DILEMMA..!??!!
Suppose you live in a society that has highly polluting cars. You
can install a device that will stop the p...
ETHICAL DILEMMA
0 Ethical dilemmas, also known as a moral dilemmas,

are situations in which there are two choices to be
m...
MORALITY OR LEGALITY ??
Ethical Theories
Normative Theories

Consequentialist Theories

Egoism

Utilitarianism

Non-consequentialist Theories

Eth...
Normative theories
0 There are two broad categories of ethical theories

concerning the rightness or wrongness of actions:...
Consequentialist Theory
•

•

A consequentialist theory judges the rightness or
wrongness of an action based on the conseq...
Non-consequentialist theory
0 A non-consequentialist theory of value judges the

rightness or wrongness of an action based...
Egoism
0 Contributors :

Adam Smith
0 Type
Consequentialist
0 Focus:
Individual desires or interests
0 Rules
Maximization ...
Egoism
0 In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of

cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought mig...
Utilitarianism
0 Contributors:

Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill
0 Type:
Consequentialist
0 Focus:
0 Collective welfare
0 ...
Utilitarianism
A lady from out of town calls you to list her deceased
parent’s home in Central Kolkata.
She is not sure wh...
Ethics of duties
0 Contributors:

Immanuel Kant
0 Type:
Non-Consequentialist
0 Focus:
Duties
0 Rules:
Categorical imperati...
Ethics of duties
An example would be reporting unethical wrongdoing by a
boss who is engaged in some form of corporate fra...
Rights & justice
0 Contributors:

John Locke, John Rowls
0 Type:
Non-Consequentialist
0 Focus:
Rights
0 Rules:
Respect for...
Rights & Justice
0 Michael had several friends including Roger and Daniel. Roger

has recently met and started dating a wo...
Stockholder theory
0

0
0

Businesses are merely arrangements in
which one group of people, namely, the
shareholders advan...
Stockholder theory
0 There are Companies that produce cigarettes,

liquor and pistols and make money to
maximize sharehold...
Stakeholder theory
0

0

Regardless of the fact whether the
management achieves improved financial
performance or not, man...
Stakeholder theory
0 British Petroleum developed their image considerably; altering

the meaning of BP to mean ‘Beyond Pet...
Social Contract Theory
0

0

All businesses are duty-bound to increase
the welfare of the society by catering to the
needs...
Social Contract Theory
0Criminals who are convicted for heinous

and brutal crimes such as terrorist
activities amounting ...
Dealing With Ethical Dilemmas
0 Unfortunately, there is no perfect method for dealing with

ethical dilemmas. Regardless o...
Ethical dilemma
Ethical dilemma
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Ethical dilemma

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Ethical dilemma

  1. 1. DILEMMA..!??!! Suppose you live in a society that has highly polluting cars. You can install a device that will stop the pollution from your car, but it will cost some money. If others use the device, then the air will be clean (your car isn’t going to make the air very dirty by itself). Therefore, if others use the device, then it is in your interests not to, in order to save money. On the other hand, if others aren’t using the device, then the air will be dirty even if you use it. Therefore, you had might as well not use it, since you only put yourself at a disadvantage if you do.. Since everyone can follow the same reasoning, no one will use the device and everyone will be worse off due to pollution. Unless, of course, we are all parties to a binding contract which requires us to use the device so that we all benefit.
  2. 2. ETHICAL DILEMMA 0 Ethical dilemmas, also known as a moral dilemmas, are situations in which there are two choices to be made, neither of which resolves the situation in an ethically acceptable fashion. In such cases, societal and personal ethical guidelines can provide no satisfactory outcome for the chooser. 0 Ethical dilemmas assume that the chooser will abide by societal norms, such as codes of law or religious teachings, in order to make the choice ethically impossible
  3. 3. MORALITY OR LEGALITY ??
  4. 4. Ethical Theories Normative Theories Consequentialist Theories Egoism Utilitarianism Non-consequentialist Theories Ethics of Duties (Deontological) Ethics of Rights & Justice Normative Theories of Business Ethics Stockholder Theory Stakeholder Theory Social Contract Theory
  5. 5. Normative theories 0 There are two broad categories of ethical theories concerning the rightness or wrongness of actions: 0 consequentialist 0 non-consequentialist.
  6. 6. Consequentialist Theory • • A consequentialist theory judges the rightness or wrongness of an action based on the consequences that action has. The most familiar example would be utilitarianism-``that action is best that produces the greatest good for the greatest number'' (Jeremy Bentham).
  7. 7. Non-consequentialist theory 0 A non-consequentialist theory of value judges the rightness or wrongness of an action based on properties intrinsic to the action, not on its consequences. 0 As for instance, Libertarianism--People should be free to do as they like as long as they respect the freedom of others to do the same.
  8. 8. Egoism 0 Contributors : Adam Smith 0 Type Consequentialist 0 Focus: Individual desires or interests 0 Rules Maximization of desires/self-interest Concept of human beings: Man as an actor with limited knowledge & objectives
  9. 9. Egoism 0 In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $400 for the radium and charged $4,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So, having tried every legal means, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
  10. 10. Utilitarianism 0 Contributors: Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill 0 Type: Consequentialist 0 Focus: 0 Collective welfare 0 Rules: Act/rule utilitarianism 0 Concept of human beings: Man is controlled by avoidance of pain & gain of pleasure (hedonist)
  11. 11. Utilitarianism A lady from out of town calls you to list her deceased parent’s home in Central Kolkata. She is not sure what it is worth, but says she will be happy to get Rs 50,00,000 for the home. You look at the home and feel it is worth at least Rs 75,00,000 and realize it would be perfect for your brother. What do you do?
  12. 12. Ethics of duties 0 Contributors: Immanuel Kant 0 Type: Non-Consequentialist 0 Focus: Duties 0 Rules: Categorical imperative 0 Concept of human beings: Man is a rational moral actor
  13. 13. Ethics of duties An example would be reporting unethical wrongdoing by a boss who is engaged in some form of corporate fraud. Many employees in this situation would be conflicted in their fear of losing their jobs, making it difficult for them to meet obligations to provide for their families. However, by not reporting the wrongdoing, they put other stakeholders in jeopardy.
  14. 14. Rights & justice 0 Contributors: John Locke, John Rowls 0 Type: Non-Consequentialist 0 Focus: Rights 0 Rules: Respect for human beings 0 Concept of human beings: Man is a being that is distinguished by dignity
  15. 15. Rights & Justice 0 Michael had several friends including Roger and Daniel. Roger has recently met and started dating a wonderful lady named Phyllis. He is convinced this is a long term relationship. Unknown to Roger, Michael observed them at a restaurant several days ago and realized Phyllis is the wife of his other friend Daniel. 0 Michael is deciding whether to tell Roger that Phyllis is married when he receives a call from Daniel. Daniel suspects his wife is having an affair and since they and Michael share many friends and contacts, he asks if Michael has heard anything regarding an affair. 0 To whom does Michael owe greater friendship to in this situation? No matter who he tells, he is going to end up hurting one, if not both friends. Does he remain silent and hope his knowledge is never discovered?
  16. 16. Stockholder theory 0 0 0 Businesses are merely arrangements in which one group of people, namely, the shareholders advance capital to another group, viz., managers to realize certain ends beneficial to them. Managers have no option but to follow the dictates of their masters. Managers should pursue profit only by all legal, non-deceptive means.
  17. 17. Stockholder theory 0 There are Companies that produce cigarettes, liquor and pistols and make money to maximize shareholder’s returns. In all such cases, shareholders seem to be happy with the high dividends they get apart from an increase in market capitalization of their stock and therefore , there is no reason for them to issue directions that contradicts the manager’s action.
  18. 18. Stakeholder theory 0 0 Regardless of the fact whether the management achieves improved financial performance or not, managers should promote the interests of all stakeholders. It considers a firm as an instrument for coordinating stakeholder interests & considers managers as having a fiduciary responsibility not merely to the shareholders, but to all of them.
  19. 19. Stakeholder theory 0 British Petroleum developed their image considerably; altering the meaning of BP to mean ‘Beyond Petroleum’ and aiming to ‘reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 10% between 1990 and 2010, which they did successfully; signaling their intent to either aid the environment in their business practices or simply to cultivate a ‘greener’ image to ensure the ever more environmentally aware public will favour their products, and to capture the developing market for alternative energy. Using Friedman’s theory it can be argued that BP uses this image to maximise profit. Conversely, Freeman’s Stakeholder theory indicates how BP’s ethical stand point considers the broader responsibilities contributing to the businesses’ decisions and policies. It is necessary to established whether ethical decisions and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are based upon intentions, goals, outcomes; or, a mixture of each.
  20. 20. Social Contract Theory 0 0 All businesses are duty-bound to increase the welfare of the society by catering to the needs of the consumers and employees without in any way endangering the principles of natural justice. It is assumed that there is an implicit agreement between the society & any created entity such as a business unit
  21. 21. Social Contract Theory 0Criminals who are convicted for heinous and brutal crimes such as terrorist activities amounting to mass killings and gang rapes or rapes of minor and who are awarded death penalty also have the right of being represented by a lawyer in the Indian Judicial System.
  22. 22. Dealing With Ethical Dilemmas 0 Unfortunately, there is no perfect method for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Regardless of the choice, we will need to face and accept the consequences of our actions. 0 However, there are two ways to look at your situation to help you come to a decision: 0 The first way is to evaluate the potential actions you can take and then pick the course that is least morally problematic. 0 The second involves analyzing the potential outcomes of your actions and selecting the course of action with the most benefits or least harm.
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