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6. io device

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  • 1950: lecteur / perforateur de carte 1960: tableau de bord (voyant) 1970: écran alphanumérique (dessin sommaire style minitel)
  • Touch screen : écran tactile Earphone : écouteur
  • Different devices provide different functionalities and usage The combination use of these devices are necessary
  • Mediocre : neither very good or very bad; average
  • Curvature keyboard: courbure clavier, sculptured keyboard : claviers sculptés Chord : a combination of three or more tones Parliament : parlement Courts: tribunaux
  • Gloves : Gants
  • Predictive : to say in advance Psychology: the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional process
  • Model for pointing device Beyond : on or the far side of

6. io device 6. io device Presentation Transcript

  • HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION (INTERACTION HOMME-MACHINE) LAY H éng [email_address] 2009 - 2010
  • CHAPTER 6: INPUT / OUTPUT DEVICES Where we will se there is not only mouse in the world …
  • INPUT DEVICES: HISTORY REVIEW 1950 1960 1970
  • INPUT DEVICES: HISTORY REVIEW 1980 1990 2000
  • INPUT DEVICE
    • Choosing a good device for the system
    • Multi input devices possible a priori
    • Compromise between contradictory constraints and not only on ergonomic: no ideal device
    • Utilization jointly many devices: complementary
      • Example : Mouse + Keyboard
    • Importance of feedback associated to device: do not neglect in the choices of devices
      • Example :
      • move the cursor on the screen
      • key typing vs. touchscreen
      • joystick feedback
  • INPUT DEVICES: TYPOLOGY
    • Input type
    • Discrete Keyboard …
    • Continuous trackball, joystick, optical stylus …
    • Localization
    • Direct optical stylus, touchscreen …
    • Indirect mouse, trackball, joystick, graphical tablet …
    • Absolute optical stylus, touchscreen, graphical tablet
    • Relative mouse, trackball, joystick …
  • INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD
    • Keys: pressing type
    • Electro-mechanics good feedback,
      • less resistance (problem dirty mark)
    • Membrane resistance, less incident
    • mediocre feedback
    • Keys: disposition
    • Essential ergonomic factor: quick input, fatigue the articulation and muscles …
    • However, a solution under optimal: keyboard AZERTY / QWERTY
    • Remark : less than 15 days to adapt to the new keyboard
  • INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD (DISPOSITION)
    • QWERTY / AZERTY
    • 1874 typewriter: jamming hammer
    • Non ergonomic coupling the separated keys
    • most frequent keys on the left
    • DVORAK
    • 1932 vowels and frequent consonant on 2 nd line
    • balance on both hands
    • Result reduction 90% of movement
    DVORAK English DVORAK French
  • INPUT DEVICES: KEYBOARD (DISPOSITION)
    • Natural keyboards
    • DVORAK disposition
    • Curvature keyboard, sculptured keyboard limiting the articulation tension
    Microsoft Maltron Kinesis
    • Chord keyboard
    • Combination of keys to input a character: reduce the number of keys
    • Industry: one hand input
    • Used to transcripts of debates in some parliament or courts
  • POINTING DEVICES
    • Localization
    • Direct optical stylus, touchscreen
    • Indirect mouse, trackball, joystick, graphical tablet …
    • Mouse, trackball, touchpad
    • Indication of an localization
    • Indication of a movement
    • Remark: facilitate the use of an input device by software constraints
    • Hybrid interaction style (click + localization) more grid of discrete position to draw geometric figure using a mouse
    Microsoft trackball + Optical mouse
  • POINTING DEVICES
    • Touch screen
    • Direct interaction
    • Extreme facility of learning
    • Resistant and without movable extern element (devices)
    • _________________________________________________
    • Lack of precision (error of pointing)
      • New screen with high precision, stylus
    • Fatigue arm / hand
      • Screen with horizontal position
    • Screen masking
        • Stylus
    • Optical stylus
  • ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
    • Handwriting recognition
    • Fusion of different modalities of input
      • Text input and pointing with only one device: touch screen
    • Direct interaction
    • Natural language: learning facility
  • ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
    • Handwriting recognition
    • Error rate is not negligible
    • Input of special symbols: learnabillity, familiarity
    Unistrokes Graffiti
  • ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
    • Speech recognition
    • Natural interaction style
    • Absent of particular device: hand free, telephony
    • ______________________________________________________________
    • High error rate
      • 5% of WER in reading and finalized spontaneous speech (DOHM)
      • 30% to 50% of WER in generic spontaneous speech
    • Ambiguity of natural language
    • Replace the keyboard
    • Problem of design too anthropomorphic
    • ______________________________________________________________
    • Research and some well targeting applications
    • Medical reports
    • Reservation and Information server (ex: 3000)
  • ADVANCE INPUT DEVICES
    • Gloves and other 3D devices
    • Increase virtual reality
    • Hot research
    • Some applications: video game, simulators, telemedicine
    • Future technique and dream of researcher?
    3D glove ( data glove) Haptic glove (force feedback or gesture)
  • INPUT DEVICES FOR HANDICAPPED
    • Eye trackers
    • Head movement detection
    • Breath detection
    • Joystick microgravity
    • ...
    • Virtual keyboard
    • Speech recognition
  • PREDICTIVE MODEL: GOMS
    • Predictive model
    • Measure predictive the behavior of user without real test
    • Base on the result in psychology cognitive
    • Useful for conception and evaluation
    • GOMS
    • Goals – goals/objectives that user want to achieve
    • Methods – procedure (sequence of actions or cognitive activities) required to accomplish the goals
    • Operators – cognitive process and physic actions taken at the end of different possible methods
    • Selection – rules used to choose a method in a giving moment
    • Estimate the execution time base on average known time for each operator
    [Card, Moran, Newell, 1983]
  • PREDICTIVE MODEL: GOMS
    • Example
    • Goals Text Editor: delete a word in a phrase
    • Methods
    • Operators
    • Selection
  • PREDICTIVE METHOD: KEYSTROKE
    • Keystroke level model
    • Independent of GOMS
    • Estimate the execution time of basic commands
    • Model base on the observation of multiple experimental data on the time to complete the elementary operators
    • Operators
    • K Key selection (keystroke)
    • P Pointing
    • H reposition of hand on input device
    • D display/drawing a line on the screen
    • M mental action
    • R (eventual) response time of system
    [Card, Moran, Newell, 1983]
  • PREDICTIVE MODEL: KEYSTROKE
    • Operators: average execution time
    • K simple key press
    • Experienced secretary input
    • Average user input
    • Novice user input
    • Press <Shift> or <Ctrl>
    • P Mouse pointing on a target
    • mouse click
    • H reposition of keyboard
    • D drawing a line
    • M mental action
    T exec = T K + T P + T H + T D + T M + (T R )
  • PREDICTIVE MODEL: FITTS’S LAW
    • Principle
    • The time taken to achieve a target is proportional to the distance of the target and inversely proportional to its size
    • Law
    • The necessary time to move a pointing device which is placed at a distance D from the target of larger d:
    • Limits
    • Limit of scale – beyond a certain critical value of distance D, the time required to reach the target will just depend on D, instead of the D/d
    • Limit of difficulty – for ratio D/d well above 1000, achieving the target is generally not possible (subject failure)
    • Limit of device – law does not valid for all types of pointing devices
    T = C1 + C2 log 2 (2D/d) C1,C2: constant depend on device (example: C1=0.05s and C2=0.1s) and determined by experimentations [Fitts, 1954]
  • BIBLIOGRAPHIES
    • Publications
    • Card S., Moran T., Newell A. (1983) The psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, Laurence Erlbaum Ass., Hillsdale, NJ.
    • Fitts P.M. (1954) The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling amplitude of movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 47, 381-391.
    • Gray W.D., John B.E., Atwood M.E. (1993) Project Ernestine: validating a GOMS analysis for predicting and explaining real-world performance. Human-Computer Interaction. 8(3), 237-309.