Chapter12 Managing And Implementing Backups And Disaster Recovery


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Chapter12 Managing And Implementing Backups And Disaster Recovery

  1. 1. Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Chapter 12: Managing and Implementing Backups and Disaster Recovery
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Plan for disaster recovery of Windows Server 2003 systems </li></ul><ul><li>Back up and restore data </li></ul><ul><li>Implement shadow copy volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the purpose of the Automated System Recovery feature </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Understand Windows Server 2003 advanced startup options </li></ul><ul><li>Install and use the Recovery Console </li></ul>
  4. 4. Planning for Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Administrators need to be prepared for the possibility of server failure and/or file and folder loss at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Backup utility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow Copies of Shared Volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated System Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced startup options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Recovery Console </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Backing Up and Restoring Data <ul><li>Backup utility designed to restore an operating system or data in case of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Improved version of utility originally introduced in Windows 2000 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Backing Up and Restoring Data (continued) <ul><li>Tasks that can be performed include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up and restore files and folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule a backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up Windows 2003 System State data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore the Active Directory database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an Automated System Recovery (ASR) backup </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Backup and Restore Concepts <ul><li>Types of backups and backup hardware and software is dictated largely by the size and type of organization </li></ul><ul><li>A key issue is backup authority: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrators, Backup Operators, and Server Operators have broad authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other users may have some limited authority to back up certain files and folders </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Backup and Restore Concepts (continued) <ul><li>Two main Group Policy rights are Back up files and directories and Restore files and directories </li></ul>
  9. 9. Backup Types <ul><li>Backup types include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy backup </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Normal Backup <ul><li>Default type of backup performed by Backup utility </li></ul><ul><li>Backs up all selected files and folders and clears the archive attribute on each </li></ul><ul><li>This type of backup can be inefficient because it does not take into account whether files have changed </li></ul>
  11. 11. Incremental Backup <ul><li>Backs up only files that have changed since last normal or incremental backup </li></ul><ul><li>Clears the archive attributes of the files </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the size of backup jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Restore process is more complicated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal backup and incremental backups must be restored in order </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Incremental Backup (continued)
  13. 13. Differential Backup <ul><li>Backs up only files that have changed since last normal or incremental backup </li></ul><ul><li>Does not clear the archive attributes of those files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A second differential backup will back up the same files since the first backup is not recorded by the archive attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduces the size of backup jobs compared to normal backups but not incremental backups </li></ul><ul><li>Restore process requires only the normal backup and the latest differential backup </li></ul>
  14. 14. Differential Backup (continued)
  15. 15. Daily Backup and Copy Backup <ul><li>Daily Backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backs up selected files or folders that were created or changed on the day of the backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The archive attribute is not changed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copy Backup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exactly the same as a normal backup but doesn’t change the archive attribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended as a backup that will not interrupt other backup procedures (perhaps an archival copy) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Using the Backup Utility <ul><li>Commonly used to back up critical data and operating system files </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in two modes: Wizard mode and Advanced mode </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up System State data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore Active Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Automated System Restore feature </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Using the Backup Utility (continued)
  18. 18. Activity 12-1: Backing Up Files and Folders Using the Backup Utility <ul><li>Objective: To explore the use of Windows Server 2003 Backup utility for backing up files and folders </li></ul><ul><li>Start  All Programs  Accessories  System Tools  Backup </li></ul><ul><li>Use Advanced Mode to back up the contents of a folder </li></ul>
  19. 19. Activity 12-1 (continued)
  20. 20. Activity 12-1 (continued)
  21. 21. Activity 12-2: Restoring Files and Folders Using the Backup Utility <ul><li>Objective: To use Backup utility to restore previously backed up files </li></ul><ul><li>Start  Run  type ntbackup.exe  Advanced Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Follow directions to restore the files backed up in Activity 12-1 to an alternate location </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that the files have been restored </li></ul>
  22. 22. Activity 12-2 (continued)
  23. 23. Scheduling Backups <ul><li>Backups can be scheduled to occur without interaction from an administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Can schedule backups daily, weekly, monthly, predefined times, predefined days </li></ul>
  24. 24. Scheduling Backups (continued)
  25. 25. Activity 12-3: Scheduling Backup Operations Using the Backup Utility <ul><li>Objective: Use the Windows Server 2003 Backup utility to schedule a backup </li></ul><ul><li>Open the Backup utility and use the Backup and Restore Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Set the Schedule Job to Daily and select a time </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm that the backup has been scheduled </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm that the backup occurs as scheduled </li></ul>
  26. 26. Activity 12-3 (continued)
  27. 27. Backing Up and Restoring System State Data <ul><li>System State data includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registry (always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COM+ Class Registration database (always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boot files (always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificate Services database (if installed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory (on domain controllers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SYSVOL directory (on domain controllers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster service (if part of a cluster) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IIS Metadirectory (if IIS is installed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System files (always) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Backing Up and Restoring System State Data (continued) <ul><li>These components should be backed up with standard backups and directed System State backups </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot back up individual components </li></ul><ul><li>To restore due to a corrupt Active Directory database, must restart and choose Directory Services Restore mode advanced startup </li></ul><ul><li>To restore Active Directory objects, must use authoritative restore so that replication doesn’t overwrite corrections </li></ul>
  29. 29. Activity 12-4: Backing Up System State Data <ul><li>Objective: To use the Windows Server 2003 Backup utility to back up System State data on a domain controller </li></ul><ul><li>Open Backup in Advanced Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Back up System State as directed </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that System State is backed up and check the size of the file to better understand the amount of information needed for system state </li></ul>
  30. 30. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders <ul><li>Purpose of this utility is to make recovery of user files in shared folders easy without requiring an administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages for users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration of accidentally deleted files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery of previous versions of files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of previous version to current version </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shadow Copies not enabled by default, must be explicitly enabled from Properties of a drive </li></ul>
  31. 31. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders (continued) <ul><li>Shadow Copies is enabled for entire volume (cannot shadow specific files or folders) </li></ul><ul><li>Copies are made on a pre-defined schedule </li></ul><ul><li>By default, Shadow Copies uses 10% of available disk space (minimum 100 MB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When limit is reached, older copies are deleted </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Shadow Copies of Shared Folders (continued)
  33. 33. Activity 12-5: Enabling and Configuring Shadow Copies of Shared Folder Settings <ul><li>Create a new shared folder with appropriate permissions </li></ul><ul><li>Create a text document in the folder </li></ul><ul><li>Enable Shadow Copying </li></ul><ul><li>Explore and configure settings and schedules </li></ul>
  34. 34. Previous Versions <ul><li>Network users must install additional software on their systems to access previous versions of files via Shadow Copies </li></ul><ul><li>Client software provided in MSI format at %systemroot%system32clients wclientX86 (for Intel-based system) </li></ul><ul><li>Adds an additional tab (Previous Versions) to Properties of files stored in shared Folders </li></ul>
  35. 35. Activity 12-6: Installing and Using the Previous Versions Client <ul><li>Objective: To install and use the Previous Versions Client and explore using it to restore a previous version of a file </li></ul><ul><li>Locate and launch the installation file and complete installation </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the Previous Versions tab in the Properties of the file created in Activity 12-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Review and restore the file using the Previous Versions dialog box </li></ul>
  36. 36. Activity 12-6 (continued)
  37. 37. Automated System Recovery <ul><li>This utility was introduced in Windows Server 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main purpose is to restore a system to a functional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows user to restore system configuration settings, not data files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaces ERD on earlier systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two different elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASR backup (accessed from Backup Utility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floppy disk that contains information about backup, disk configuration, and how to perform a restore </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Automated System Recovery (continued) <ul><li>User data files should be backed up before ASR and restored after ASR </li></ul><ul><li>ASR backup should be done whenever system configuration is changed </li></ul><ul><li>ASR backup created using the Automated System Recovery Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>To recover, boot from Windows CD, select Repair option, use ASR floppy and backup to restore settings </li></ul>
  39. 39. Advanced Startup Options <ul><li>Used to troubleshoot startup problems </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a safe mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only loads the default minimal required Windows Server 2003 settings and device drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Advanced Startup Options is accessed during system startup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Press F8 from Boot Loader Operating System Selection menu </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Advanced Startup Options (continued)
  41. 41. Advanced Startup Options (continued)
  42. 42. Activity 12-7: Viewing and Testing Advanced Startup Options <ul><li>Objective: To explore and test Windows Server 2003 Advanced Startup Options </li></ul><ul><li>Restart your computer and access the Windows Advanced Options Menu as directed </li></ul><ul><li>Select Safe Mode and the appropriate operating system or profile and log on </li></ul><ul><li>Explore pinging </li></ul><ul><li>Reiterate these steps with Safe Mode with Command Prompt </li></ul>
  43. 43. Last Known Good Configuration <ul><li>Allows you to recover from failed driver and registry changes </li></ul><ul><li>You should not log on to your server if problems are evident during boot process because any incorrect configuration changes will update last known good configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be used to resolve problems such as missing or corrupt files </li></ul>
  44. 44. Activity 12-8: Testing Last Known Good Configuration <ul><li>Objective: To test the startup option for the last known good configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Start  right-click My Computer  Properties  Hardware  Device Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Open and disable network adapter and cd-rom or dvd drive </li></ul><ul><li>Test pinging (network adapter disabled) </li></ul><ul><li>Restart with Last Known Good Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that devices are enabled </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Recovery Console <ul><li>The Recovery Console is an advanced tool for experienced administrators </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start and stop services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read and write data on a local hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy files from a floppy or CD to a local hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform administrative tasks </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Installing the Recovery Console <ul><li>Two ways to start Recovery Console: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run it from CD after a serious error by booting from the CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install on computer permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once it is installed, it will be an option in the list of available operating systems during the initial boot process </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery Console can only be run by an administrator </li></ul>
  47. 47. Installing the Recovery Console (continued) <ul><li>Variety of commands available through Recovery Console </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Help command within the Console for a complete list of commands </li></ul><ul><li>Common commands include: copy, disable, enable, exit, fixboot, fixmbr, listsvc </li></ul>
  48. 48. Activity 12-9: Installing and Using the Recovery Console <ul><li>Objective: to install and use the Recovery Console </li></ul><ul><li>Install the Recovery Console as directed </li></ul><ul><li>Restart the computer and start the Recovery Console </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the command options in the Console </li></ul><ul><li>Run the listsvc command </li></ul><ul><li>Configure the RemoteAccess service </li></ul><ul><li>Reboot as directed </li></ul>
  49. 49. Summary <ul><li>Administrators prepare for disaster recovery through backups and startup recovery mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Backup utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal, Incremental, Differential, Daily, and Copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can back up System State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shadow Copies of Shared Folders gives users direct control over restoring deleted files or returning to previous versions of files </li></ul>
  50. 50. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Automated System Recovery restores system configuration settings (not data files) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 provides several Advanced Startup Options to troubleshoot boot problems </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Startup Options include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last Known Good Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Recovery Console is used for system recovery </li></ul>