should buffers be managed and crossed?
Is restoration or better stewardship possible
along an aquatic corridor that has already been
How will the buffer network be managed?
How much pollutant removal is to be expected by
the buffer network?
A typical conventional site contains huge areas of impervious cover that can potentially be reduced. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Typical streets are often excessively wide, increasing traffic speeds and making streets unfriendly to pedestrians. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Typical cul-de-sacs are often large enough to double as spaceship landing pads. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This conceptual plan utilizes several better site design techniques, including a vegetated island that allows stormwater filtration, shorter driveways, narrow streets, and alternate pavement for overflow parking.
Better Site Design
Residential Streets and Parking Lots
Conservation of Natural Areas
Parking lots are often underutilized and can be minimized through better site design techniques. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This example of an open space design utilizes the existing character of the area by minimizing clearing and grading and preserving large tracts of natural open space.
Key Site Design Choices for the Watershed Manager
Will better site design reduce the amount of
impervious cover in my subwatershed?
What are the most important development rules
that need to be changed to promote better site
What incentives can be used to encourage
developers to utilize better site design?
What is the time frame for revising codes and
Clearing and grading of the entire site, and all at once, is a common construction practice. Some state regulations require exposed soils to be stabilized within 7 - 10 days. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Ten Elements of an Effective ESC Plan 1. Minimize Needless Clearing and Grading 2. Protect Waterways and Stabilize Drainage Ways 3. Phase Construction to Limit Soil Exposure 4. Stabilize Exposed Soils Immediately 5. Protect Steep Slopes and Cuts 6. Install Perimeter Controls to Filter Sediments 7. Employ Advanced Sediment Settling Controls 8. Certify Contractors on ESC Plan Implementation 9. Adjust ESC Plan at Construction Site 10. Assess ESC Practices After Storms
The use of straw is one technique for stabilizing soils. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This sedimentation basin was constructed to treat the erosion from the construction right in the background. However, the basin is not being maintained properly and the heavy sedimentation is a sign of failure. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Silt fences are another ESC measure, but are worthless without proper installation and maintenance. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Key Erosion and Sediment Control Choices for the Watershed Manager
Is a higher level of ESC practice or more frequent
inspection needed to protect my subwatershed?
How well do current ESC programs reinforce
other watershed protection tools?
What incentives can be used to minimize the
amount of clearing at development sites?
Goals of Stormwater BMPs
Maintain groundwater recharge and quality
Reduce stormwater pollutant loads
Protect stream channels
Prevent increased overbank flooding
Safely convey extreme floods
Best Management Practices
Most stormwater BMPs can be grouped into five general categories:
Stormwater wet ponds are characterized by a permanent pool of water. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Stormwater wetlands treat the stormwater for both quality and quantity. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Infiltration trenches allow stormwater to percolate slowly into the soil. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Bioretention areas are a type of filtering system often used in parking lots. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Open channels are often used along roadways to convey and infiltrate stormwater. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Key Stormwater Choices for the Watershed Manager
Determine the most effective mix of structural and non-structural BMPs that can meet my subwatershed goals
Which hydrologic variables do we want to manage in the subwatershed?
What are the primary stormwater pollutants of concern?
Which BMPs should be avoided because of their environmental impacts?
What is the most economical way to provide stormwater management?
Which BMPs are the least burdensome to maintain with local budgets?
Industrial NPDES discharges
Urban “return flows”
Runoff from confined animal feeding lots
This schematic of a septic system shows how a faulty septic tank could potentially pollute groundwater.
Septic systems that fail or are improperly located have the potential to pollute our lakes and streams. Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Illicit connections to the storm drain also pollute our waters. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Runoff from animal lots can contaminate our streams without proper treatment. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Key Non-Stormwater Discharge Choices for the Watershed Manager
Can permit programs be utilized to improve compliance?
Does it make sense to extend the sewer envelope into the watershed?
Where will the sewer be located in relationship to the stream corridor?
Are current permits adequate?
Watershed Stewardship Programs
Elements of Watershed Education
The Adopt-A-Stream program provides an excellent opportunity for active public participation and education. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
These citizen volunteers are planting trees to help reforest a buffer. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Assessing the quality and quantity of aquatic biota is one way to monitor the health of a watershed. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Hydrologic gauging stations compute stream velocity and measure pollutant levels. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
This stream restoration project included building log drops to provide spawning habitat for salmon. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
Key Stewardship Choices for the Watershed Manager
Is my community ready to undertake restoration?
Which mix of stewardship programs is best?
Who are the best targets for watershed education?
How am I going to pay for a stewardship program?
Summary This presentation provides a simple introduction to the eight basic watershed protection tools essential to the protection, preservation, and restoration of our lakes, streams, and estuaries. For more information on the watershed protection tools, please consult the Rapid Watershed Planning Handbook , 1998.
Are You an Expert on the Eight Tools of Watershed Protection?
Simply use your mouse to click on the correct answer for each multiple choice question. If you are correct, you will immediately advance to the next slide. Good luck!
Land use planning
County codes and ordinances
What is the single most important tool of watershed protection?
At what scale is watershed planning most effective? Largest scale possible Subwatershed scale Stream level
What is the disadvantage of using large lot zoning as a land use planning tool? Large lots spread out development, resulting in sprawl Large lots are often economically unfeasible Large lots mean longer driveways
What is an aquatic buffer? An area of trees that blocks noise pollution Tool designed to polish rough, polluted areas Area adjacent to a shoreline, wetland or stream where development is restricted or prohibited
What is cluster development? Development that groups economically similar groups together Development that reduces individual lot size and creates more open space Development designed to concentrate pollutants in one small area
What is the most destructive stage of the development cycle? Clearing & grading Installation of underground pipes & lines Structure erection
What is the most effective technique for providing erosion and sediment control? Wetting down building sites Increasing cleared areas Minimizing clearing
What is NOT a structural stormwater practice? Ponds Wetlands Infiltration Filtering Systems Buffer clearing Open channels
What non-stormwater discharge is not regulated by the NPDES? Factory discharge Septic systems Farm discharge
What is the primary goal of watershed stewardship programs? Increase public awareness & participation Save money Preserve non-profit status
What is a conservation easement? A practice used to apply and enforce restrictions to preserve natural resources An amendment relaxing conservation restrictions A special dispensation to deputize conservation officers
What are stormwater hotspots? Urban areas that contribute 5-10 times higher pollutant levels in stormwater runoff Areas of increased water temperature that destroy habitat Areas that are 5-10 times more likely to experience flooding
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Eight Tools of Watershed Protection Vocabulary
Areas of land and water that are important to the integrity and quality of a stream, river, or other body of water. An aquatic corridor usually consists of the actual stream or river, the aquatic buffer, and other areas which are part of the stream’s right-of-way.
An area adjacent to a shoreline, wetland or stream where development is restricted or prohibited.
Cluster or Open Space Development
The use of designs which incorporate open space into a development site; these areas can be used for either passive or active recreational activity or preserved as naturally vegetated land.
A practice used to apply and enforce restrictions to preserve natural resources. Typically, a landowner will grant a parcel of land to a qualified recipient (e.g. public agency or non profit land conservancy organization). The easement gives the recipient the right to enforce the restrictions. The recipient does not assume ownership but does assume long-term responsibility for enforcement and stewardship of the easement.
Areas adjacent to a stream or river that are subjected to flooding or inundation during severe storm events (often called a 100 year floodplain, it would include the area or flooding that occurs, on average, once every 100 years).
Illegal and/or improper waste discharges into storm drainage systems and receiving waters.
Impacted stream or subwatershed
Stream classification for a subwatershed with 11 to 25% ultimate impervious cover. Urbanization is expected to lead to permanent degradation to stream quality.
Any surface in the urban landscape that cannot effectively absorb or infiltrate rainfall.
The percentage of impervious cover within a development site or watershed.
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
Established by Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, this federally mandated system is used for regulating point source and stormwater discharge.
Runoff from sources other than rainwater.
Non-supporting stream or subwatershed
Stream classification for a subwatershed with more than 25% total impervious cover. These streams are not candidates for restoration.
A portion of a development site that is permanently set aside for public or private use and will not be developed with homes. The space may be used for passive or active recreation, or may be reserved to protect or buffer natural areas.
Rainwater that falls on rooftops, does not infiltrate into soil, and runs off the land.
Sensitive stream or subwatershed
Stream classification for a subwatershed with less than 10% impervious cover that is still capable of supporting stable channels and good to excellent biodiversity.
Land-uses or activities that generate highly contaminated runoff. Examples include fueling stations and airport deicing facilities.
Stormwater management practice (BMP)
A structural or non-structural technique designed to temporarily store or treat stormwater runoff in order to mitigate flooding, reduce pollution, and provide other amenities.
Rainwater that does not infiltrate into the soil and runs off the land.
A smaller geographic section of a larger watershed unit with a drainage area between 2 to 15 square miles and whose boundaries include all the land area draining to a point where two second order streams combine to form a third order stream.
Transferable Development Rights (TDRs)
A form of incentive for developers in which the developer purchases the rights to an undeveloped piece of property in exchange for the right to increase the number of dwelling units on another site. Often used to concentrate development density in certain land areas.
All the land which contributes runoff to a particular point along a waterway.
A set of regulations and requirements that govern the use, placement, spacing and size of buildings and lots within a specific area or in a common class (zone).