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Quick power point on Ancient Sparta

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  2. 2. The Polis <ul><li>A city-state, that was the geographic & political center of life </li></ul><ul><li>Acropolis: fortified hill in center of Polis </li></ul><ul><li>Agora: at foot of hill, used for marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>By 700 B.C. city-state formed </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Polis cont… <ul><li>Each city-state had its own gov’t and laws. </li></ul><ul><li>The average size was from 5,000-10,000 citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Only citizens could vote, own property, hold public office, and speak for themselves in court. </li></ul><ul><li>In return they were expected to participate in the gov’t and defend the polis in time of war. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers born outside of Greece, women, children, and slaves were not citizens. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Polis cont… <ul><li>For Greek citizens civic and personal honor were one and the same. </li></ul><ul><li>The polis gave them a sense of belonging. </li></ul><ul><li>The good of the polis was put above everything else. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the greatest city-states were Sparta and Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>Each developed with a different kind of government and a different way of life. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sparta <ul><li>Sparta was located in south-central Greece, know as Peloponnesus. </li></ul><ul><li>By 500 B.C. was the greatest military power in Greece </li></ul><ul><li>About 800 B.C. aristocrats took control of Sparta. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by two kings, they only led the army and conducted religious services </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sparta cont… <ul><li>Only aristocrats could be citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>All citizens over 20 yrs. old were members of the Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Five ephors (managers) were chosen each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Elders – elite group of men over 60 yrs. old and chosen for life. Served as high court. Made all final decisions on laws. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sparta cont… <ul><li>The land was farmed by helots , or enslaved people owned by the city-state. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of their crops were turned over to the aristocrats who lived in the center of the polis. </li></ul><ul><li>Business and trade was left to the perioikoi , or merchants and artisans who lived in the villages. They were neither slaves or citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>The aristocrats trained for the army and war. </li></ul><ul><li>By 750 B.C. there 20 times more helots and perioikoi than aristocrats. </li></ul><ul><li>The aristocrats chose to use force to keep down the helots and perioikoi when threatened. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spartan Way of Life <ul><li>The Spartans wanted to be the strongest in Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn babies were examined to make sure they were healthy. If they were the were allowed to live. If not they were left on a hillside to die. (Or thrown into a pit- sources vary) </li></ul><ul><li>At age seven Spartan boys were sent to live in military camps. </li></ul><ul><li>They learned to read, write, and use weapons. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Way of Life cont… <ul><li>They received only small amounts of food, were forced to go barefoot, and were given only one cloak to wear. </li></ul><ul><li>They were forced to walk in silence with eyes on the ground, they only spoke when necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>They slept outdoors without cover. </li></ul><ul><li>Every ten days they were lined up to make sure they were not getting fat. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Way of Life cont… <ul><li>At age 20 there was a key military test. If they passed, they became citizens of Sparta. If they failed they became periokoi. </li></ul><ul><li>At 20 they were also expected to marry, but could not have a household of their own as they still served in the army. </li></ul><ul><li>At age 30 they could live at home with their wives. </li></ul><ul><li>They could retire from the army at age 60. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Women in Greece <ul><li>Spartan women had more freedoms than women in other city-states. </li></ul><ul><li>In other city-states for women most of their time was spent at home doing household duties. They did not go without a chaperone (male family member or other designated man) and then only to visit other women or religious services. They never spoke to men on the street or entertained their husband’s friends. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Women Freedoms in Sparta <ul><li>Spartan women though mixed freely with men. </li></ul><ul><li>They received some military training as they were expected to defend the home in wartime. </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoyed sports such as wrestling, gymnastics and racing. </li></ul><ul><li>Could own property and speak with men (with husbands' permission) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Women and War <ul><li>A Spartan woman would say to her husband - “Come back with your shield or on it.” (Either win or die) </li></ul><ul><li>She would defend her home in time of war </li></ul>
  14. 14. Values and beliefs <ul><li>Spartans believed new ideas would weaken their way of life, so they tried to prevent change. </li></ul><ul><li>When other city-states began to use coins they still used iron rods. </li></ul><ul><li>Other city-states developed literature and art, built up business, trade, and improved their way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta remained a poor farming society dependent on slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Their only goal from the beginning until its defeat in 371 B.C. was to be militarily strong. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Power point adapted from presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>byMatthew Lewis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 22, 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional information from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History Alive – Ancient World </li></ul></ul>