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6. io device

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  • 1950: lecteur / perforateur de carte 1960: tableau de bord (voyant) 1970: écran alphanumérique (dessin sommaire style minitel)
  • Touch screen : écran tactile Earphone : écouteur
  • Different devices provide different functionalities and usage The combination use of these devices are necessary
  • Mediocre : neither very good or very bad; average
  • Curvature keyboard: courbure clavier, sculptured keyboard : claviers sculptés Chord : a combination of three or more tones Parliament : parlement Courts: tribunaux
  • Gloves : Gants
  • Predictive : to say in advance Psychology: the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional process
  • Model for pointing device Beyond : on or the far side of
  • Transcript

    • 1. HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION (INTERACTION HOMME-MACHINE) LAY H éng [email_address] 2009 - 2010
    • 2. CHAPTER 6: INPUT / OUTPUT DEVICES Where we will se there is not only mouse in the world …
    • 3. INPUT DEVICES: HISTORY REVIEW 1950 1960 1970
    • 4. INPUT DEVICES: HISTORY REVIEW 1980 1990 2000
    • 5. INPUT DEVICE
      • Choosing a good device for the system
      • Multi input devices possible a priori
      • Compromise between contradictory constraints and not only on ergonomic: no ideal device
      • Utilization jointly many devices: complementary
        • Example : Mouse + Keyboard
      • Importance of feedback associated to device: do not neglect in the choices of devices
        • Example :
        • move the cursor on the screen
        • key typing vs. touchscreen
        • joystick feedback
    • 6. INPUT DEVICES: TYPOLOGY
      • Input type
      • Discrete Keyboard …
      • Continuous trackball, joystick, optical stylus …
      • Localization
      • Direct optical stylus, touchscreen …
      • Indirect mouse, trackball, joystick, graphical tablet …
      • Absolute optical stylus, touchscreen, graphical tablet
      • Relative mouse, trackball, joystick …
    • 7. INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD
      • Keys: pressing type
      • Electro-mechanics good feedback,
        • less resistance (problem dirty mark)
      • Membrane resistance, less incident
      • mediocre feedback
      • Keys: disposition
      • Essential ergonomic factor: quick input, fatigue the articulation and muscles …
      • However, a solution under optimal: keyboard AZERTY / QWERTY
      • Remark : less than 15 days to adapt to the new keyboard
    • 8. INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD (DISPOSITION)
      • QWERTY / AZERTY
      • 1874 typewriter: jamming hammer
      • Non ergonomic coupling the separated keys
      • most frequent keys on the left
      • DVORAK
      • 1932 vowels and frequent consonant on 2 nd line
      • balance on both hands
      • Result reduction 90% of movement
      DVORAK English DVORAK French
    • 9. INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD (DISPOSITION)
      • Natural keyboards
      • DVORAK disposition
      • Curvature keyboard, sculptured keyboard limiting the articulation tension
      Microsoft Maltron Kinesis
      • Chord keyboard
      • Combination of keys to input a character: reduce the number of keys
      • Industry: one hand input
      • Used to transcripts of debates in some parliament or courts
    • 10. POINTING DEVICES
      • Localization
      • Direct optical stylus, touchscreen
      • Indirect mouse, trackball, joystick, graphical tablet …
      • Mouse, trackball, touchpad
      • Indication of an localization
      • Indication of a movement
      • Remark: facilitate the use of an input device by software constraints
      • Hybrid interaction style (click + localization) more grid of discrete position to draw geometric figure using a mouse
      Microsoft trackball + Optical mouse
    • 11. POINTING DEVICES
      • Touch screen
      • Direct interaction
      • Extreme facility of learning
      • Resistant and without movable extern element (devices)
      • _________________________________________________
      • Lack of precision (error of pointing)
        • New screen with high precision, stylus
      • Fatigue arm / hand
        • Screen with horizontal position
      • Screen masking
          • Stylus
      • Optical stylus
    • 12. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
      • Handwriting recognition
      • Fusion of different modalities of input
        • Text input and pointing with only one device: touch screen
      • Direct interaction
      • Natural language: learning facility
    • 13. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
      • Handwriting recognition
      • Error rate is not negligible
      • Input of special symbols: learnabillity, familiarity
      Unistrokes Graffiti
    • 14. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
      • Speech recognition
      • Natural interaction style
      • Absent of particular device: hand free, telephony
      • ______________________________________________________________
      • High error rate
        • 5% of WER in reading and finalized spontaneous speech (DOHM)
        • 30% to 50% of WER in generic spontaneous speech
      • Ambiguity of natural language
      • Replace the keyboard
      • Problem of design too anthropomorphic
      • ______________________________________________________________
      • Research and some well targeting applications
      • Medical reports
      • Reservation and Information server (ex: 3000)
    • 15. ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
      • Gloves and other 3D devices
      • Increase virtual reality
      • Hot research
      • Some applications: video game, simulators, telemedicine
      • Future technique and dream of researcher?
      3D glove ( data glove) Haptic glove (force feedback or gesture)
    • 16. INPUT DEVICES FOR HANDICAPPED
      • Eye trackers
      • Head movement detection
      • Breath detection
      • Joystick microgravity
      • ...
      • Virtual keyboard
      • Speech recognition
    • 17. PREDICTIVE MODEL: GOMS
      • Predictive model
      • Measure predictive the behavior of user without real test
      • Base on the result in psychology cognitive
      • Useful for conception and evaluation
      • GOMS
      • Goals – goals/objectives that user want to achieve
      • Methods – procedure (sequence of actions or cognitive activities) required to accomplish the goals
      • Operators – cognitive process and physic actions taken at the end of different possible methods
      • Selection – rules used to choose a method in a giving moment
      • Estimate the execution time base on average known time for each operator
      [Card, Moran, Newell, 1983]
    • 18. PREDICTIVE MODEL: GOMS
      • Example
      • Goals Text Editor: delete a word in a phrase
      • Methods
      • Operators
      • Selection
    • 19. PREDICTIVE METHOD: KEYSTROKE
      • Keystroke level model
      • Independent of GOMS
      • Estimate the execution time of basic commands
      • Model base on the observation of multiple experimental data on the time to complete the elementary operators
      • Operators
      • K Key selection (keystroke)
      • P Pointing
      • H reposition of hand on input device
      • D display/drawing a line on the screen
      • M mental action
      • R (eventual) response time of system
      [Card, Moran, Newell, 1983]
    • 20. PREDICTIVE MODEL: KEYSTROKE
      • Operators: average execution time
      • K simple key press
      • Experienced secretary input
      • Average user input
      • Novice user input
      • Press <Shift> or <Ctrl>
      • P Mouse pointing on a target
      • mouse click
      • H reposition of keyboard
      • D drawing a line
      • M mental action
      T exec = T K + T P + T H + T D + T M + (T R )
    • 21. PREDICTIVE MODEL: FITTS’S LAW
      • Principle
      • The time taken to achieve a target is proportional to the distance of the target and inversely proportional to its size
      • Law
      • The necessary time to move a pointing device which is placed at a distance D from the target of larger d:
      • Limits
      • Limit of scale – beyond a certain critical value of distance D, the time required to reach the target will just depend on D, instead of the D/d
      • Limit of difficulty – for ratio D/d well above 1000, achieving the target is generally not possible (subject failure)
      • Limit of device – law does not valid for all types of pointing devices
      T = C1 + C2 log 2 (2D/d) C1,C2: constant depend on device (example: C1=0.05s and C2=0.1s) and determined by experimentations [Fitts, 1954]
    • 22. BIBLIOGRAPHIES
      • Publications
      • Card S., Moran T., Newell A. (1983) The psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, Laurence Erlbaum Ass., Hillsdale, NJ.
      • Fitts P.M. (1954) The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling amplitude of movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 47, 381-391.
      • Gray W.D., John B.E., Atwood M.E. (1993) Project Ernestine: validating a GOMS analysis for predicting and explaining real-world performance. Human-Computer Interaction. 8(3), 237-309.

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