Chapter05      Managing  File  Access
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Chapter05 Managing File Access

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Chapter05      Managing  File  Access Chapter05 Managing File Access Presentation Transcript

  • Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Chapter 5: Managing File Access
  • Objectives
    • Identify and understand the differences between the various file systems supported in Windows Server 2003
    • Create and manage shared folders
    • Understand and configure the shared folder permissions available in Windows Server 2003
    • Understand and configure the NTFS permissions available in Windows Server 2003
  • Objectives (continued)
    • Determine the impact of combining shared folder and NTFS permissions
    • Convert partitions and volumes from FAT to NTFS
  • Windows Server 2003 File Systems
    • Three main file systems
      • File Allocation Table (FAT)
      • FAT32
      • NTFS
    • Final choice of file system depends on
      • How system will be used
      • Whether there are multiple operating systems
      • Security requirements
    • NTFS is most highly recommended
  • FAT
    • Used by MS-DOS
    • Supported by all versions of Windows since
    • Traditionally limited to partitions up to 2 GB
      • Windows Server 2003 version supports partitions up to 4 GB
    • Limitations
      • Small partition sizes
      • No file system security features
      • Disk space usage is poor
  • FAT32
    • A derivative of the FAT file system
    • Supports partition sizes up to 2 TB
    • Still does not provide advanced security features
      • Cannot configure permissions on file and folder resources
  • NTFS
    • Introduced with Windows NT operating system
    • Current version (version 5)
      • Windows NT 4.0
      • Windows 2000
      • Windows XP
      • Windows Server 2003
    • Theoretically supports partition sizes of up to 16 Exabytes (EB)
      • Practically supports maximum partition sizes from 2 TB to 16 TB
  • NTFS (continued)
    • Advantages of NTFS
      • Greater scalability and performance on larger partitions
      • Support for Active Directory on systems configured as domain controllers
      • Ability to configure security permissions on individual files and folders
      • Built-in support for compression and encryption
      • Ability to configure disk quotas for individual users
      • Support for Remote Storage
      • Recovery logging of disk activities
  • Creating and Managing Shared Folders
    • Shared folder
      • A data resource made available over a network to authorized network clients
      • Specific permissions required for creating, reading, modifying
    • Groups that can create shared folders:
      • Administrators
      • Server Operators
      • Power Users (only on member servers)
  • Creating and Managing Shared Folders (continued)
    • Several ways to create shared folders
    • Two important methods
      • Windows Explorer Interface
      • Computer Management console
        • Also allows shared folders to be monitored
  • Using Windows Explorer
    • Used since Windows 95
    • Can create, maintain, and share folders
    • Folders can be on any drive connected to the computer
    • Folders are shared in Windows Explorer by accessing the Sharing tab of folder’s properties
  • Using Windows Explorer (continued)
  • Activity 5-1: Creating a Shared Folder Using Windows Explorer
    • Objective is to create a shared folder using Windows Explorer
    • Open Explorer from Start menu
    • Use Explorer to create and configure a new folder
    • Verify folder using net view command
    • Open Explorer from command line for alternative verification
  • Activity 5-1 (continued)
  • Using Windows Explorer (continued)
    • Shared name of folder does not have to be the actual file name
    • Hand icon used to indicate shared status
    • Shared folders can be hidden from My Network Places and Network Neighborhood
      • Place dollar sign ($) after name, e.g., Salary$
      • Number of hidden administrative shares created automatically at installation
  • Using Windows Explorer (continued)
  • Using Windows Explorer (continued)
  • Using Computer Management
    • Computer Management console is a pre-defined Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
      • Allows you to share and monitor folders for local and remote computers
      • Allows you to stop sharing if desired
  • Using Computer Management (continued)
    • Share a Folder Wizard
      • Used to create folders in Shared Folders section of Computer Management
      • Used to provide preconfigured or manual permissions
        • All users have read-only access
        • Administrators have full access; others have read-only access
        • Administrators have full access; others have read and write access
        • Custom share and folder permissions
  • Activity 5-2: Creating and Viewing Shared Folders Using Computer Management
    • Objective is to create and view shared folders using Computer Management
    • Open Computer Management and the Shared Folders node
    • Open Shares folder and note hidden files and other file types
  • Activity 5-2 (continued)
  • Activity 5-2 (continued)
    • Open the Share a Folder Wizard
    • Configure the folder attributes
    • Configure the folder permissions
    • Verify folder accessibility from command line
  • Activity 5-2 (continued)
  • Monitoring Access to Shared Folders
    • Monitoring involves
      • Who is using shared files
      • What shared files are open at any given time
    • Other functions
      • Disconnect users from a share
      • Send network alert messages
    • Primary monitoring tool is Computer Management
  • Monitoring Access to Shared Folders (continued)
  • Managing Shared Folder Permissions
    • A shared folder has a discretionary access control list (DACL)
      • Contains a list of user or group references that have been allowed or denied permissions
      • Each reference is an access control entry (ACE)
      • Accessed from Permissions button on Sharing tab of folder’s properties
    • Permissions only apply to network users, not those logged on directly to local machine
  • Managing Shared Folder Permissions (continued)
  • Managing Shared Folder Permissions (continued)
    • To deny access to a user or group
      • Windows Server 2003 does not include No Access share permission
      • Must explicitly deny access to each individually
    • Default permission is read access for Everyone group
      • Should be immediately addressed when a share is created
    • Folder permissions are inherited by all contained objects
  • Activity 5-3: Implementing Shared Folder Permissions
    • Objective is to use shared folder permissions to control access to resources
    • In this exercise, you configure permissions on a shared folder to implement specific requirements:
      • Domain Admins group has Full Control permission
      • Marketing Users group has Change permission
      • Other users have no access
  • NTFS Permissions
    • Resources located on an NTFS partition or volume can be given NTFS permissions
    • An administrator must
      • Know how permissions are applied
      • Standard and special NTFS permissions available
      • How effective permissions are determined
  • NTFS Permission Concepts
    • NTFS permissions are configured via the Security tab
    • NTFS permissions are cumulative
    • Access denial always overrides permitted access
    • NTFS folder permissions are inherited unless otherwise specified
    • NTFS permissions can be set at file or folder level
  • NTFS Permission Concepts (continued)
    • A new ACE has default permission
      • Read and Read and Execute for files
      • List Folder Contents for folders
    • Windows Server 2003 has set of standard permissions plus special permissions
  • NTFS Permission Concepts (continued)
  • Activity 5-4: Implementing Standard NTFS Permissions
    • Objective is to configure and test NTFS permissions on a local folder
    • Implement standard NTFS permissions on a folder
    • Review default permissions
    • Explore behavior of permission inheritance
  • Special NTFS Permissions
    • Can provide more or less access than standard permissions
    • Special permissions accessed from Advanced button in the Security tab on Properties dialog box for resource
    • Permission Entry dialog box enables assignment of permissions and control of inheritance settings
  • Special NTFS Permissions (continued)
  • Special NTFS Permissions (continued)
    • Inheritance settings
      • This folder only
      • This folder, subfolders, and files (default)
      • This folder and subfolders
      • This folder and files
      • Subfolders and files only
      • Subfolders only
      • Files only
  • Special NTFS Permissions (continued)
  • Special NTFS Permissions (continued)
  • Activity 5-5: Configuring Special NTFS Permissions
    • Objective is to view, configure, and test special NTFS permissions
      • Deny a group the ability to read the NTFS permissions associated with a folder
      • Verify that access has been denied
  • Determining Effective Permissions
    • Permissions that actually apply to a user can be the result of membership in multiple groups
    • Prior to Windows Server 2003, determining effective permissions was done manually
    • In Windows Server 2003, there is an Effective Permissions tab in Advanced Security Settings dialog box for resource
      • Shows specific permissions for a user or group
  • Determining Effective Permissions (continued)
  • Activity 5-6: Determining Effective NTFS Permissions
    • Objective is to view effective permissions for a user on an NTFS folder
    • Open the Effective Permissions tab for a test folder
    • Enter the name of the user
    • Review the permissions specifically granted to that user for that folder
    • Repeat with a group
  • Combining Shared Folder and NTFS Permissions
    • NTFS permissions can be combined with share permissions
      • When accessing a share across a network, if both apply, use most restrictive
      • When accessing a file locally, only NTFS permissions apply
  • Activity 5-7: Exploring the Impact of Combined Shared Folder and NTFS Permissions
    • Objective is to determine effective permissions when combining shared folder and NTFS permissions
    • Create a folder with both permissions
    • Attempt to create a new folder locally and over the network
  • Converting a FAT Partition to NTFS
    • For highest security, partitions and volumes should be configured to use NTFS
    • Command-line utility, CONVERT, will convert FAT or FAT32 partitions and volumes to NTFS
    • All existing files and folders are retained
    • CONVERT cannot convert NTFS to FAT or FAT32
  • Activity 5-8: Converting a FAT32 Partition to NTFS
    • Objective is to convert a FAT32 partition to NTFS file system
    • Create a small FAT32 partition on server (using New Partition Wizard)
    • Create new file and folder on the partition
    • Use CONVERT to convert the partition to NTFS
    • Review permissions on the converted folder
  • Summary
    • Windows Server 2003 supports 3 file systems
      • FAT
      • FAT32
      • NTFS (preferred)
    • Two types of permissions
      • Shared folder (network only)
        • Tools are Windows Explorer, Computer Management, and NET SHARE command
      • NTFS (local and network)
        • NTFS partitions only
  • Summary (continued)
    • Permissions
      • Shared folders, 3 standard permissions
      • NTFS, 6 standard and 14 special permissions
        • Permissions are cumulative
        • Effective permissions can be determined from Advanced Security Settings of a resource
      • Shared folder and NTFS permissions can be combined
    • CONVERT utility can convert a FAT or FAT32 partition to the NTFS file system