All ALS vs. Tiered EMS    System Design   An Operational Perspective
Topics Covered• History• Delivery Models• Staffing Models• EMS System Design – Clinical vs. Economic• Operational Impacts•...
Introduction• Dave Shrader  – The Polaris Group• Jonathan Washko, BS-EMSA, NREMT-P, EMD  – AVP NS-LIJ Center for EMS  – Wa...
Presentation Background• Controversies in EMS Design – All ALS vs. Tiered, a Scientific   Review    – Well put together pr...
Presentation Background• Each EMS System has to make most of resources available to it    – Money    – People    – Public ...
History & Evolution of All ALS             in the U.S.• Citizen Expectations• Clinical Beginnings• Reimbursement• Professi...
Delivery Model Types• BLS Transport Only• BLS Transport with ALS Fly Car• BLS Transport with ALS Fire First Response• ALS ...
Staffing Models•   EMT-B + EMT-B•   EMT-B + EMT-I•   EMT-B + EMT-P•   EMT-I + EMT-P•   EMT-P + EMT-P•   EMT-B + EMT-P + EM...
EMS System Design                     Clinical vs. Economic•   Factors that drive design     – Response Time Goals        ...
Strategic Deployment Plan Controls Overview         The Synergistic Effects of a Mixed Deployment StrategyALS Demand      ...
Strategic Deployment Plan Controls Overview    The Synergistic Effects of a Mixed Deployment Strategy   System Demand @ 90...
TheSynergisticImpacts ofTiered vs.FlexibleDeploymentModelApproaches
Operational Impacts• Triage and sorting reliability (un)• Cost of service per patient• Productivity vs. unit hours costs• ...
Cost Impacts• Economies of scale• Utility economics• Loss of revenues (BLS vs ALS reimbursement)• More for the same $$$• D...
Controversies• System overload situations• Clinical concerns• Employee well-being concerns• Experience in U.S. of Elitist ...
Conclusions• All variables must be assessed in determining system  design   – Clinical, economic, operational, political, ...
Conclusions Continued…• Underlying cause of poor ALS performance is  insufficient training and experience  – To solve prob...
Contact Us• Dave Shrader  – dshrader@thepolarisgroup.org• Jonathan Washko  – jwashko@washkoassoc.com  – jwashko@nshs.edu
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2011 Controversies in EMS Design: All ALS vs. Tiered Systems, An Operational Perspective

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This is a follow up rebuttal webinar between David Shrader and Jonathan Washko in response to Alan Craig’s (from Toronto EMS) clinical arguments for a tiered ALS/BLS EMS system design. Watch the recorded webinar here. Click on the link to the left to get the Power Point Slidesfrom the presentation. Sponsored by the EMS Chiefs of Canada (EMSCC) and FirstWatch.

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2011 Controversies in EMS Design: All ALS vs. Tiered Systems, An Operational Perspective

  1. 1. All ALS vs. Tiered EMS System Design An Operational Perspective
  2. 2. Topics Covered• History• Delivery Models• Staffing Models• EMS System Design – Clinical vs. Economic• Operational Impacts• Cost Impacts• Controversies• Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction• Dave Shrader – The Polaris Group• Jonathan Washko, BS-EMSA, NREMT-P, EMD – AVP NS-LIJ Center for EMS – Washko & Associates, LLC
  4. 4. Presentation Background• Controversies in EMS Design – All ALS vs. Tiered, a Scientific Review – Well put together presentation with scary clinical results for the industry – Clearly demonstrates the need to develop and maintain ALS skills – Need to further clarify cause and effect of results • Training deficits • Experience deficits • Task time elements • First responder elements – “If you have seen one EMS system you’ve seen one EMS system” as no two are alike
  5. 5. Presentation Background• Each EMS System has to make most of resources available to it – Money – People – Public Expectations (In and Out) – Clinical Resources• We agree that we should challenge and investigate the value and appropriateness of ALS as a whole, and the cost/benefit of each procedure – So busy trying to prove that we could, we never stopped to ask the questions if we should? – So busy trying to do things right that we forgot to ask if we were doing the right things?
  6. 6. History & Evolution of All ALS in the U.S.• Citizen Expectations• Clinical Beginnings• Reimbursement• Professional Advancement / Incremental Pay• Operational / Economic Efficiencies (Stout / Overton)• Clinical Specializations (CCEMTP, EMTP, EMTI, EMT-B)• Clinical Research• Public Safety vs. Healthcare Identity Crisis• Advance Practice / Healthcare Integration of EMS
  7. 7. Delivery Model Types• BLS Transport Only• BLS Transport with ALS Fly Car• BLS Transport with ALS Fire First Response• ALS Transport with BLS Fire First Response• ALS Transport with ILS Fire First Response• ALS Transport with ALS Fire First Response• ALS & BLS Transport with BLS Fire First Response (Tiered)
  8. 8. Staffing Models• EMT-B + EMT-B• EMT-B + EMT-I• EMT-B + EMT-P• EMT-I + EMT-P• EMT-P + EMT-P• EMT-B + EMT-P + EMT-P• EMT-P + EMT-P + EMT-P• EMT-B + EMT-B + MICN (RN)• EMT-B + EMT-P + MICN (RN)• EMT-B + CCEMTP• EMT-B + CCEMTP + MICN (RN)• EMT-B + MICN + PA• EMT-B + MICN + Respiratory Therapist / Perfusionist• EMT-P + RN + Board Certified MD (Cardiologist, Internist, Emergency)• Others
  9. 9. EMS System Design Clinical vs. Economic• Factors that drive design – Response Time Goals • Clinical significance (small percentage) • Customer service / expectations – Time sensitivity of “critical” calls – Geography vs. Geotemporal Demand – Economics – Politics• Specialized vs. flexible deployment – Tiered Response Model• Fixed vs. dynamic• Overlapping coverage networks• Risk tolerance vs economic sustainability – Scalable risk
  10. 10. Strategic Deployment Plan Controls Overview The Synergistic Effects of a Mixed Deployment StrategyALS Demand BLS Demand + 172.9 UH @ 90% 197 UH @ 90% ALS + BLS @ 90% Coverage = 369.9 UH
  11. 11. Strategic Deployment Plan Controls Overview The Synergistic Effects of a Mixed Deployment Strategy System Demand @ 90% System @ 90% Coverage = 320.3 UH
  12. 12. TheSynergisticImpacts ofTiered vs.FlexibleDeploymentModelApproaches
  13. 13. Operational Impacts• Triage and sorting reliability (un)• Cost of service per patient• Productivity vs. unit hours costs• Operational flexibility (standardization) – Equipment, Fleet, Dispatch Methods• Compounding complexities of production – Payroll costs and OT – Specialized skills (Square Peg – Round Hole)• Mismatch of services
  14. 14. Cost Impacts• Economies of scale• Utility economics• Loss of revenues (BLS vs ALS reimbursement)• More for the same $$$• Do same for less $$$• Overton, J. ALS and BLS A Cost Effectiveness Study. Presentation – NAEMSP, January 2000
  15. 15. Controversies• System overload situations• Clinical concerns• Employee well-being concerns• Experience in U.S. of Elitist attitudes of Paramedics in tiered systems that can impede quality patient care – Cause / Effect???• Mismatching of services
  16. 16. Conclusions• All variables must be assessed in determining system design – Clinical, economic, operational, political, employee• One size does not fit all• Further clinical, operational and financial research is needed before we throw the baby out with the bath water• Is ALS needed at all or do we need ILS or do our Paramedics need to do less skills• Single tier is financially preferable model that achieves same/better performance at lower cost – Use $$$ to improve clinical sophistication
  17. 17. Conclusions Continued…• Underlying cause of poor ALS performance is insufficient training and experience – To solve problem we should address at root of problem • Clinical experiences (simulation, regionalization, collaboration) • Clinical credentialing • Operational / process improvement
  18. 18. Contact Us• Dave Shrader – dshrader@thepolarisgroup.org• Jonathan Washko – jwashko@washkoassoc.com – jwashko@nshs.edu

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