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farook ahmad agronomy
 

farook ahmad agronomy

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    farook ahmad agronomy farook ahmad agronomy Presentation Transcript

    • Issues Related to Precision Agriculture in Pakistan Farooq Ahmed 2007-ag-2118 M.Sc.(Hons.) Agronomy
    • Precision agriculture  Precision agriculture is a way of thinking about how to improve production and get more from existing resources. It often involves the use of technology.  Precision agriculture or satellite farming is a farming management concept based on observing and responding to intra-field variations.
    • Precision agriculture around the world  The concept of precision agriculture first emerged in the United States in the early 1980s.  Later nations were Canada and Australia.  In Europe, the United Kingdom was the first to go down this path, followed closely by France.
    • Issues related to adaption of Precision Farming
    • Techno-Economic Problems Due to increasing population and division of land under the law of inheritance, landholdings are subdivided over and over again. The result is that very large number of farmers has less than 2 hectares of area. Moreover holdings are scattered. It is difficult to use modern machinery on small pieces of land.
    •  Limited Cultivable Area  The total area is about 79.6 million hectares  Only 23.7 million hectares (28%) area is used for agricultural purposes. Water Logging and Salinity  Twin problems of agricultural sector.  Both affect about 0.10 million acre of land in every year
    • Conti….  Slow Growth of Allied Products  Allied products refer to those productions, which are not agricultural but indirectly, help the farmer to improve his living standard i.e. fruits, milk, poultry, fisheries, livestock and forestry.  Low Per Hectare Yield  45.0% of labour force is engaged  It is less than 5% in developed countries
    • Conti…  Inadequate Infrastructure  Rural infrastructure like, roads, storage facilities, transport, electricity, education, sanitation and health facilities etc.  Electricity is available to only 3/4 rural populations. Old Methods of Production  The old implements are still being used for agricultural production.
    • Conti… Inadequate Supply of Agricultural Inputs  The supply of modern inputs costly  Inadequate and irregular Lack of Irrigation Facilities  Shortage of irrigation facilities causes a serious limitation in the expansion of crop area in Pakistan.  Defective Land Tenure System  Landlords and feudal-lords live in urban areas  Tenants and peasants have no or less incentive for their hard work. So, the productivity in agricultural sector remains low.
    • Conti…  Improper Crop Rotation  The constant cultivation of one crop or two; exhausts the fertility of the soil.  Proper rotation of crops is necessary in order to restore the fertility.  Lack of success stories  There have been no success stories of precision farming
    • Conti…  Culture and perceptions of the users  Farmers are resistant to new technologies and do not accept them.  They are unaware of agro-environmental problems such as groundwater pollution caused by ineffective fertilization methods.
    • Natural Problems Various Plant Diseases • Crops often come under attack of pests and insects. • Pests and plant diseases reduce the annual productivity of agriculture. Heterogeneity of cropping systems and market imperfections  Farm units are highly heterogeneous.  Fertility status is not uniform.
    • Conti…  Natural Calamities  Labour is in the hand of mankind but its result is in the hands of ALLAH in agriculture sector.  20% reduction in productivity due to unnecessary rain and unfavourable climatic situation.
    • Conti… Scarcity of HYV Seeds  lower quality seeds due to non-availability of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds.  Agricultural production is badly affected because of inferior quality of seeds. Under Utilization of Land  Population is attached with agricultural sector.  Using traditional means of cultivation.  Less intereste to use the advanced and modern means of farming.
    • Socio-Economic Problems  Consumption Oriented  Our farmers have no proper records of their incomes and expenses. Mostly, they spend on several rural ceremonies and festivals.  Absence of Land Reforms  First time during Ayub’s .  Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced more reforms in 1972.  Absence of land reforms has always caused a lot of damage to the agricultural sector of Pakistan.
    • Conti… Data availability, quality and costs  Difficulties in obtaining reliable data in a timely and cost effective Lack of local technical expertise  Requires a relatively advanced and computer literate workforce.  influenced by variations in personal ability and age of farmers, motivation, quality and number of years of education, and exposure to extension services.
    • Conti… Land ownership, infrastructure and institutional constraints  Policy and bureaucratic constraints slow down the process of timely information transfer. Further, poor coordination among the private sector, research and administration agencies makes the adoption of these technologies slower.
    • Conti… Farmers Litigation  They are often seen in courts, police stations, irrigation offices, revenue boards and other official problems. Joint Family System  He has to support his big family.  It creates deficiency in saving and investment. A huge part of farmer’s productivity is consumed at his own house. Illiteracy and Ill-health  Literacy rate is only 57.7 %.
    • Conti… Political Instability  Affected development in all economic and social sectors.  Creates unrest among the farmers to sell the productions to various industries as a raw material.  People hesitate to invest in agricultural sector due to political unrest. • International compulsions & inconsistent government policies • Pakistan fell back in to the clutches of IMF after the change of regime back in 2008. • IMF has told Pakistan to reduce agricultural subsidies and impose agriculture tax. • Pakistan is a WTO signatory as well.
    • Conti… Lack of Credit  Agricultural credit facilities are not common.  Non-institutional sources are available but these are not reliable due to high rate of interest.  About 50.8% poor borrow from landlords in Pakistan. Instability in Market Prices  Cobweb theorem is very popular in case of market prices; it means that a price of one commodity is much high in this year and much low in the next year and vice versa. The farmers, do not get due reward from the sale of their productions. So, they remain unsatisfied
    • MEASURES TO REMOVE THESE PROBLEMS Following measures are suggested to improve the agriculture:  Supply of Agriculture Credit  Water Logging and Salinity Control  Construction of Dames  Provision of HYV Seed  Mechanization  Agricultural Research
    • Conti… Agro-based Industries Tax Concessions Training of Farmers Prices of Agricultural Productivities Conclusion:  Being an agricultural country, agricultural sector of Pakistan’s economy is still backward. Use of modern techniques, provision of credit facilities, basic infrastructure and agriculture research facilities are needed to remove all the problems of agriculture sector.
    • Thanks