Desalination in Australia - Oct. 11, 2012

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This was one of the presentations given at the San Diego County Water Authority's Special Board of Directors' meeting on Oct. 11, 2012. Gary J. Crisp presented this information.

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Desalination in Australia - Oct. 11, 2012

  1. 1. DESALINATION IN AUSTRALIA San Diego County Water Authority Water Planning Committee October 11, 2012 Gary J. Crisp Global Business Leader – Desalination: GHD BSc. Civil Engineering, C Eng., MICE, CP Eng., FIE Aust., PMP
  2. 2. SDCWA Board Presentation - Overview• Introduction• The Big Six• Perth Seawater Desalination Plant (PSDP)• Comparison Between Sydney, Perth and San Diego• The Importance of Desalination in Perth and Western Australia
  3. 3. The BigAustralia’s six big desalination plants
  4. 4. Australian Rainfall and Desalination Gold Coast Desal Plant (operating)_ 19-in 45-in Sydney Desal Plant (operating)Perth 1 Desal Plant 20-in(operating) Adelaide Desal Plant (commissioning)Perth 2 A & B Desal Plant(2B under construction) 21-in Victorian Desal Plant (commissioning) *Average annual rainfall
  5. 5. The Big Six – No. 1 Gold Coast Desalination Plant• Located in Tugin •Commenced operation in Nov. ‘08• 36 MGD Capacity: 38,000 AF/Y •Green Energy as offset• Total Capital Cost: $943 million •Status: Hot Standby Mode; local reservoirs near•Purpose: Supplement surface supply in dry years capacity Courtesy of SEQWater
  6. 6. The Big Six – No. 1Southeast Queensland Projected Water Sources 2020 10 % desalination 72 % surface water 4 % groundwater 14 % IPR (only if reservoir levels fall below 40%)
  7. 7. Climatic ImpactsGold Coast Decision Point Gold Coast Decision Point Courtesy of the Water Corporation
  8. 8. The Big Six – No. 2 Sydney Desalination Plant• Located in Kurnell •Commenced operation in Nov. ‘10• 66 MGD Capacity: 77,000 AF/Y • Wind Power is used as offset• Total Capital Cost: $1.44 billion •Status: Hot Standby Mode: Local• Purpose: Supplement surface supply in dry years reservoirs near capacity Courtesy of Sydney Water
  9. 9. The Big Six – No. 2Sydney Projected Water Sources 2020 15 % desalination 72 % surface water 1 % groundwater 10 % Recycled
  10. 10. Climatic ImpactsSydney Phase 1 Decision Point Sydney Phase 1 Decision Point Courtesy of the Water Corporation
  11. 11. The Big Six – No. 3 Adelaide Desalination Plant • To commence operation in Jan. ‘13• Located in Port Stanvac • Wind Power is used as offset• 72 MGD Capacity: 70,000 AF/Y • Status: To be placed in Hot Standby• Total Capital Cost: $1.5 billion Mode; reservoirs and river flows at high• Purpose: Supplement surface supply in dry years levels Courtesy of SA Water
  12. 12. The Big Six – No. 3Adelaide Projected Water Sources 2020 49 % desalination 23 % Murray River surface water 18 % surface water 1 % Recycled
  13. 13. Climatic ImpactsAdelaide Phase 1 Decision Point Adelaide Phase 1 Decision Point - lowest flow ever recorded January 2007
  14. 14. The Big Six – No. 4 The Victorian Desalination Project• Located in Wonthaggi • To commence operation in Dec. ‘12• 120 MGD Capacity: 130,000 AF/Y • Wind Power as offset• Total Capital Cost: $3.8 billion •Status: Commissioning•Supplement Surface Supply in dry years Courtesy of Victorian Government
  15. 15. The Big Six – No. 4Melbourne Projected Water Sources 2020 20 % desalination 80 % surface water
  16. 16. Climatic ImpactsMelbourne Desalination Decision Point - 2007 Melbourne Decision Point 2007
  17. 17. The Big Six – No. 5 Perth Seawater Desalination Plant• Located in Kwinana •Commenced operation in Nov. ‘06• 38 MGD Capacity: 40,000 AF/Y • Wind Power is used as offset• Total Capital Cost: $317 million • Status: Operating beyond “name•Purpose: Base load core supply plate” capacity Courtesy of Water Corporation
  18. 18. The Big Six – No. 5Perth Projected Water Sources 2020 45 % desalination 21 % surface water 18 %groundwater 16 % groundwater incorporating ASR
  19. 19. Impact of Drying Climate – Western Australia Perth 1 Decision Point - Reduced Inflow to Dams (as at 1 Nov 06) 273,906 Acre-Ft 143,435 Acre-Ft 75,122 Acre-Ft 51,864 Acre-Ft Perth 1 A Decision Point 972 Acre-Ft 1GL = 810 Acre-Ft 2010 - 11.9 GL = 8640 Acre-Ft Courtesy of the Water Corporation
  20. 20. The Big Six – No. 6Southern Seawater Desalination Plant • Located in Binningup • 80 MGD Capacity: 85,000 AF/Y • Total Capital Cost: $1.27 billion • Purpose: Base load core supply • Commenced operation in Sept. ‘11 • Wind / Solar/ Wave Power as energy offset • Status: Phase 1: operating Phase 2: under construction Courtesy of Water Corporation
  21. 21. Impact of Drying Climate – Western Australia Perth 2A Decision Point - Reduced Inflow to Dams (as at 1 Nov 06) Perth 2A/2B Decision Points 1GL = 810 Acre-Ft 2010 - 11.9 GL = 8640 Acre-Ft Courtesy of the Water Corporation
  22. 22. Environmental Features of Perth 1 6 acres16 acres
  23. 23. Environmental Features of Perth 1Real Time Monitoring
  24. 24. Environmental and Sustainability AttributesGold Coast Desalination Plant Intake Courtesy of WaterSecure
  25. 25. Comparison Between Sydney, Perth and San Diego County City Sydney Perth San Diego CountyPopulation 4,500,000 1,800,000 3,200,000Approximate Average Rainfall (Inches) 47 19 10Annual water use (Acre-Ft) 440,000 253,000 542,000Gallons/ Capita/ Day 87 125 151Residential Outdoor Water Use Percentage 27 49 60Local reservoir storage capacity (Acre-ft) 2,092,260 487,337 562,000Average Local Surface Use as a Percentage of Total Use 84 15 11 Base load Base LoadPurpose for Seawater Desalination Supplement (Core Supply) (Core supply)
  26. 26. San Diego and Perth - Similarities• Relatively Large West Coast Cities• Extremely desirable places to live• Mediterranean Climate• Relatively low rainfall in reservoir catchments• No large local surface reservoirs (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, etc.)
  27. 27. Desalination – Perth and Western Australia The West Australian 20 May 2012“That’s why we built thefirst desalination plant andthe second desalinationplant and we are currentlyexpanding that”
  28. 28. Importance of Desalination in Perth and Western Australia
  29. 29. “Thank You”“Questions”
  30. 30. Importance of Desalination in Perth and Western Australia The West Australian 31 August 2012 262.2 mm = 10.33 inches 478.7 mm = 18.9 inches Courtesy of The West Australian
  31. 31. Importance of Desalination in Perth and Western AustraliaAvailability and Reliability• PSDP was designed to produce 40,000 AF (producing 38 MGD, 94% of the time) . This design was based on many factors: 1. Power Continuity 2. Cleaning Result when pushed 3. Feedwater quality (potential algal blooms –space allocated for future DAF system) 4. Maintenance Available 98% of time 5. Distribution system maintenance and cleaning 6. Redundancy Production up to 41 MGD 7. Rigorous product water quality standards (e.g. Bromine < 0.1 mg/L) Annual Yield up 12% from 40,000 Acre-Ft to 45,000 Acre Ft
  32. 32. Still more Desalination Plants for Perth• Beenjup Ground Water Replenishment (Recycling and ASR) in steps of 6,000 AF. per year, accelerated if needed (if low rainfall persists). Up to 50,000 AF. per year.• New SWRO Desalination Plants North of Perth within 15 years.• All future water supply will come from SWRO, so by 2030 with an annual demand of 240,000 AF/year at least 110,00 AF/year will be from desalination.
  33. 33. Sydney Desalination Plant in Context As compared to the San Diego SystemWhy Sydney’s Integrated Water System is Vastly Different to San Diego?• No Imported water – All local supplies almost exclusively surface water• One single major source Warragamba Dam -1,642,626 AF (79%)• High Summer Rainfall (when most water needed) Average Monthly Rainfall = 3” 79 % of total water supply Total Available Storage 1,642,626 AF (currently 98% available at 1,620,057 AF )
  34. 34. Sydney Desalination Plant in Context As compared to the San Diego System79 % of total water supplyTotal Available Storage1,642,626 AF Annual Production 76,854 AF Average Annual Demand 486,223 AF = 16% desalinated water 33 % of total water supply Total Available Storage 648,298 AF Courtesy of the Sydney Water
  35. 35. Perth Desalination Plant in Context As compared to the San Diego SystemWhy Perth’s Integrated Water System is Similar San Diego?• No Imported water – but “supposedly” secure groundwater – similar to San Diego’s “secure” imported water supply i.e. Groundwater treated like San Diego’s imported water• Some small surface water storages with diminishing inflows. Once 50% of Perth’s water supply, now substantially less than 10%. AF (79%)• Negligible Summer Rainfall (when most water needed) Average Monthly Rainfall = 1” Combined Yield of Perth Reservoirs < 10 % of total water supply Total
  36. 36. Proposed Beenyup ASR Pinjar W ater From the N orth – 2001 Yarragadee Expansion Neerabup Wanneroo T he Kimberly Pipeline Goldfields & Sth Whitfords Lexia Agricultural WS Gwelup Mirrabooka Integrated 2002 Yarragadee Bores PERTH Mundaring Water Supply Victoria Nicholson Rd Pumpstation SchemeGROUNDWATER SOURCE Canning (IWSS) PSDP Jandakot Wungong • Ground water north of S wan RiverSURFACE WATER SOURCE • Dams south of S wan River Serpentine • Transport over 115 miles from North toDESALINATION PLANT South Mandurah Nth Dandalup Ravenswood PumpstationWASTEWATER RECYCLINGPLANT/ASR South DandalupPUMPSTATION Samson Pipehead DamAREA SERVED Harvey Dam and Wokalup Pipehead DamTRUNK MAINS (Irrigation) Stirling SSDP II SSDP I Harris Pumpback
  37. 37. Why High Costs and Time Overruns in the Eastern States?• Australia being a very expensive country due to resources boom and low unemployment 5%• Everyone is Coming to the West or Demanding High Packages in the East so companies have to pay exceptional wages to compete, and in the case of Melbourne Desalination Plant - - - - - - - -• - - - - - - Inclement weather• Very high rainfall and flooding
  38. 38. Managing Standing Plants• Gold Coast Desalination Plant managed with minimal staff in hot standby mode.• Plant is maintained in a position to allow ramping up to 133 ML/d within 72 hours.• No process step has been “mothballed”.• The plant operates twice a week to produce enough desalinated water to flush membranes, the network pipe and reservoir (2 x 25 MLD – 2 x 6 MGD (per week).• Came to rescue during recent flooding to produce clean drinking water as conventional water treatment plants inundated with turbidity
  39. 39. Environmental and Sustainability Attributes So !!!How Many Jumbo Jets to Power Perth Seawater Desalination Plant?
  40. 40. So Many Jumbo’s? = + ++ + +
  41. 41. Or, How Many Plants can a Jumbo Power? = + +
  42. 42. And the answer is?and the answer is! = One Jumbo Jet can Power 3 PlantsTaking Off Power = 77 MW +Cruising Power = 65 MWFull Power of One Engine = 26 MWFull Power Requirement Perth 1 = 24 MW300,000 homes (California) or a total 116,000 passengerstransported in one year assuming Jumbo is always full and flies80% of time then the same amount of energy is used. +
  43. 43. Impact of Drying Climate- Reduced Inflow to Dams (Reservoirs) 1 GL = 810 Acre-Ft 17.1 GL = 12416 Acre-Ft Courtesy of the Water Corporation

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