Prevention Programs Defined•Reduce or eliminate a nationally social ill•Often targeted toward the middle class population•Public schools the venue teach academics develop healthy, happy and productive citizens socialize children trained teachers and resources (logical place)•Target students before they develop the behavior
Intentions of Prevention Programs-Research on prevention is multidisciplinary-Primary prevention- decrease behavior -Universal prevention (no consideration for riskfactors) -Selective Prevention (biological, psychological, or social risk factors)
Substance Abuse Prevention ProgramsPast two decades surfacing of prevention programsMandates prior to No Child Left Behind (2001) -Elementary Secondary Act of 1964 -Drug Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986 -Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994Knowledge/informational approach -factual information -scare tactics http://youtu.be/nl5gBJGnaXshttp://youtu.be/dC4KJ9Nd3EQAffective approach -improving interpersonal skills -no reference to drugs or other substancesSocial Influences approach -peer pressure and societal influenceshttp://youtu.be/icqbYMXXtGsEcological approach http://youtu.be/UoYRiZHPy8M -interaction among many factors -SAMHSA www.SAMHSA.gov -36 model substance abuse prevention programs
Violence Prevention ProgramsIncrease in severity and intensity of violenceDrug Free Schools and Communities Act of 1994 -violence prevention -disciplines environment conducive to learning -federal funding for effective and research based programsClassification of Violence Prevention Programs:-School management programs -student behavior and policy -cooperation with law enforcement-Environmental modification programs -modify physical and social environment -metal detectors, video cameras -smaller school and class sizes-Educational and curricular -knowledge and skill development -teach empathy, anger management, social problem-solving, nonviolent conflict resolution strategies
Violence Prevention ProgramsEffective programs -learning and well being of students -foster caring, positive learning environmentsIneffective programs -Zero-tolerance policy -rigid adherence to -strict enforcement of -harsh disciplinary tactics
Violence Prevention ProgramsFactors that predispose or buffer against school violence -Predispose -poor design and use of school space -overcrowding -harsh disciplinary procedure -insensitivity to multicultural factors -student alienation -rejections of at-risk students -anger or resentment among students -Buffer against -a positive school climate -clear goals and high expectations -inclusive values and practices -high levels of school attachment -strong parental involvement -social development and interpersonal skills
Dropout Prevention ProgramsNational concern -limited earning potentials and overreliance on publicassistance -at risk population increasing in schools -greater accountabilityIndividual and contextual risk factors -school failure -low test scores -retention in a grade (most significant) 3 times more likely to drop out -school as non-supportive -education as irrelevantFamily, school and community risk factors -uninvolved parents -schools with little consistency in policies, teachers, policies -lack support systems for minority or low incomeLatino and Native Americans have the highest dropout rates.
National Dropout Prevention Center/Network (NDPC/N)Strategies to reduce dropout rates -school community collaboration -safe environments with belonging and acceptance -improvement in family engagement -early literacy interventions -individualized or differentiated instruction -active and authentic learning -ongoing professional development for at-risk teachers -relevant curricula and instruction -student support (mentoring, tutoring, service learning)
Health Related IssuesHealthy People 2010-specific goals for education and school based health programsObesity -tripled in past three decades (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) -Increased risk of health issues and developing psychological problems and disordersPrevention Programs -increase physical activity -improve nutritional quality of food -educate students on health decisions -emphasize the whole-person approach -base goals of a program on the existing health status -stress the health factor and eating and exerciseProgram by Michigan Department of Education, the Michigan Department ofCommunity Health, the Governor’s Council of Physical Fitness, Health and Sports,the Michigan Fitness Council and the American Obesity Association (2002, p. 150).
Health Related IssuesUnintended Pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and other STDs1970s, legislation in 20 states abolished sex education programsLate 1970s, only three states required sex education1980s HIV/AIDS increased health threat sex education again required1990s significant limitation on instructional content -abstinence until marriage -no instruction on contraceptionVast improvements in effectiveness and prevention programsEffective Programs include:-narrow focus on reducing risk-taking behaviors-based on social learning theory/social influences on behavior-basic, accurate information about risks of behaviors-reinforced specific values and norms-provided modeling and practice in communication and negotiationskills-activities to address social and media influences
Prevention of Suicide and Other Mental Health Problems1960 and 1990- suicide rate of ages 15 to 19 tripledSince 1980 suicide rate of ages 10 to 14 increased 120 percent1999- Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Suicide developed AIM-Awareness, Intervention, Methodology Intention to increase public knowledge - risk factors associated with suicide -effective prevention strategies -resources within the community -suicide prevention -assessment and treatmentIntervention for schools (p. 153)Risk Factors- vary by age, sex and ethnicity (p. 153)Protective factors-(p. 153)Program components -training for school gatekeepers -general suicide education -screening programs -general prevention programs -information for parents -Intervention plan to cope with the crisis
Student Intervention and Crisis ManagementCrisis Intervention Team (Office for Victims of Crime-OVC)•Crisis Team Chairperson•Assistant Team Chairperson•Coordinator of Counseling•Staff Notification Coordinator•Communication Coordinator•Media Coordinator•Crowd Management CoordinatorCrisis best handled by a crisis team approach- -the death of a student, staff member or community member that affects a significant portion of the student body -major environmental disaster -potential threat to physical safety or emotional well-being of students
Current Controversies and Future TrendsExtent to which programs belong in public schools -time spent in school -seek out school staff and peers -primary responsibility of school to educate and socializeLack of Evidence they are based on -expert opinion or political ideology -little evidence of long-term outcome -need is met in order for time and resources to be well spentFuture Trends -based on sound theories of child and organizational development -recognition of interrelationship between many problem behaviors -implemented on a continuous basis -meet the cultural, community, and developmental needs of all
Administrative and Personal IssuesEssential to Success -clearly stated goals and outcomes aligned with needs of all -buy-in from the administration and staff as a whole -need for prevention -priority within the school -staff must be selected, trained and supported ongoing -exceptional interpersonal skills -ability to convey meaningful, empathetic and effective content -administrator -effectively communicate goals and intended outcomes -outcomes extend beyond the program itself -positive school climate -mentoring and service learning