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4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
4. ergonomic of wimp interface
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4. ergonomic of wimp interface

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  • Conduct : the act of leading, guidance
  • Transcript

    • 1. HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION (INTERACTION HOMME-MACHINE) Sethserey SAM
    • 2. CHAPTER 4: ERGONOMIC OF WIMP INTERFACE Usage conduct rules from honest graphic user interface designer for interactive system
    • 3. INTERACTION STYLE
      • Command line
        • Query language and question / reply
      • Menus
      • WIMP interfaces
      • Selection form
      • Natural language (handwriting, speech)
      • 3D interface, gesture (sensor), approaching the reality, …
    • 4. WINDOWS/WIDGETS
      • A Window is rarely a passive object: Widget
      • Interactive graphic object
      • Ergonomic recommendation concerning all aspects of widgets
      • General design for display (simple)
      • Dynamic behavior: react to user actions
      • Some ergonomic recommendation
      • Open the windows
      • Direct manipulation: maintain the
      • feedback
    • 5. WINDOWS AND FEEDBACK
      • An essential dimension
        • Always conserve the coupling perception/action which allows the paradigm of direct manipulation
      • Example
        • Pointing / selection
        • Movement / Modification / Tracking
        • Opening / Closure
    • 6. WINDOWS: OPENING
      • Open a Window
      • A strategy to avoid
        • Fixed parameters for opening
      • Two strategies acceptable
        • Concentrate on user preferences : opening to the position and follow the size of the last closure
        • Concentrate on focus : opening to the proximity of attention focus (for example: the icon which is just clicked on), but to a sufficiently distance which will not mask this focus
    • 7. WINDOWS: OPENING / CLOSURE Opening an Windows Conservation of feedback Closure an Windows The closure without feedback (no animation …) is disturbing
    • 8. MULTI-WINDOWS
      • Advantage: multi-tasking environment
        • A task may need several applications
        • Transparent management of multi-task compare with commands in UNIX bg / fg
      • Principle problem: masking of information
        • Lose of context
        • Access time for the masking windows
      • Different strategies for multi-tasking management
        • Mosaics of windows (tiling)
        • Flipping windows
        • Overlapping windows (recovery)
        • Zoomable windows
    • 9. MULTI-WINDOWS: STRATEGY Mosaics of windows (tiling)
    • 10. MULTI-WINDOWS: STRATEGY Windows overlapping Flipping windows
    • 11. MULTI-WINDOWS: STRATEGY Zoomable windows Mac OS X (Exposé / Quartz Extreme)
    • 12. MULTI-WINDOWS: RECOMMENDATION
      • Organization strategies
      • Allow recovery or failover (overlapping) of windows for experienced user
      • Use tiling windows for occasional user
      • Example: Encyclopedia for public
      • Strategies for division in windows
      • Organize the division according to the task: regrouping coherent of information
      • Limit the quantity of information to memorize from one window to another
      • Adapt the number of windows to the utilization: increase the number of windows for an utilization less frequent, complex windows is limited/reserved for very frequent usage (ex: Paint, Photoshop, …)
    • 13. ICON
      • Advantage
        • Easily identifiable
        • Compact: small space in interface
      • Difficulty
        • Identification the meaning associate to an icon
      [Camacho 90]
    • 14. ICON: CONSTRUCTION
      • Methodologies
        • Identify all the commands we want to make icon and create the icon in the same time
        • Limit the icons to frequent command
        • Always valid the conception by an experimentation
      Construction rules
    • 15. ICON: GUIDELINE
      • Some recommendations
        • Limit number of icons on interface (degradation from 12)
        • Ensure that the character of selection of an icon is clearly visible
      • Help identify the icons
        • Ensure that the icons are well distinguishable from one to another
        • Group the icons base on family
        • Coherence the representation in the group
      Prioritize the association icon/text
    • 16. MENUS
      • Not necessary in graphic
        • Menus are used before the creation of GUIs WIMP
      • Advantage
        • Structure the functionalities of system following an organization logic and coherence which is easy understand and memorize
        • Important of task analyses
      • Limitation
        • Lack of rapidity: useful especially for novice and occasional user (forecast shortcut for expert)
      • Different structures of menus
        • Unique menus
        • Linear sequential task (example: software installation)
        • Hierarchic
        • Acyclic
    • 17. MENUS: LINEAR
      • Use case
        • Sequential task
        • Simplification of a task through a succession of sub-tasks
      Example Form creation in MS ACCESS
    • 18. MENUS: ACYCLIC
      • Explore order indifferent
        • Sub-task independent or optional
        • Menus tabs, options
    • 19. MENUS: HIERARCHIC
      • Example 1
        • MS PowerPoint: 3 level, width (factor of branching) 6 to 20
    • 20. MENUS: HIERARCHIC
      • Example 2
        • Windows Start Menus: vary level and width
    • 21. MENUS: HIERARCHIC
      • Which organization of level and width?
        • Kiger (1984): 64
        • Wallace et al. (1987): problem menus level
          • 96% supplementary of errors
          • 16% more of time execution
      Width x Levels
    • 22. MENUS: HIERARCHIC
      • Law of Landauer and Nachbar (1985)
        • Experimental law: access time of a menus of N items which is divided into D balance levels (the same factor of branching b for each node), suppose D = log b (N)
        • Experiment with N=4096; b=2, 4, 8, 16
        • General rule T = D * (k 1 + k 2 *log(b))
      • Recommendation
      • Prioritize the larger of menus to its levels
      • Maximum width : 10 (novices) to 20 (experts) item maximum for each level
      • Maximum level : 3 or 4
      • Vary width : we can increase the factors of branching to the root and leave of tree
      • Always consider the specificity of task
    • 23. MENUS: ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION OF ITEMS
      • Sort the item for sequential data (natural order)
        • Date, number (chapter number, quantity, …), …
      • Do not have natural order: static ordering
        • Order items base on alphabetic
        • Functional : the most important item first
        • Frequency : the item most used first
      • Do not have natural order: dynamic ordering
        • Last used item first
    • 24. ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION: EXPERIMENTATION
      • Card (1982): Text Editor menus with 18 items
      • Somberg and Picardi (1983): menus with 5 items
        • Selection time proportional to the position of the item in the list
        • Selection time more rapid with familiarized items
      • Mitchell and Schneiderman (1988): dinner menu selection
        • Best performance with static menus vs. dynamic menus
    • 25. MENUS: ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION OF ITEMS Alphabetic Functional Frequency Dynamic Static: positional coherence
    • 26. MENUS: ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION OF ITEMS
      • Shared menus
        • Compromise previous solution
        • 3-4 items the most frequent use
        • Last selected items
        • Static functional menus for the following
      • Principle of commensurate efforts
        • Destructive commands (cannot cancel) at the end of menus, with separation
      MS Office XP
    • 27. MENUS: ORDER OF THE REPRESENTATION OF ITEMS
      • Positional coherence and Contextual menus
        • Conserve non valid items for the current context
        • Operational visibility, guidance: made different items valid
      MS PowerPoint
    • 28. POINTER: MOUSE
      • Affectation of commands to the button
        • Coherence: the rules of mouse buttons must be constant
        • Coherence: integrated the classic rules of button
          • Left button: selection
          • Right button: display contextual menus
        • Adaptation: not everyone have a mouse with 3 buttons
          • No command invoke-able uniquely with mouse
      • Double click
        • Commands associate to a double click must be coherent with the one of single click on the same button
        • No any function should be invoked only with double click (ex: open)
    • 29. OTHER WIMP OBJECTS
      • Pop-up windows
        • Explicit button (termination: OK, …) and visible
        • Place the pop-up windows close to concerning object
        • Study the position and size to avoid masking of information
        • Masking: allow the movement of window before termination
      Selection components Check/radio Button Selection list List Number of choice [2,6] [7,12] >12 Vary Check/Radio Button Selection List List
    • 30. BIBLIOGRAPHIES
      • Publication
        • Camacho M.J., Steiner B.A., Berson B.L. (1990) Icons versus alpha-numerics in pilot-vehicles interfaces. Actes Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting.
        • Card S. (1982) User perceptual mechanisms in the search of computer command menus. Actes ACM Human Factors in Computer Systems, Washington DC. 190-196.
        • Kiger J. (1984) The depth / breadth trade-off in the design of menu-driven user interfaces. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 20, 1984. 201-213.
        • Landauer T., Nachbar D. (1985) Selection from alphabetic and numeric menu trees using a touch screen : breadth, depth and width. Actes CHI’85, ACM, New-York, NJ, 73-78.
        • Mitchell J., Schneidermann B. (1989) Dynamic versus static menus : an experimental comparison. ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20(4), 33-36.
        • Somberg B., Picardi M. (1983) Locus of information familiarity effect in the search of computer menus. Actes 37th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, San Monica, CA, 826_830.
        • Wallace D., Anderson N., Shneiderman B. (1987) Time stress effect on two menu selection systems, Actes 31th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, Santa Monica, CA. 727-731.

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